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• Read their credits to see what it took to make that game. They list 43 programmers, 36 artists and animators, 6 audio folks, 11 designers.  All total they've got about 110 people as developers, with no list of QA and other disciplines. Based on what I can see, they spent about five years on the project but appear to have ramped up over time.  Using quick estimates that's about 4500 work months. At costs in the US that's about $45M in development. Since you want to build it to the newer and more expensive devices, you'll be looking at perhaps$60M in development if you already had an established business.  Then likely another $50M-$100M in marketing, and another \$50M in pre-production and post-production costs.  And since you would either need to build your company from scratch or hire others to do it, add in those overhead to make it about a quarter billion dollars.   Nobody wants to quote specific numbers and they're generally covered under NDA, but here's a somewhat recent Kotaku article that matches the quick estimates. Costs have gone up in the four years since that article, but not enough to distort it too much.     For hobby projects and independent works it can be a realistic project to find the tiniest gems that defined the game and limit yourself to those.  Even that is an enormous work for an individual, potentially requiring several work years for a minimal product.
• None of the patterns are hard-and-fast requirements. People noticed there were frequent patterns in software.  One system implemented it one way, another implemented it a second way, but ultimately they follow a similar style.  They were given names to make them easier to talk about, and easier to reason about. Many patterns are positive: this solution applies to many problems. In short order people had long lists of ways to apply the patterns. Discussion finds ways they can be expanded or specialized. Some patterns are negative: this solution works in the short term but causes headaches down the road. Often they come with some caveats of when they are less troublesome, and cases where they may be appropriate despite the headaches.   There are enormous books on patterns, on my bookshelf I've got five, plus there are many websites for various patterns on topics like automated test patterns and such. If you need one, here is a good starting point.
• I already knew quite a few gfx APIs before I started learning D3D12 so I'm probably not the target audience, but I didn't really like the Frank Luna book. It seemed like he'd just rewritten "Introduction to 3D Game Programming with DirectX 11" as quickly as possible, using the new API. It's good enough as an introduction on how to write simple apps using the new API, but it doesn't do the best job of teaching you how and why it works the way it does, and doesn't actually teach you how to structure code in a way that will work for large programs (such as games) instead of tiny demonstrations... As for Vulkan vs D3D12, they're both similarly complex, but I would say that D3D12 is slightly simpler to use.

NeHe Productions

Everything OpenGL.

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