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Building a VGA line blanker and 3D glasses driver

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benryves

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Assembling a circuit on breadboard is a good way to experiment with electronics, but the result is not something you could really use - it's bulky, fragile and awkward to set up. It's far nicer to solder the components of the circuit together to form a more permanent device and put it in a enclosure to make it robust. This is not something I'm especially good at, but something I thought I'd try with the VGA line blanker and LCD shutter glasses controller I've been experimenting with recently.

VGA line blanker and LCD shutter glasses controller

In the past I've struggled along with a hand drill and the nail file on a Swiss Army knife, but have more recently acquired a high-speed rotary tool and an assortment of attachments which make things much easier. I took some photos when building this project, which I've documented below; I'm not sure my techniques are very efficient, but I do get there in the end. I'd be very glad to hear any advice anyone has!

A plain project box Back of the project box marked for cutting

I started with a plain project box. Having planned roughly where I was going to put the VGA ports and DC power socket, I covered one side of the box in masking tape and drew on where I was going to put the holes.

VGA socket holes drilled out VGA socket holes roughly cut

To cut straight-edged holes, such as those required for a D-subminiature connector, I drill a hole in each corner and use a small cylindrical burr to cut between the holes. This leaves a very rough edge, but is a good start.

Upper VGA socket hole widened sufficiently to accomodate a VGA connector

I then widen the hole using a large cylindrical burr and a needle file until the part I'm attempting to mount fits snugly.

Holes for the jack post marked Both VGA socket holes widened, with holes for the jack posts drilled

When I had both VGA connectors in place, I marked and drilled the holes for the jack posts that the VGA leads will screw into. Neither hole is especially neatly cut, but the D-subminiature connector overlaps the hole sufficiently to hide any shoddy workmanship.

Hole for the power socket drilled All of the sockets installed in the back of the project box

The last part of the back is the DC power socket. As I don't have a drill bit large enough to cut the hole on its own, I drill it as large as I can then widen it using the cylindrical burrs mentioned before. With all of the holes cut, I inserted the components to see how they look and identified one problem - I'd underestimated how fat the connectors on the end of VGA leads are. Fortunately, I have a slim VGA cable that fits, but a regular sized one does not - in future I'll need to remember to put the VGA connectors further apart!

Hole for the LCD glasses socket cut 3.5mm stereo jack socket for the LCD glasses installed

With that mistake fresh in my mind, I thought I'd move onto something a bit more difficult to get wrong - the 3.5mm stereo jack on the front of the box to plug the glasses into. This is just another round hole, cut in the same way as the DC power socket.

Holes for the control switches marked Holes for the control switches cut

The two control switches on the top of the box require much larger holes. These were cut in the same way as before - a small hole is gradually widened by using a cylindrical burr. This is a very tedious job, not helped by having to keep stopping to clean the melted plastic that adheres to the burr.

Control switches installed

Finally, the switches were installed. I was originally going to use latching push buttons, but had previously used those nice round rocker switches as the power switch on the AVR TV Game project so opted to use them instead.

Stripboard cut to fit Stripboard installed in enclosure

The final bit of physical work was to cut some stripboard down to size to fit inside the enclosure. These were cut by first scoring along the tracks where the cut was to be made, then snapping the board over the edge of a table. This results in a clean break, but to ensure a snug fit the boards were tidied up with a sanding drum. The lid (or, in my case, base) of the enclosure has a raised edge that fits inside the box, so the sanding drum was also used to remove two of the corners of the stripboard pieces to allow the base to fit.

Preliminary tracks cut in stripboard

The next stage was to move onto the electronics, and I started with the circuit board that was to host the video amplifier IC, voltage regulator and Schmitt trigger on vsync/hsync. The video amplifier is attached to a TSSOP14 adaptor that has a D-shaped pin configuration, with two rows of four pins and two rows of three pins. Having cut through the tracks in the stripboard to mount the amplifier, I needed to find some suitable pin sockets.

8-way pin socket cut in two 8-way pin socket cut in two and neatened up

As I don't have any pin sockets with just three pins in them (only two, four and eight) I cut two eight-way pin sockets in two with a pair of wire cutters then tidied up the ragged edges with a sanding drum and needle file.

Video amplifier socket soldered in place

With the pin sockets soldered in place you can see the D shape I mentioned above. I don't generally plan stripboard circuits very thoroughly, preferring to start by placing large components in approximately the right location with respect to where the external connectors are and how they need to relate to other components. Once those are in place I add smaller components (such as discrete resistors or capacitors) before finishing by adding the wire links to connect all of the parts together. This does lead to situations where I wish that I'd placed a component one hole along to give myself more space or to avoid having to insert so many wire links, but it generally works.

