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Algorithm Flexible Room Layout algorithm



preimg.png.77b995a7bc8ffc6a71cfe5a16ecc6599.pngWhile making a roguelike game, procedural generation have to be quick and yet intriguing enough for the generated level to be fun to just pick up and play.

There are many ways to generate and laying out procedurally generated rooms. In The Binding Of Isaac, for example, you have many different types of regular room presets. 

The generator just picks a preset based on things like room placement and size. Because those rooms are always of fixed size, this is a nice compromise. By having handmade presets the generated level is somewhat believable (i.e. there are no gaps or obstacles below a room door or secret room and whatnot).

gWBi3.png  large.jpg  The-Binding-of-Isaac-Rebirth-2.jpg

Another example would be Nuclear Throne

The game takes a different approach to procedural generation by keeping it relatively simple. Because it's not room-based like The Binding Of Isaac, there are more things like caves and large open area.  The gameplay also plays into this, as the player needs to eliminate every enemy to spawn a portal to the next level.

orig_8b6b223c410185c7a632fd5e345397f2.png   z2POA7Q2QZGO48PDbp4E_screenshot_main_1000.jpg Nuclear-Throne.jpg

Because my game is somehow more inspired by The Binding of Isaac, the right way to procedurally generate rooms would be to use presets, and this is how I make special rooms.

However, there's a big difference between The Binding Of Isaac and my game: my regular rooms aren't always the same size. This means that rather than having presets of regular rooms as well as special rooms I need something more flexible and, most importantly, dynamic..

The anatomy of a Room

In my game, as I've said in a previous post, levels are big two-dimensional arrays from which the level geometry is generated. Every room of a level is made using a BSP tree. I won't go in details much on how rooms are generated, but in essence, we create a grid from which we trace a path between two rooms and sparsely attach bonus rooms along the way.

Because I already have rooms sizes and whatnot with that level generation, I could reuse the same idea for room layouts.

Within rooms, I've also set special anchor points from which props (or more precisely, prop formations, more on that later...) could be generated.


Basic Layouts

The idea here is to have room layout presets. Within those, presets are an array of prop formations, and each of these formations is linked to a specific anchor point.

A formation has a two-dimensional boolean array that indicates whenever or not there should be a prop here.


Let's take, for example, a diamond array:


The dimension of the array depends on its rooms' dimensions. Here's how it's done:

\( size = \left \lceil \frac{2(max(RoomSize_{x},RoomSize_{y}))) }{ 3 } \right \rceil\)

In order to change the array's content we actually use common image manipulation algorithms...

Bresenham's Line Algorithm

The first used algorithm is the Bresenham's Line Algorithm

Its purpose is to simply render a line describe by two bitmap points onto a raster image.

To put it simply, we get the deviation (delta, or "d" for short) in both X and Y of each point of the described line and compare both of them.

Depending on the biggest, we simply incremate the point on that axis and colour it in.


Here's the implementation:

public void TraceLine(Vector2Int p0, Vector2Int p1)
  int dx = Mathf.Abs(p1.x - p0.x), sx = p0.x < p1.x ? 1 : -1;
  int dy = Mathf.Abs(p1.y - p0.y), sy = p0.y < p1.y ? 1 : -1;
  int err = (dx > dy ? dx : -dy) / 2, e2;

  while (true)
    m_propArray[p0.x][p0.y] = true;
    if (p0.x == p1.x && p0.y == p1.y)
    e2 = err;
    if (e2 > -dx)
      err -= dy; p0.x += sx;
    if (e2 < dy)
      err += dx; p0.y += sy;

Midpoint Circle Algorithm

The midpoint circle algorithm is an algorithm used to render a circle onto an image.

The idea is somehow similar to Bresenham's Line Algorithm, but rather than drawing a line we draw a circle.

To do this we also need, for simplicity sakes, to divide the circle into 8 pieces, called octants. We can do this because circles are always symmetric. (It's also a nice way to unroll loops)


Here's the implementation:

private void TraceCircle(Vector2Int center, int r, AbstractPropFormation formation)
  int d = (5 - r * 4) / 4;
  int x = 0;
  int y = r;

    // ensure index is in range before setting (depends on your image implementation)
    // in this case we check if the pixel location is within the bounds of the image before setting the pixel
    if (IsValidPoint(center + new Vector2Int(x,y)) { formation.m_propArray[center.x + x][center.y + y] = true; }
    if (IsValidPoint(center + new Vector2Int(x,-y)) { formation.m_propArray[center.x + x][center.y - y] = true; }
    if (IsValidPoint(center + new Vector2Int(-x,y)) { formation.m_propArray[center.x - x][center.y + y] = true; }
    if (IsValidPoint(center + new Vector2Int(-x,-y)) { formation.m_propArray[center.x - x][center.y - y] = true; }
    if (IsValidPoint(center + new Vector2Int(y,x)) { formation.m_propArray[center.x + y][center.y + x] = true; }
    if (IsValidPoint(center + new Vector2Int(y,-x)) { formation.m_propArray[center.x + y][center.y - x] = true; }
    if (IsValidPoint(center + new Vector2Int(-y,x)) { formation.m_propArray[center.x - y][center.y + x] = true; }
    if (IsValidPoint(center + new Vector2Int(-y,-x)) { formation.m_propArray[center.x - y][center.y - x] = true; }
    if (d < 0)
      d += 2 * x + 1;
      d += 2 * (x - y) + 1;
  } while (x <= y);

Flood Fill Algorithm

This is quite a classic, but it's still useful nevertheless.

The idea is to progressively fill a section of an image with a specific colour while 

The implementation is using a coordinate queue rather than recursion for optimization sakes.

We also try to fill the image using west-east orientation. Basically, we fill the westmost pixel first, eastmost second and finally go north-south.


