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Planet Generation Plans




Hey all!

This time I'm going to write a little about my plans for generating planets. This entry won’t go into any specific details of the terrain generation but will be just a very high level overview of the basic framework. I don't think any of the ideas in here are new.. the procedural generation community are a very clever bunch indeed! I'm always amazed how when an idea pops into my head I'm able to find an existing article about it that goes into fine detail on the subject. Anyway let's crack on!

Heightmaps & Voxels

When it comes to generating terrain an easy first choice is to generate height maps and build the terrain mesh from that. You can get some good looking results quickly by overlaying some noise generation and tweaking things here and there.


Though these can give some nice results they have limitations. For example tunnels and overhanging terrain can’t be represented in a simple height map. You also have to choose a projection scheme to map a 2D height map onto a sphere.


There’s another approach to terrain generation using voxels and that’s what I’m aiming to use. With voxels you can define all sorts of complex terrain and you can define what’s hiding under the ground too - whether it's seams of coal, ore or underground rivers. Many games use voxel terrains to great effect such as the infamous Minecraft. Sign me up!

In Minecraft the voxels are arranged in a grid, keeping everything nice and simple.. until you want to model a whole planet. Then you’d get something like this:


Though that does look really cool, I don’t want my worlds to be great big cubes floating in space, so what do I do? There are all sorts of solutions to building a spherical world from a voxel grid, but they seem to be full of difficult space warping, caveats and rendering complications. I’d rather not deal with these kinds of complications, so I’m going to try a different approach.

Instead of arranging the voxels in a grid I’m planning to arrange them as points on a geodesic sphere like this (imagine the vertices are voxel points):


It’s like taking the space warping issues you’d need to do at the cubes edges and spreading it evenly across the entire surface of the sphere. Instead of it becoming a difficult edge case it becomes a constant low level annoyance and keeps things consistent at all times. It will make the mesh generation a little more fun later too ;)

Voxel Planet Generation

The plan is to use an icosahedron as a starting point. Each vertex here is a voxel. This can be considered the lowest possible Level Of Detail (LOD) of a planet.


The space is chopped up into tetrahedrons from the planet surface into its core. There is an extra vertex at the centre of the planet for this.


These tetrahedrons can be subdivided through to the core of the planet as required.


These illustrations are somewhat misleading though as this isn’t just generating a spherical mesh, but a bunch of voxels that could be empty space. The voxel points (vertices) hold information about what's actually in the space they occupy, whether it’s atmosphere, rock, magma etc. It is the job of the terrain generator to define what a voxel contains. I'm going to keep a clear divide between the planet voxel generation code and the terrain generation code this way.

I have some uncertainties on how to best manage the subdivisions of the planets voxels as required, but I’ll bash it out in a prototype.

Dynamic Changes

The game also needs to be able to make permanent changes to the terrain during play. Large explosions should create craters and I want them to persist. To do this I will need to be address the voxels and save state changes about them. I'm not 100% sure on the approach for this yet either. One train of thought is to basically create an algorithm for the voxel generation that that is able to assign each possibly generated vertex a unique 64bit number. That would have no waste and allow the maximum number of voxels, and some napkin math makes me believe it would have good detail on earth sized planets. Another approach could be some kind of hash of their XYZ or polar coordinates, though that will be more wasteful so it’d bring the total addressable voxels way below what a 64bit unique id could theoretically hold.

Ok that’s enough for now!





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I've had some success applying the usual cube-> sphere transformations to a cube where each face is a voxel shell with some pre-determined thickness. It's not terribly elegant, but it's easy to get up and running. Your tetrahedral approach might avoid some of the distortion and apparent grid - interested to see how it turns out.

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Very interesting.  I'll be curious to see how you realise the plan.

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Looks neat. In fact I'm working on almost the exact same thing :)  However I'm not sure you can divide tetrahedrons evenly. You can get four new ones on the corners and then you get this sort of odd center space.  In your picture it looks to me like you divided up the faces of the original tetrahedrons which you can do easily, however chopping up the insides might be tricky, however if you figure out a good way to do it, it would be way cool.