Stripboard with cuts between holes Video amplifier resistors in place

With the video amplifier in position, I added the resistors that are required on its inputs and outputs. To keep the circuit reasonably compact I cut through stripboard tracks between the holes using a conical HSS burr with a small tip - this is an especially useful tool when you need to deal with double-row pin sockets

Power supply support components Socket for Schmitt trigger IC and pin headers for vsync/hsync jumpers

I then added the support circuitry for the voltage regulator (smoothing capacitors and a rectifier diode to protect the circuit if the polarity of the power supply is incorrect) and a socket for the Schmitt trigger IC. I find the easiest way to keep components in place on any sort of through-hole board is to tape them down firmly with masking tape before soldering - bending the legs out makes the parts much harder to remove if you make a mistake. Blu-Tack is easier to use but has a habit of melting when soldering and leaving an unpleasant blue residue on your circuit, so I'd advise against it! To make this part of the circuit slightly more future-proof a pair of jumpers are used to connect the sync lines (vsync and hsync) from the VGA input and VGA output together. These could be removed if I decided to change the logic board to override these signals - for example, as part of a sync-doubler, which injects a vsync pulse half way down the screen.

Connector between the video amplifier circuit board and the rest of the system Populated video amplifier circuit board

I finally added the bulkiest components; the 5V regulator and the pin header to connect the upper and lower boards together. Soldering pin headers to the underside of a board is a fiddly job, but is required in this instance to connect the bottom of the upper board to the top of the lower board.

Top view of the populated video amplifier circuit board Video amplifier circuit board installed in the enclosure

With the upper board completed it was time to put it into the enclosure and solder the VGA connectors and DC power socket to it. This is the part I least enjoy.

VGA connectors with stranded wires attached

I started by soldering some stranded wire to the VGA connectors. Most of the wires are the same length, as they are required to carry signals to and from the circuit, but some wires are shorter and only connected to one of the VGA connectors. These are the white, yellow, orange and brown wires in the above photo, and these are attached to pins used to exchange information between the PC and the monitor (e.g. supported resolutions and refresh rates). As we're not interested in these, they're connected straight through from one connector to the other.

Pins used for monitor identification passed through hole in enclosure Both VGA connectors installed

I inserted the VGA connector with these identification pins into the top hole, passed the shorter identification wires through the other and soldered them to the second VGA connector. This leaves the red, green, blue, vsync, hsync and ground pins loose inside, ready to be connected to the upper circuit board.

DC power socket

The DC power socket also needs to be connected to the circuit board, but at only two wires that's a much simpler job.

External connectors soldered to the video amplifier circuit board Video amplifier circuit board hooked up and installed in the case

All of the loose leads are soldered onto the circuit board and stripboard is slotted into place inside the enclosure. The wires could be shorter, but that would have made soldering them a bit harder.

Cut tracks for the logic circuit board

The lower circuit board will host the main logic for the project - it receives the vsync and hsync signals, and uses these to control whether the video signal should be blanked or not, and which shutter on the glasses should be closed and which should be open. It also contains the oscillator that generates the AC voltage that drives the glasses. I arranged the three logic ICs roughly next to eachother according to their layout on the breadboard version of the circuit and cut the stripboard tracks as appropriate.

IC sockets soldered to the logic circuit board Discrete components added to the logic circuit board

I started by adding the sockets for the ICs and pin header to connect this circuit board to the video amplifier one, then added the discrete components. As before, I taped the components down before soldering them in place to make the task easier. Being able to copy the circuit directly from the breadboard version also made the task much easier.

Top view of the wire links on the logic circuit board Bottom view of the wire links on the logic circuit board

The last step for this part of the project was, as before, adding the wire links. Rather than run long wires around ICs I found it more practical to solder a few wires onto the underside of the stripboard.

Pin sockets and wires for the connector cable One end of the connector cable soldered

The two circuit boards needed to be connected together somehow. Without the facilities to make a proper ribbon cable, I just soldered some lengths of stranded wire (rather messily) between two pin sockets. As I'm not outputting anything to vsync or hsync (I'm feeding the input sync signals straight back to the output via the jumpers previously discussed), I didn't need to connect anything to these pins - hence the apparently missing wires in the photos.

Connector cable bent to fit Both circuit boards installed in the enclosure

The cable to connect the two boards together needed to be bent to fit - it's getting snug, but everything's in there without having to be forced, which is a good sign.

3.5mm stereo jack socket for LCD glasses connector Stereo jack socket soldered to the logic circuit board

The next job was to attach the 3.5mm stereo jack that the LCD shutter glasses are plugged into. This is pushed through the hole in the enclosure from the inside and screwed on from the outside, so it can be soldered directly to the circuit board without having to thread it through the hole first. The small red "washer" is a length of enamelled wire that has been bent around the thread of the jack socket and is used as a spacer - without it, quite a lot of the thread protrudes from the front of the box, looking rather untidy.