Here's the implementation:

public void Fill(Vector2Int point)
  Queue<Vector2Int> q = new Queue<Vector2Int>();
  while (q.Count > 0)
    Vector2Int currentPoint = q.Dequeue();
    if (!m_propArray[currentPoint.x][currentPoint.y])
      Vector2Int westPoint = currentPoint, eastPoint = new Vector2Int(currentPoint.x + 1, currentPoint.y);
      while ((westPoint.x >= 0) && !m_propArray[westPoint.x][westPoint.y])
        m_propArray[westPoint.x][westPoint.y] = true;
        if ((westPoint.y > 0) && !m_propArray[westPoint.x][westPoint.y - 1])
          q.Enqueue(new Vector2Int(westPoint.x, westPoint.y - 1));
        if ((westPoint.y < m_propArray[westPoint.x].Length - 1) && !m_propArray[westPoint.x][westPoint.y + 1])
          q.Enqueue(new Vector2Int(westPoint.x, westPoint.y + 1));
      while ((eastPoint.x <= m_propArray.Length - 1) && !m_propArray[eastPoint.x][eastPoint.y])
        m_propArray[eastPoint.x][eastPoint.y] = true;
        if ((eastPoint.y > 0) && !m_propArray[eastPoint.x][eastPoint.y - 1])
          q.Enqueue(new Vector2Int(eastPoint.x, eastPoint.y - 1));
        if ((eastPoint.y < m_propArray[eastPoint.x].Length - 1) && !m_propArray[eastPoint.x][eastPoint.y + 1])
          q.Enqueue(new Vector2Int(eastPoint.x, eastPoint.y + 1));

Formation Shapes

Each formation also has a specific shape. These shapes simply define the content of the formation array. We can build these shapes using the previously mentioned algorithms. There are 9 different types of shapes as of now.

Vertical line


A simple vertical line of a width of one

Horizontal line


A simple horizontal line of a width of one



A rather nice diamond shape, especially pretty in corners



The circle is rendered using the Midpoint circle algorithm. Especially pretty in the center of rooms



A simple cross shape, i.e a vertical and horizontal line align at the center. 

X Shape


An "X" shaped cross, i.e two perpendicular diagonal lines align at the center.



An Isocele triangle.



A solid block. Every cell of the formation is essentially true.



A nice variation of the square shape. Every other cell is false.

There might be more types of shapes as time goes by, but it's about it for now.

Placing props

Once the array is set, we simply need to place the actual props in the room.

Each formation is of an actual type, i.e. rocks, ferns, etc. 

(For simplicity sakes, let's say that every prop is a 1x1x1m cube. This would simplify future steps.)

In order to find their position, we simply align the array's center to the formations' specified anchor point.


For each prop formation, we then instantiate props for each true cells while checking whenever or not the prop would be outside its room.


Afterwards, we do a precise position check to make sure no props are either partially or fully outside a room.


Finally, we make sure every room connections aren't obstructed with props.


And voilà, we have a nicely decorated room


In Game Screenshots

Here's a couple of screenshots of what it looks like in-game




Recommended Comments

UPDATE: After thinking about it for a while, the checkered pattern was kinda removed.

Instead, it's a property of each prop formation.

This means that we can now have rooms that have checkered circles and diamond among other shapes...