I decided to use prisms, just because you can make an octree out of them like you can a cube.  The down side is you can't go all the way to the center of your sphere and also the inner ones are a bit smaller than the outer ones. But if you build your geometry around some reasonable band of the world it shouldn't be a huge problem, and also it gets rid of the problem of geometry looking different in different corners of the world like you would get if you generated your world in a simple subdivided cube.

I had an old version working a few years back but it just used height-maps applied to a subdivided icosahedron based simplex-noise. However it did let you walk around a huge planet without generating any data in advance.

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19 minutes ago, Gnollrunner said:

However I'm not sure you can divide tetrahedrons evenly. You can get four new ones on the corners and then you get this sort of odd center space.

That odd sort of space in the centre is an octahedron. Decomposing the octahedorn is tricky, but not impossible

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1 hour ago, swiftcoder said:

That odd sort of space in the centre is an octahedron. Decomposing the octahedorn is tricky, but not impossible

Somehow the prisms still seem simpler to deal with though.

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You guys are spot on about dividing up the space. I didn't realise at first that tetrahedrons don't tessellate in 3D space, it would have been great if they did. The picture of the sphere where you can see inside is quite misleading isn't it! Gnollrunner I'm playing with some options now, which includes some with prisms, seems I may be going down the same route you did :) Do you have any links related to what you did?

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1 hour ago, nukomod said:

You guys are spot on about dividing up the space. I didn't realise at first that tetrahedrons don't tessellate in 3D space, it would have been great if they did. The picture of the sphere where you can see inside is quite misleading isn't it! Gnollrunner I'm playing with some options now, which includes some with prisms, seems I may be going down the same route you did :) Do you have any links related to what you did?

I really don't, I'm just kind of winging it.  I'm basically doing the same thing as marching cubes except with prisms. The hard part is really the LOD transitions.  I think surface nets or dual contouring does that better but then you get other issues you need to deal with. I haven't found any magic bullets. I'm using octrees with chunking such that all cells in a chunk that have any geometry must be at the same level AND neighboring chunks can at most have one level difference. Even with that, the edge conditions are a pain. I worked out an algorithm that seems to work but I'm still debugging all the cases. I have table look ups with pointers to little subroutines that handle various cases. It's a lot of code, but I'm tying to avoid a lot of ifs.

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On 6/19/2018 at 6:03 PM, nukomod said:

You guys are spot on about dividing up the space. I didn't realise at first that tetrahedrons don't tessellate in 3D space, it would have been great if they did. The picture of the sphere where you can see inside is quite misleading isn't it! Gnollrunner I'm playing with some options now, which includes some with prisms, seems I may be going down the same route you did :) Do you have any links related to what you did?

Yeah, I was doing the same kind of problem (I started with an octohedron, but...) and found the same problem. I don't have my notes at the moment, but I seem to remember splitting lengths into three (or maybe four?) rather than two and thus getting a vertex in the center, which IIRC solved it. Maybe you can experiment along those lines, I'd love to know what you end up with in either case!

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You could consider an more complex cube->sphere thingy, similar to the results a hexahedral meshing algorithm would produce, see this image on the left. The only advancement is that the interior does not tesselate to infinity, if you want destruction of whole planets for example. Increasing scale issue on the surface remains the same.


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5 hours ago, JoeJ said:

You could consider an more complex cube->sphere thingy, similar to the results a hexahedral meshing algorithm would produce, see this image on the left. The only advancement is that the interior does not tesselate to infinity, if you want destruction of whole planets for example. Increasing scale issue on the surface remains the same.


The first one looks similar to what I'm doing, except you start out with a cube so you end up with hexahedrons instead of prisms. In my case I won't have destruction of whole planets (no Death Star in my game :P) so I don't worry about the middle. You can easily use marching cubs, surface nets etc with this, but you sill have the same issues of LOD transition, chunking and so forth which in my experience is the hardest part.

I think if I wanted to support full destruction I might be tempted to just forget about tying the make voxel orientation uniform around the world and just build everything with regular matrix.