Control switches with connecting wires All parts installed in the enclosure

Last of all are the two control switches. These are soldered to the track side of the stripboard like the stereo jack, but must be snapped through their holes in the enclosure first, which is why they were left until last. Everything is slotted into place, the base of the enclosure is screwed on, and the project is pretty much complete.

Tightly packed VGA cables

The VGA cables don't fit especially well - the D-subminiature sockets are a bit too close to eachother. If I use a thin VGA extension cable and wiggle the leads I can just about get both to screw in.

LCD shutter glasses showing the left eye view of a row-interleaved image

The demonstration pattern from some previous ramblings of mine is quite useful for testing 3D glasses, and by holding the left eye of the shutter glasses to the screen you can see that only the "L" part of the image is let through.
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Cool. I've got very little electronics experience, and I'd been wondering how to go about moving my projects off the breadboard and make them more permanent.

Thanks.

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Thank you! I believe you mentioned that you're using an Arduino in another post; the main brain of the Arduino, the ATmega168, can be picked up cheaply for the final build of a project (see this Instructable for an example of moving the ATmega168 out of the Arduino development board). I get most of my parts from Bitsbox now (an ATmega168 is £3.20 from them); the only parts I sourced from elsewhere for this particular project were the video amplifier IC (Farnell) and the jack posts for the VGA connectors (Maplin – the only high-street shop I know of with a vaguely decent stock of electronic components these days). Do you have any recommendations for parts suppliers?

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Brilliant, thanks!

The final implementation of my project will eventually involve as many units as I can afford scattered across some woodland, so I'm keen to get the price per unit down as low as possible.

So far I've only ordered components from oomlout. Having no experience made their starter kit very attractive and their store is pretty Arduino-centric, which helped stop me worrying whether I'd be able to get the different bits working together.

I noticed the other day Maplin are doing GPS USB dongles for about £20. I'm hoping it'll be possible to get the chip out without damaging it and then get the Arduino to talk to it via serial. It may take me a while to work my way up to doing that though!

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Quote:
Original post by mrbastard
The final implementation of my project will eventually involve as many units as I can afford scattered across some woodland, so I'm keen to get the price per unit down as low as possible.
It may be worth getting some PCBs made up in that case – stripboard is OK for a couple of units, but isn't much fun beyond that!
Quote:
So far I've only ordered components from oomlout. Having no experience made their starter kit very attractive and their store is pretty Arduino-centric, which helped stop me worrying whether I'd be able to get the different bits working together.
It does look good for the basics, and they're certainly cheap! Another place that may be worth looking at is tech-supplies.co.uk – they're more for the PICAXE range, but sell a variety of other parts that can be connected to just about any microcontroller. They are quite expensive, though.
Quote:
I noticed the other day Maplin are doing GPS USB dongles for about £20. I'm hoping it'll be possible to get the chip out without damaging it and then get the Arduino to talk to it via serial. It may take me a while to work my way up to doing that though!
Sounds interesting. Hopefully the GPS chip and USB chip are not one and the same! There's a GPS Buying Guide on SparkFun that may be of interest.

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Thanks a lot for the links!

Roughly what are the costs of getting PCBs made? I had a quick google, but I don't really kow what I'm looking at!

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Original post by mrbastard
Roughly what are the costs of getting PCBs made? I had a quick google, but I don't really kow what I'm looking at!
I'm really not sure myself, sorry; the last time I did any work with PCBs was at secondary school where we had the equipment available to make them ourselves. A search on the PICAXE forum turns up a few posts claiming that PCBCART are good, but I couldn't give you any personal recommendations. Their guestbook is full of glowing praise, however. ExpressPCB provide you with free PCB design software that ties into their own services (it even gives you a quote from inside the software, which is quite handy). Again, I've not bought from them myself, so couldn't give you a personal review.

There are ways to manufacture PCBs yourself (search the web for "toner transfer method" for examples) but these will not be as good quality as professionally-made boards – not to mention that drilling all those holes isn't much fun!

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Thanks a lot for the links!

Roughly what are the costs of getting PCBs made? I had a quick google, but I don't really kow what I'm looking at!

Hi, the pcb cost is related with the quantity you need and the specifications you require, I recommend a good fast pcb prototype manufacturer called A-TECH CIRCUITS, it's high quality with really quick turn around, and the pricing is reasonable as well.

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Thanks a lot for the links!

Roughly what are the costs of getting PCBs made? I had a quick google, but I don't really kow what I'm looking at!

If you’re comparing prices from different PCB manufacturers, check out http://PCBShopper.com. You enter your board’s specs, the quantity you want and how fast you want it, and it shows you prices from 25 different manufacturers including Seeed Studio, Dirty PCBs, Advanced Circuits , and the best known manufacturers in Asia, North America and Europe.

Seeed Studio pcb prototype service can't be beat.
10 boards, up to 10x10 are only 4.9. Plus you can vscore identical boards within that dimension for free.
All the color choices are also free.
I've ordered about 1000 PCB from then recently.

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