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      What does this do for us? Well, let's assume that the process of constructing and traversing our tree is somewhat computationally expensive. If a user wants to give us 1,000 objects to insert into the tree, does it make sense to recompute every subsequent enclosing area a thousand times? Or, can we save some time and do a bulk blast? I created a "pending" queue of items and a few flags to indicate the build state of the tree. All of the inserted items get put into the pending queue and when a query is made, those pending requests get flushed and injected into the tree. This is especially handy during a game loading sequence since you'll most likely be inserting thousands of objects at once. After the game world has been loaded, the number of objects injected into the tree is orders of magnitude fewer. My lazy initialization routine is contained within my UpdateTree() method. It checks to see if the tree has been built, and builds the data structure if it doesn't exist and has pending objects.
      /// /// Processes all pending insertions by inserting them into the tree. /// /// Consider deprecating this? private void UpdateTree() //complete & tested { if (!m_treeBuilt) { while (m_pendingInsertion.Count != 0) m_objects.Add(m_pendingInsertion.Dequeue()); BuildTree(); } else { while (m_pendingInsertion.Count != 0) Insert(m_pendingInsertion.Dequeue()); } m_treeReady = true; } As for building the tree itself, this can be done recursively. So for each recursive iteration, I start off with a list of objects contained within the bounding region. I check my termination rules, and if we pass, we create eight subdivided bounding areas which are perfectly contained within our enclosed region. Then, I go through every object in my given list and test to see if any of them will fit perfectly within any of my octants. If they do fit, I insert them into a corresponding list for that octant. At the very end, I check the counts on my corresponding octant lists and create new octrees and attach them to our current node, and mark my bitmask to indicate that those child octants are actively being used. All of the leftover objects have been pushed down to us from our parent, but can't be pushed down to any children, so logically, this must be the smallest octant which can contain the object.
      /// /// Naively builds an oct tree from scratch. /// private void BuildTree() //complete & tested { //terminate the recursion if we're a leaf node if (m_objects.Count <= 1) return; Vector3 dimensions = m_region.Max - m_region.Min; if (dimensions == Vector3.Zero) { FindEnclosingCube(); dimensions = m_region.Max - m_region.Min; } //Check to see if the dimensions of the box are greater than the minimum dimensions if (dimensions.X <= MIN_SIZE && dimensions.Y <= MIN_SIZE && dimensions.Z <= MIN_SIZE) { return; } Vector3 half = dimensions / 2.0f; Vector3 center = m_region.Min + half; //Create subdivided regions for each octant BoundingBox[] octant = new BoundingBox[8]; octant[0] = new BoundingBox(m_region.Min, center); octant[1] = new BoundingBox(new Vector3(center.X, m_region.Min.Y, m_region.Min.Z), new Vector3(m_region.Max.X, center.Y, center.Z)); octant[2] = new BoundingBox(new Vector3(center.X, m_region.Min.Y, center.Z), new Vector3(m_region.Max.X, center.Y, m_region.Max.Z)); octant[3] = new BoundingBox(new Vector3(m_region.Min.X, m_region.Min.Y, center.Z), new Vector3(center.X, center.Y, m_region.Max.Z)); octant[4] = new BoundingBox(new Vector3(m_region.Min.X, center.Y, m_region.Min.Z), new Vector3(center.X, m_region.Max.Y, center.Z)); octant[5] = new BoundingBox(new Vector3(center.X, center.Y, m_region.Min.Z), new Vector3(m_region.Max.X, m_region.Max.Y, center.Z)); octant[6] = new BoundingBox(center, m_region.Max); octant[7] = new BoundingBox(new Vector3(m_region.Min.X, center.Y, center.Z), new Vector3(center.X, m_region.Max.Y, m_region.Max.Z)); //This will contain all of our objects which fit within each respective octant. List[] octList = new List[8]; for (int i = 0; i < 8; i++) octList = new List(); //this list contains all of the objects which got moved down the tree and can be delisted from this node. List delist = new List(); foreach (Physical obj in m_objects) { if (obj.BoundingBox.Min != obj.BoundingBox.Max) { for (int a = 0; a < 8; a++) { if (octant[a].Contains(obj.BoundingBox) == ContainmentType.Contains) { octList[a].Add(obj); delist.Add(obj); break; } } } else if (obj.BoundingSphere.Radius != 0) { for (int a = 0; a < 8; a++) { if (octant[a].Contains(obj.BoundingSphere) == ContainmentType.Contains) { octList[a].Add(obj); delist.Add(obj); break; } } } } //delist every moved object from this node. foreach (Physical obj in delist) m_objects.Remove(obj); //Create child nodes where there are items contained in the bounding region for (int a = 0; a < 8; a++) { if (octList[a].Count != 0) { m_childNode[a] = CreateNode(octant[a], octList[a]); m_activeNodes |= (byte)(1 << a); m_childNode[a].BuildTree(); } } m_treeBuilt = true; m_treeReady = true; } private OctTree CreateNode(BoundingBox region, List objList) //complete & tested { if (objList.Count == 0) return null; OctTree ret = new OctTree(region, objList); ret._parent = this; return ret; } private OctTree CreateNode(BoundingBox region, Physical Item) { List objList = new List(1); //sacrifice potential CPU time for a smaller memory footprint objList.Add(Item); OctTree ret = new OctTree(region, objList); ret._parent = this; return ret; }  
      Updating a tree
      Let's imagine that our tree has a lot of moving objects in it. If any object moves, there is a good chance that the object has moved outside of its enclosing octant. How do we handle changes in object position while maintaining the integrity of our tree structure?
      Technique 1: Keep it super simple, trash & rebuild everything.
      Some implementations of an Octree will completely rebuild the entire tree every frame and discard the old one. This is super simple and it works, and if this is all you need, then prefer the simple technique. The general consensus is that the upfront CPU cost of rebuilding the tree every frame is much cheaper than running a brute force collision check, and programmer time is too valuable to be spent on an unnecessary optimization. For those of us who like challenges and to over-engineer things, the "trash & rebuild" technique comes with a few small problems:
      You're constantly allocating and deallocating memory each time you rebuild your tree. Allocating new memory comes at a small cost. If possible, you want to minimize the amount of memory being allocated and reallocated over time by reusing memory you've already got. Most of the tree is unchanging, so it's a waste of CPU time to rebuild the same branches over and over again. Technique 2: Keep the existing tree, update the changed branches
      I noticed that most branches of a tree don't need to be updated. They just contain stationary objects. Wouldn't it be nice if, instead of rebuilding the entire tree every frame, we just updated the parts of the tree which needed an update? This technique keeps the existing tree and updates only the branches which had an object which moved. It's a bit more complex to implement, but it's a lot more fun too, so let's really get into that!