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Posted (edited)

Thinking of it my proposal is pretty stupid - using a simple subdividing cube grid projected to sphere has the same advantages at the core and the same number of singularities at the surface. (Ooops :) )


Edit: But there may be advantages to support Minecraft alike building eventually? Not sure - my world looks flat if i look outside the window and i'm happy with that :)

Edited by JoeJ

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Just got a look at my old handwritten notes (dear lord in heaven....). I completely forgot that I started experimenting on something you miiiight have a use for. Basically, treating existing objects as point clouds and converting anything near the player to visible graphics via a standard marching cubes algorithm. If there are a lot of gold points in a section, that section is depicted as a gold thingie, and so on.

Just a thought. I'll go into my padded cell now and count the silence.....

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as far as topology goes one method I've found that looks sort of neat is as follows:

1. create a random line (for sphere, hemisphere), random side of the line raise +1, other side of line -1.
2. repeat procecess until desired shape is achieved. (100-1000+)

 Problem with this though is that sometimes it leads to really unround, lopsided planets sometimes. Other than that it can look pretty dynamic. I did not come up with this idea, though, and I don't remember where I got it. Also may need to smooth or scale.

Edited by h8CplusplusGuru

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4 hours ago, h8CplusplusGuru said:

that looks like it exactly 😃

I implemented this years ago. The main problem I have with it is, it doesn't easily let you just generate local terrain at one point on the planet.  While it's procedural, you end up having to store everything rather than just keeping the stuff you need that's around the camera.  For me simplex noise works a lot better since you can easily throw away and regenerate local data as needed to whatever level you want, and also you can customize your functions locally in infinite ways. 

I suppose you could use it as a base function for which you store your terrain at a predetermined level and then apply simplex-nose stuff on top of it to fill in the details.

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    • By tanglopho
      Hi, I'm working on an FPS game and have had no end of problems trying to get my networking off the ground. Right now I'm using snapshot interpolation for lag hiding of remote players. I've been reading basically everything available online about the subject and the theory all makes a bunch of sense but when it get's to implementing it I just get mired down in weird problems and end up doubting the approach completely. I've been stuck on this for too long now and figured it was time to ask for help.
      My current approach is trying to keep the client and server ticks synced by using a floating tick offset based on round trip time(and influenced by reported difference between last acked tick + current server tick). What I don't understand is why keeping the 2 in sync matters at all. It seems to me that no matter what, you should be just taking user input off the stack and applying it to the most recent server state, instead of trying to backtrack or wait until the correct tick. You should then send all clients this most recent state with the most recent player command # so the client can reapply those commands. First blush it just feels like keeping the 2 ticks synced is just a way to make resim time more predictable or something?
      Also when you're keeping the tick synced on client and server are you also storing game snapshots on the client based on its local state or are you only storing snapshots for frames the server has sent you? If you are only storing snapshots the the server has sent you, it also feels weird to have a tick # on the client at all.
      What I keep going back to in my mind is that the server has a tick # and the client just has a list of recent snapshots received from the server and a list of yet-to-be-acknowledged commands. The client processes local input and sends to server with its local command #. Server receives input as quickly as it can(with some small jitter buffer just to keep them spaced out), processes user input received that tick, advances simulation, and sends the most recent gamestate to all clients with their individual command #s. Clients receive update, reapply any commands > the command number received, etc. I don't know if it's just another way of saying basically the same thing but to my brain this makes more sense.
      Does that make sense? Am I over thinking this?
    • By Scouting Ninja
      I have reached a point in the game I am making where everything is just starting to fall into place. So now that everything is aligning I can't help but notice that my AI is the weakest part of the game. The game is a 2D Sci Fi space combat game. The game leans much more towards arcade games.
      At the moment my AI uses a rule based system, something like this:
      public Class AIRules { //Rule1 void ShootEnemyInRange(){ //Code for firing etc. } //Rule2 void LookForTarget(){ //Code for looking for a target } } Rule 1 has priority over Rule 2 etc. So as can be seen I am no expert at making AI.
      I would like to improve my AI but I don't have months to spend learning something new. I was hoping that someone could point me to something simple that I could learn to improve my AI, that will only take about a week to learn.
      It could be any small practical thing. Something that would be useful to a indie developer. 

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