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I didn't add much of anything new to Dolce in the past week. The time I had to work on it was mostly spent refactoring. I'm patching this thing together haphazardly as I go along. I have a good idea of what I want it to do, but how to organize it all wasn't clear from the beginning. Package hierarchy, structs vs classes, module content, and so on. My little test app has served two functions: making sure it all works and understanding how it will be used. It's the latter that led to the refactoring.

So now that the plumbing is done and in working order, it's time to start looking at game-related utility code. For that, my little test app is woefully inadequate. So I'll be porting the a5teroids demo that ships with the Allegro package. This will get me started. But before I begin the port, I'm looking at two additions: entities and a math package/module. Since entities will likely need the math, I'm starting with that.

I'm not yet sure if I want a whole new package for the math stuff or just a single module, but for now I'm going with the former. The first module in the math package provides an implementation of a 2D vector. It's been a while since I've done any operator overloading with D, and I had completely forgotten how different it is between D1 and D2.

struct Foo{ int x; // Foo + int int opAdd(int i) { return x + i; } // int + Foo int opAdd_r(int i) { return i + x; }}

The rationale behind naming overloads based on purpose, rather than the symbol, is that it encourages programmers not to change the meaning of the symbol. This way you can expect Foo + Bar to actually do some sort of addition, rather than an unrelated operation. I thought it was a pretty good idea when I first saw it. Whether or not it actually meets that goal in practice I couldn't say. Regardless, I'm not using D1, and D2 has changed this dramatically. For more on operator overloading in D1, see the D1 documentation.

In D2, most (not all) operator overloads are templated. You have a few basic templates that can be constrained based on the type of operator you want to overload. opUnary is for unary operations, such as negation. opBinary is for binary operators, such as addition. You can implement the templates once for each operator, or combine several into one instance, using template constraints in both cases. The following example demonstrates..

bool isMathOp(string op){ return op == "+" || op == "-" || op == "*" || op == "/";}struct Foo{ int x; // Overload the negation operator '-' int opUnary(string op)() if(op == "-") { return -x; } // Overload addition, subtraction, multiplication and division for the case of Foo op int. int opBinary(string op)(int i) if(isMathOp(op)) { mixin("return x" ~ op ~ "i;"); } // Overload the same for the case of int op Foo. int opBinaryRight(string op)(int i) if(isMathOp(op)) { mixin("return i" ~ op ~ "x;"); }}

This code example uses two other nifty features of D. isMathOp is a function that qualifies for execution at compile time (the reasons for which I may talk about in a future post). Compile-time function execution (CTFE) is an awesome tool for generating code. In this case, it's not particularly needed, but it does make the template constraints more concise. Plus, I wanted to show off.

The second feature is string mixins. A string mixin basically inserts the given string into the code during compilation. In this case, it is generating strings of code like "x + i" or "x - i", for each template instance, using the append/concat operator. It's possible to call CTFE functions inside a mixin if you need to. That's a technique I use in Derelict to ensure compatibility between D1 and D2 (Dolce is D2 only, but Derelict has to support both).

So you can use CTFE and mixins, together with template constraints, to cut down the amount of code you need to implement in order to overload operators in D2. There are several more options for operator overloading, including some that aren't template-based. You can read more about in the D2 documentation.

Now, back to work on Dolce.

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