      During my first attempt at this, I mistakenly thought that an object in a child node could only go up or down one traversal of the tree. This is wrong. If an object in a child node reaches the edge of that node, and that edge also happens to be an edge for the enclosing parent node, then that object needs to be inserted above its parent, and possibly up even further. So, the bottom line is that we don't know how far up an object needs to be pushed up the tree. Just as well, an object can move such that it can be neatly enclosed in a child node, or that child's child node. We don't know how far down the tree we can go.
      Fortunately, since we include a reference to each node's parent, we can easily solve this problem recursively with minimal computation! The general idea behind the update algorithm is to first let all objects in the tree update themselves. Some may move or change in size. We want to get a list of every object which moved, so the object update method should return to us a boolean value indicating if its bounding area changed. Once we've got a list of all of our moved objects, we want to start at our current node and try to traverse up the tree until we find a node which completely encloses the moved object (most of the time, the current node still encloses the object). If the object isn't completely enclosed by the current node, we keep moving it up to its next parent node. In the worst case, our root node will be guaranteed to contain the object.
      After we've moved our object as far up the tree as possible, we'll try to move it as far down the tree as we can. Most of the time, if we moved the object up, we won't be able to move it back down. But, if the object moved so that a child node of the current node could contain it, we have the chance to push it back down the tree. It's important to be able to move objects down the tree as well, or else all moving objects would eventually migrate to the top and we'd start getting some performance problems during collision detection routines.
      Branch Removal
      In some cases, an object will move out of a node and that node will no longer have any objects contained within it, nor have any children which contain objects. If this happens, we have an empty branch and we need to mark it as such and prune this dead branch off the tree.
      There is an interesting question hiding here: When do you want to prune the dead branches off a tree? Allocating new memory costs time, so if we're just going to reuse this same region in a few cycles, why not keep it around for a bit? How long can we keep it around before it becomes more expensive to maintain the dead branch? I decided to give each of my nodes a countdown timer which activates when the branch is dead. If an object moves into this nodes octant while the death timer is active, I double the lifespan and reset the death timer. This ensures that octants which are frequently used are hot and stick around, and nodes which are infrequently used are removed before they start to cost more than they're worth.
      A practical example of this usefulness would be apparent when you have a machine gun shooting a stream of bullets. Those bullets follow in close succession of each other, so it'd be a shame to immediately delete a node as soon as the first bullet leaves it, only to recreate it a fraction of a second later as the second bullet re-enters it. And if there's a lot of bullets, we can probably keep these octants around for a little while. If a child branch is empty and hasn't been used in a while, it's safe to prune it out of our tree.
      Anyways, let's look at the code which does all of this magic. First up, we have the Update() method. This is a method which is recursively called on all child trees. It moves all objects around, does some housekeeping work for the data structure, and then moves each moved object into its correct node (parent or child).
      public void Update(coreTime time) { if (m_treeBuilt == true && m_treeReady == true) { //Start a count down death timer for any leaf nodes which don't have objects or children. //when the timer reaches zero, we delete the leaf. If the node is reused before death, we double its lifespan. //this gives us a "frequency" usage score and lets us avoid allocating and deallocating memory unnecessarily if (m_objects.Count == 0) { if (HasChildren == false) { if (m_curLife == -1) m_curLife = m_maxLifespan; else if (m_curLife > 0) { m_curLife--; } } } else { if (m_curLife != -1) { if (m_maxLifespan <= 64) m_maxLifespan *= 2; m_curLife = -1; } } List<Physical> movedObjects = new List<Physical>(m_objects.Count); //go through and update every object in the current tree node foreach (Physical gameObj in m_objects) { //we should figure out if an object actually moved so that we know whether we need to update this node in the tree. if (gameObj.Update(time) == 1) { movedObjects.Add(gameObj); } } //prune any dead objects from the tree. int listSize = m_objects.Count; for (int a = 0; a < listSize; a++) { if (!m_objects[a].Alive) { if (movedObjects.Contains(m_objects[a])) movedObjects.Remove(m_objects[a]); m_objects.RemoveAt(a--); listSize--; } } //prune out any dead branches in the tree for (int flags = m_activeNodes, index = 0; flags > 0; flags >>= 1, index++) if ((flags & 1) == 1 && m_childNode[index].m_curLife == 0) { if (m_childNode[index].m_objects.Count > 0) { //throw new Exception("Tried to delete a used branch!"); m_childNode[index].m_curLife = -1; } else { m_childNode[index] = null; m_activeNodes ^= (byte)(1 << index); //remove the node from the active nodes flag list } } //recursively update any child nodes. for (int flags = m_activeNodes, index = 0; flags > 0; flags >>= 1, index++) { if ((flags & 1) == 1) { if(m_childNode!=null && m_childNode[index] != null) m_childNode[index].Update(time); } } //If an object moved, we can insert it into the parent and that will insert it into the correct tree node. //note that we have to do this last so that we don't accidentally update the same object more than once per frame. foreach (Physical movedObj in movedObjects) { OctTree current = this; //figure out how far up the tree we need to go to reinsert our moved object //we are either using a bounding rect or a bounding sphere //try to move the object into an enclosing parent node until we've got full containment if (movedObj.EnclosingBox.Max != movedObj.EnclosingBox.Min) { while (current.m_region.Contains(movedObj.EnclosingBox) != ContainmentType.Contains) if (current._parent != null) current = current._parent; else { break; //prevent infinite loops when we go out of bounds of the root node region } } else { ContainmentType ct = current.m_region.Contains(movedObj.EnclosingSphere); while (ct != ContainmentType.Contains)//we must be using a bounding sphere, so check for its containment. { if (current._parent != null) { current = current._parent; } else { //the root region cannot contain the object, so we need to completely rebuild the whole tree. //The rarity of this event is rare enough where we can afford to take all objects out of the existing tree and rebuild the entire thing. List<Physical> tmp = m_root.AllObjects(); m_root.UnloadContent(); Enqueue(tmp);//add to pending queue return; } ct = current.m_region.Contains(movedObj.EnclosingSphere); } } //now, remove the object from the current node and insert it into the current containing node. m_objects.Remove(movedObj); current.Insert(movedObj); //this will try to insert the object as deep into the tree as we can go. } //now that all objects have moved and they've been placed into their correct nodes in the octree, we can look for collisions. if (IsRoot == true) { //This will recursively gather up all collisions and create a list of them. //this is simply a matter of comparing all objects in the current root node with all objects in all child nodes. //note: we can assume that every collision will only be between objects which have moved. //note 2: An explosion can be centered on a point but grow in size over time. In this case, you'll have to override the update method for the explosion. List<IntersectionRecord> irList = GetIntersection(new List<Physical>()); foreach (IntersectionRecord ir in irList) { if (ir.PhysicalObject != null) ir.PhysicalObject.HandleIntersection(ir); if (ir.OtherPhysicalObject != null) ir.OtherPhysicalObject.HandleIntersection(ir); } } }//end if tree built else { if (m_pendingInsertion.Count > 0) { ProcessPendingItems(); Update(time); //try this again... } } } Note that we call an Insert() method for moved objects. The insertion of objects into the tree is very similar to the method used to build the initial tree. Insert() will try to push objects as far down the tree as possible. Notice that I also try to avoid creating new bounding areas if I can use an existing one from a child node.
      /// <summary> /// A tree has already been created, so we're going to try to insert an item into the tree without rebuilding the whole thing /// </summary> /// <typeparam name="T">A physical object</typeparam> /// <param name="Item">The physical object to insert into the tree</param> private bool Insert<T>(T Item) where T : Physical { /*if the current node is an empty leaf node, just insert and leave it.*/ //if (m_objects.Count == 0 && m_activeNodes == 0) if(AllTreeObjects.Count == 0) { m_objects.Add(Item); return true; } //Check to see if the dimensions of the box are greater than the minimum dimensions. //If we're at the smallest size, just insert the item here. We can't go any lower! Vector3 dimensions = m_region.Max - m_region.Min; if (dimensions.X <= MIN_SIZE && dimensions.Y <= MIN_SIZE && dimensions.Z <= MIN_SIZE) { m_objects.Add(Item); return true; } //The object won't fit into the current region, so it won't fit into any child regions. //therefore, try to push it up the tree. If we're at the root node, we need to resize the whole tree. if (m_region.Contains(Item.EnclosingSphere) != ContainmentType.Contains) { if (this._parent != null) return this._parent.Insert(Item); else return false; } //At this point, we at least know this region can contain the object but there are child nodes. Let's try to see if the object will fit //within a subregion of this region. Vector3 half = dimensions / 2.0f; Vector3 center = m_region.Min + half; //Find or create subdivided regions for each octant in the current region BoundingBox[] childOctant = new BoundingBox[8]; childOctant[0] = (m_childNode[0] != null) ? m_childNode[0].m_region : new BoundingBox(m_region.Min, center); childOctant[1] = (m_childNode[1] != null) ? m_childNode[1].m_region : new BoundingBox(new Vector3(center.X, m_region.Min.Y, m_region.Min.Z), new Vector3(m_region.Max.X, center.Y, center.Z)); childOctant[2] = (m_childNode[2] != null) ? m_childNode[2].m_region : new BoundingBox(new Vector3(center.X, m_region.Min.Y, center.Z), new Vector3(m_region.Max.X, center.Y, m_region.Max.Z)); childOctant[3] = (m_childNode[3] != null) ? m_childNode[3].m_region : new BoundingBox(new Vector3(m_region.Min.X, m_region.Min.Y, center.Z), new Vector3(center.X, center.Y, m_region.Max.Z)); childOctant[4] = (m_childNode[4] != null) ? m_childNode[4].m_region : new BoundingBox(new Vector3(m_region.Min.X, center.Y, m_region.Min.Z), new Vector3(center.X, m_region.Max.Y, center.Z)); childOctant[5] = (m_childNode[5] != null) ? m_childNode[5].m_region : new BoundingBox(new Vector3(center.X, center.Y, m_region.Min.Z), new Vector3(m_region.Max.X, m_region.Max.Y, center.Z)); childOctant[6] = (m_childNode[6] != null) ? m_childNode[6].m_region : new BoundingBox(center, m_region.Max); childOctant[7] = (m_childNode[7] != null) ? m_childNode[7].m_region : new BoundingBox(new Vector3(m_region.Min.X, center.Y, center.Z), new Vector3(center.X, m_region.Max.Y, m_region.Max.Z)); //First, is the item completely contained within the root bounding box? //note2: I shouldn't actually have to compensate for this. If an object is out of our predefined bounds, then we have a problem/error. // Wrong. Our initial bounding box for the terrain is constricting its height to the highest peak. Flying units will be above that. // Fix: I resized the enclosing box to 256x256x256. This should be sufficient. if (Item.EnclosingBox.Max != Item.EnclosingBox.Min && m_region.Contains(Item.EnclosingBox) == ContainmentType.Contains) { bool found = false; //we will try to place the object into a child node. If we can't fit it in a child node, then we insert it into the current node object list. for(int a=0;a<8;a++) { //is the object fully contained within a quadrant? if (childOctant[a].Contains(Item.EnclosingBox) == ContainmentType.Contains) { if (m_childNode[a] != null) { return m_childNode[a].Insert(Item); //Add the item into that tree and let the child tree figure out what to do with it } else { m_childNode[a] = CreateNode(childOctant[a], Item); //create a new tree node with the item m_activeNodes |= (byte)(1 << a); } found = true; } } //we couldn't fit the item into a smaller box, so we'll have to insert it in this region if (!found) { m_objects.Add(Item); return true; } } else if (Item.EnclosingSphere.Radius != 0 && m_region.Contains(Item.EnclosingSphere) == ContainmentType.Contains) { bool found = false; //we will try to place the object into a child node. If we can't fit it in a child node, then we insert it into the current node object list. for (int a = 0; a < 8; a++) { //is the object contained within a child quadrant? if (childOctant[a].Contains(Item.EnclosingSphere) == ContainmentType.Contains) { if (m_childNode[a] != null) { return m_childNode[a].Insert(Item); //Add the item into that tree and let the child tree figure out what to do with it } else { m_childNode[a] = CreateNode(childOctant[a], Item); //create a new tree node with the item m_activeNodes |= (byte)(1 << a); } found = true; } } //we couldn't fit the item into a smaller box, so we'll have to insert it in this region if (!found) { m_objects.Add(Item); return true; } } //either the item lies outside of the enclosed bounding box or it is intersecting it. Either way, we need to rebuild //the entire tree by enlarging the containing bounding box return false; }  
      Collision Detection
      Finally, our octree has been built and everything is as it should be. How do we perform collision detection against it? First, let's list out the different ways we want to look for collisions:
      Frustum intersections. We may have a frustum which intersects with a region of the world. We only want the objects which intersect with the given frustum. This is particularly useful for culling regions outside of the camera view space, and for figuring out what objects are within a mouse selection area. Ray intersections. We may want to shoot a directional ray from any given point and want to know either the nearest intersecting object or get a list of all objects which intersect that ray (like a rail gun). This is very useful for mouse picking. If the user clicks on the screen, we want to draw a ray into the world and figure out what they clicked on. Bounding Box intersections. We want to know which objects in the world are intersecting a given bounding box. This is most useful for "box" shaped game objects (houses, cars, etc). Bounding Sphere Intersections. We want to know which objects are intersecting with a given bounding sphere. Most objects will probably be using a bounding sphere for coarse collision detection since the mathematics is computationally the least expensive and somewhat easy. The main idea behind recursive collision detection processing for an octree is that you start at the root/current node and test for intersection with all objects in that node against the intersector. Then, you do a bounding box intersection test against all active child nodes with the intersector. If a child node fails this intersection test, you can completely ignore the rest of that child's tree. If a child node passes the intersection test, you recursively traverse down the tree and repeat. Each node should pass a list of intersection records up to its caller, which appends those intersections to its own list of intersections. When the recursion finishes, the original caller will get a list of every intersection for the given intersector. The beauty of this is that it takes very little code to implement and performance is very fast. In a lot of these collisions, we're probably going to be getting a lot of results. We're also going to want to have some way of responding to each collision, depending on what objects are colliding.
      For example, a player hero should pick up a floating bonus item (quad damage!), but a rocket shouldn't explode if it hits said bonus item. I created a new class to contain information about each intersection. This class contains references to the intersecting objects, the point of intersection, the normal at the point of intersection, etc. These intersection records become quite useful when you pass them to an object and tell them to handle it. For completeness and clarity, here is my intersection record class:
      public class IntersectionRecord { readonly Vector3 m_position, m_normal; readonly Ray m_ray; readonly Physical m_intersectedObject1, m_intersectedObject2; readonly double m_distance; public class Builder { public Vector3 Position, Normal; public Physical Object1, Object2; public Ray hitRay; public double Distance; public Builder() { Distance = double.MaxValue; } public Builder(IntersectionRecord copy) { Position = copy.m_position; Normal = copy.m_normal; Object1 = copy.m_intersectedObject1; Object2 = copy.m_intersectedObject2; hitRay = copy.m_ray; Distance = copy.m_distance; } public IntersectionRecord Build() { return new IntersectionRecord(Position, Normal, Object1, Object2, hitRay, Distance); } } #region Constructors IntersectionRecord(Vector3 pos, Vector3 normal, Physical obj1, Physical obj2, Ray r, double dist) { m_position = pos; m_normal = normal; m_intersectedObject1 = obj1; m_intersectedObject2 = obj2; m_ray = r; m_distance = dist; } #endregion #region Accessors /// <summary> /// This is the exact point in 3D space which has an intersection. /// </summary> public Vector3 Position { get { return m_position; } } /// <summary> /// This is the normal of the surface at the point of intersection /// </summary> public Vector3 Normal { get { return m_normal; } } /// <summary> /// This is the ray which caused the intersection /// </summary> public Ray Ray { get { return m_ray; } } /// <summary> /// This is the object which is being intersected /// </summary> public Physical PhysicalObject { get { return m_intersectedObject1; } } /// <summary> /// This is the other object being intersected (may be null, as in the case of a ray-object intersection) /// </summary> public Physical OtherPhysicalObject { get { return m_intersectedObject2; } } /// <summary> /// This is the distance from the ray to the intersection point. /// You'll usually want to use the nearest collision point if you get multiple intersections. /// </summary> public double Distance { get { return m_distance; } } #endregion #region Overrides public override string ToString() { return "Hit: " + m_intersectedObject1.ToString(); } public override int GetHashCode() { return base.GetHashCode(); } /// <summary> /// check the object identities between the two intersection records. If they match in either order, we have a duplicate. /// </summary> /// <param name="otherRecord">the other record to compare against</param> /// <returns>true if the records are an intersection for the same pair of objects, false otherwise.</returns> public override bool Equals(object otherRecord) { IntersectionRecord o = (IntersectionRecord)otherRecord; // //return (m_intersectedObject1 != null && m_intersectedObject2 != null && m_intersectedObject1.ID == m_intersectedObject2.ID); if (otherRecord == null) return false; if (o.m_intersectedObject1.ID == m_intersectedObject1.ID && o.m_intersectedObject2.ID == m_intersectedObject2.ID) return true; if (o.m_intersectedObject1.ID == m_intersectedObject2.ID && o.m_intersectedObject2.ID == m_intersectedObject1.ID) return true; return false; } #endregion }  
      Intersection with a Bounding Frustum
      /// <summary> /// Gives you a list of all intersection records which intersect or are contained within the given frustum area /// </summary> /// <param name="frustum">The containing frustum to check for intersection/containment with</param> /// <returns>A list of intersection records with collisions</returns> private List<IntersectionRecord> GetIntersection(BoundingFrustum frustum, PhysicalType type = PhysicalType.ALL) { if (!m_treeBuilt) return new List<IntersectionRecord>(); if (m_objects.Count == 0 && HasChildren == false) //terminator for any recursion return null; List<IntersectionRecord> ret = new List<IntersectionRecord>(); //test each object in the list for intersection foreach (Physical obj in m_objects) { //skip any objects which don't meet our type criteria if ((int)((int)type & (int)obj.Type) == 0) continue; //test for intersection IntersectionRecord ir = obj.Intersects(frustum); if (ir != null) ret.Add(ir); } //test each object in the list for intersection for (int a = 0; a < 8; a++) { if (m_childNode[a] != null && (frustum.Contains(m_childNode[a].m_region) == ContainmentType.Intersects || frustum.Contains(m_childNode[a].m_region) == ContainmentType.Contains)) { List<IntersectionRecord> hitList = m_childNode[a].GetIntersection(frustum, type); if (hitList != null) ret.AddRange(hitList); } } return ret; } The bounding frustum intersection list can be used to only render objects which are visible to the current camera view. I use a scene database to figure out how to render all objects in the game world. Here is a snippet of code from my rendering function which uses the bounding frustum of the active camera:
      /// /// This renders every active object in the scene database /// /// public int Render() { int triangles = 0; //Renders all visible objects by iterating through the oct tree recursively and testing for intersection //with the current camera view frustum foreach (IntersectionRecord ir in m_octTree.AllIntersections(m_cameras[m_activeCamera].Frustum)) { ir.PhysicalObject.SetDirectionalLight(m_globalLight[0].Direction, m_globalLight[0].Color); ir.PhysicalObject.View = m_cameras[m_activeCamera].View; ir.PhysicalObject.Projection = m_cameras[m_activeCamera].Projection; ir.PhysicalObject.UpdateLOD(m_cameras[m_activeCamera]); triangles += ir.PhysicalObject.Render(m_cameras[m_activeCamera]); } return triangles; }  
      Intersection with a Ray
      /// <summary> /// Gives you a list of intersection records for all objects which intersect with the given ray /// </summary> /// <param name="intersectRay">The ray to intersect objects against</param> /// <returns>A list of all intersections</returns> private List<IntersectionRecord> GetIntersection(Ray intersectRay, PhysicalType type = PhysicalType.ALL) { if (!m_treeBuilt) return new List<IntersectionRecord>(); if (m_objects.Count == 0 && HasChildren == false) //terminator for any recursion return null; List<IntersectionRecord> ret = new List<IntersectionRecord>(); //the ray is intersecting this region, so we have to check for intersection with all of our contained objects and child regions. //test each object in the list for intersection foreach (Physical obj in m_objects) { //skip any objects which don't meet our type criteria if ((int)((int)type & (int)obj.Type) == 0) continue; IntersectionRecord ir = obj.Intersects(intersectRay); if (ir != null) ret.Add(ir); } // test each child octant for intersection for (int a = 0; a < 8; a++) { if (m_childNode[a] != null && m_childNode[a].m_region.Intersects(intersectRay) != null) { m_lineColor = Color.Red; List<IntersectionRecord> hits = m_childNode[a].GetIntersection(intersectRay, type); if (hits != null && hits.Count > 0) { ret.AddRange(hits); } } } return ret; }  
      Intersection with a list of objects
      This is a particularly useful recursive method for determining if a list of objects in the current node intersects with any objects in any child nodes (See: Update() method for usage). It's the method which will be used most frequently, so it's good to get this right and efficient. What we want to do is start at the root node of the tree. We compare all objects in the current node against all other objects in the current node for collision. We gather up any of those collisions as intersection records and insert them into a list. We then pass our list of tested objects down to our child nodes. The child nodes will then test their objects against themselves, then against the objects we passed down to them. The child nodes will capture any collisions in a list, and return that list to its parent. The parent then takes the collision list received from its child nodes and appends it to its own list of collisions, finally returning it to its caller.
      If you count out the number of collision tests in the illustration above, you can see that we conducted 29 hit tests and received 4 hits. This is much better than [11*11 = 121] hit tests.
      private List<IntersectionRecord> GetIntersection(List<Physical> parentObjs, PhysicalType type = PhysicalType.ALL) { List<IntersectionRecord> intersections = new List<IntersectionRecord>(); //assume all parent objects have already been processed for collisions against each other. //check all parent objects against all objects in our local node foreach (Physical pObj in parentObjs) { foreach (Physical lObj in m_objects) { //We let the two objects check for collision against each other. They can figure out how to do the coarse and granular checks. //all we're concerned about is whether or not a collision actually happened. IntersectionRecord ir = pObj.Intersects(lObj); if (ir != null) { //ir.m_treeNode = this; intersections.Add(ir); } } } //now, check all our local objects against all other local objects in the node if (m_objects != null && m_objects.Count > 1) { #region self-congratulation /* * This is a rather brilliant section of code. Normally, you'd just have two foreach loops, like so: * foreach(Physical lObj1 in m_objects) * { * foreach(Physical lObj2 in m_objects) * { * //intersection check code * } * } * * The problem is that this runs in O(N*N) time and that we're checking for collisions with objects which have already been checked. * Imagine you have a set of four items: {1,2,3,4} * You'd first check: {1} vs {1,2,3,4} * Next, you'd check {2} vs {1,2,3,4} * but we already checked {1} vs {2}, so it's a waste to check {2} vs. {1}. What if we could skip this check by removing {1}? * We'd have a total of 4+3+2+1 collision checks, which equates to O(N(N+1)/2) time. If N is 10, we are already doing half as many collision checks as necessary. * Now, we can't just remove an item at the end of the 2nd for loop since that would break the iterator in the first foreach loop, so we'd have to use a * regular for(int i=0;i<size;i++) style loop for the first loop and reduce size each iteration. This works...but look at the for loop: we're allocating memory for * two additional variables: i and size. What if we could figure out some way to eliminate those variables? * So, who says that we have to start from the front of a list? We can start from the back end and still get the same end results. With this in mind, * we can completely get rid of a for loop and use a while loop which has a conditional on the capacity of a temporary list being greater than 0. * since we can poll the list capacity for free, we can use the capacity as an indexer into the list items. Now we don't have to increment an indexer either! * The result is below. */ #endregion List<Physical> tmp = new List<Physical>(m_objects.Count); tmp.AddRange(m_objects); while (tmp.Count > 0) { foreach (Physical lObj2 in tmp) { if (tmp[tmp.Count - 1] == lObj2 || (tmp[tmp.Count - 1].IsStationary && lObj2.IsStationary)) continue; IntersectionRecord ir = tmp[tmp.Count - 1].Intersects(lObj2); if (ir != null) { //ir.m_treeNode = this; intersections.Add(ir); } } //remove this object from the temp list so that we can run in O(N(N+1)/2) time instead of O(N*N) tmp.RemoveAt(tmp.Count-1); } } //now, merge our local objects list with the parent objects list, then pass it down to all children. foreach (Physical lObj in m_objects) if (lObj.IsStationary == false) parentObjs.Add(lObj); //parentObjs.AddRange(m_objects); //each child node will give us a list of intersection records, which we then merge with our own intersection records. for (int flags = m_activeNodes, index = 0; flags > 0; flags >>= 1, index++) { if ((flags & 1) == 1) { if(m_childNode != null && m_childNode[index] != null) intersections.AddRange(m_childNode[index].GetIntersection(parentObjs, type)); } } return intersections; }  
      Screenshot Demos
      This is a view of the game world from a distance showing the outlines for each bounding volume for the octree. This view shows a bunch of successive projectiles moving through the game world with the frequently-used nodes being preserved instead of deleted.  
      Complete Code Sample
      I've attached a complete code sample of the octree class, the intersection record class, and my generic physical object class. I don't guarantee that they're all bug-free since it's all a work in progress and hasn't been rigorously tested yet.
    • By JustACicada
      Random Number God has been updated to v1.1.0.
      This is an incremental (although not idle) game about defeating randomized robots by rolling dice and playing cards that alter those dice and their effects.
      Other than performance fixes, the game has been rebalanced from the ground up. Now it should progress in a more fluid fashion. An option to reset the game with a significant boost to your power has been added, allowing you to advance further than you could before.
      There is also now an option to significantly speed up battle animations. Once you learn the rules of the game, a battle can easily take <2 min.
      Windows, Linux: https://justacicada.itch.io/random-number-god
      Android: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=samuelVazquez.randomNumberGod

    • By sidbhati32
      So I have got this asteroid type game and today I encountered a new issue while testing this game.
      What happened was that two asteroids were close to each other and I shot a bullet at them. The asteroids were so close to each other that a single bullet could collide to both of them.
      It collided and my game crashed there itself. I figured out it happened because two asteroids and one bullet collided in the same frame.
      This is the code -
      ```void Collision::DoCollisions(Game *game) const
          for (ColliderList::const_iterator colliderAIt = colliders_.begin(), end = colliders_.end();
              colliderAIt != end;
              ColliderList::const_iterator colliderBIt = colliderAIt;
              for (++colliderBIt; colliderBIt != end; ++colliderBIt)
                  Collider *colliderA = *colliderAIt;
                  Collider *colliderB = *colliderBIt;
                  if (CollisionTest(colliderA, colliderB))
                      game->DoCollision(colliderA->entity, colliderB->entity);
      void Game::DoCollision(GameEntity *a, GameEntity *b)
          Ship *player = static_cast<Ship *>(a == player_ ? a : (b == player_ ? b : 0));
          Bullet *bullet = static_cast<Bullet *>(IsBullet(a) ? a : (IsBullet(b) ? b : 0));
          Asteroid *asteroid = static_cast<Asteroid *>(IsAsteroid(a) ? a : (IsAsteroid(b) ? b : 0));
          Bullet *bulletMode = static_cast<Bullet *>(IsBulletMode(a) ? a : (IsBulletMode(b) ? b : 0));
          if (player && asteroid)
              player->playerCollided = true;
          if (bullet && asteroid)
          if(bulletMode && asteroid)
      void Game::CollisionResponse()
          if(player_->playerCollided == true)
              for(AsteroidList::const_iterator collidedAsteroidIt = collidedAsteroid.begin(), end = collidedAsteroid.end(); collidedAsteroidIt != end ; ++collidedAsteroidIt )
          for (BulletList::const_iterator bulletIt = collidedBullets.begin(), end = collidedBullets.end() ; bulletIt!=end; ++bulletIt)
              for (BulletList::const_iterator bulletIt = collidedBulletMode.begin(), end = collidedBulletMode.end() ; bulletIt!=end; ++bulletIt)
      in my game->docollision() -
      whenever an asteroid and a bullet used to collide, the collided objects get collected in collidedasteroids and collidedbullets respectively. When two asteroids collided with the same bullet, the two asteroids got collected safely in collidedAsteroid but the single bullet got collected in collidedBullets twice, so when the deletion was happening, the second time iteration of the bullet couldn't find the respective bullet and it got crashed.
      How am I supposed to approach this problem now?
    • By Jamesgz
      Hey my dudes,
      Me and 4 friends are third year compsci students. Three of us are pretty good at drawing. We are hoping to make a 2d roguelite game with unity during the next few months. We are still brainstorming. At the moment, my idea is to create a card roguelite game:
      First, you would need to choose 2 heroes to enter the dungeon with the goal of finding a treasure. The treasure found gives you extra bonus in later runs. You can choose between mage, gunner, rogue, paladin, warrior and fighter. Each hero has their own unique cards. And there are common cards that every heroes can get(like hearthstone).
      The progression system would be like slay the spire’s. You can choose your own path, but every paths leads to the boss. It would use procedural generation. After defeating an enemy, you get to choose a new card out of the three options. There would be shops, random events, elite enemies, etc
      The combat system is where i need some suggestions on. There would be two piles of deck. One for each hero. I can think of two good combat systems:
      1. Before every enemy encounters, you can choose what cards to use from your deck. Cards not used would not get discarded. Cards are drawn from the deck only if they break or due to special card’s effect. Every card have a durability number. Ones the durability reach zero, the card would break and can no longer be used. Events/enemies can modify the durability of the cards.
      2. Card not used this turn would get discarded. Once the deck is empty, the discard pile gets shuffled and copied to the deck. Card/item effects can increase the number of cards you draw.
      How can I make the game more interesting? Any suggestions would be appreciated.

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