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HTML Parser...How Would I Go About Creating One

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I'm still new to programming, so I need some help in creating an html parser. Here's what I have so far (there's a few separate files, I got some parts of the code from someone who is helping me: My HtmlParser header file (HtmlParser.h):

#ifndef FSTREAM
#       include 
#       define FSTREAM
#       include 
#       define STDEXCEPT
#ifndef MAP
#       include 
#       define MAP

/** \class  HtmlParser
 *  \brief  A parser for HTML documents.

class HtmlParser {

unsigned lineno_;
unsigned chunk_mask_;

	static const unsigned OPENING_TAG              = 1u << 0u;
	static const unsigned CLOSING_TAG              = 1u << 1u;
	static const unsigned MALFORMED_TAG            = 1u << 2u;
	static const unsigned WORD                     = 1u << 3u;
	static const unsigned PUNCTUATION              = 1u << 4u;
	static const unsigned COMMENT                  = 1u << 5u;
	static const unsigned WHITESPACE               = 1u << 6u;
	static const unsigned END_OF_STREAM            = 1u << 7u;
	static const unsigned UNEXPECTED_END_OF_STREAM = 1u << 8u;
	static const unsigned EVERYTHING               = 0xFFFF;

	class AttributeMap: public std::map {

		/** \brief  Insert a value into an AttributeMap, replacing any old value.
		 *  \param  name   The name of the key.
		 *  \param  value  The value to be associated with "name".
		 *  \return True if the attribute wasn't in the map yet, else false.
		 *  The pair (name, value) is stored in the AttributeMap.  If
		 *  there is an existing value associated with name, it is
		 *  not inserted.
		bool insert(const std::string &name, const std::string &value);
	struct Chunk {
		const unsigned type_;
		const std::string text_;
		const unsigned lineno_;
		AttributeMap attribute_map_;
		Chunk(const unsigned type, const std::string &text, const unsigned lineno)
			: type_(type), text_(text), lineno_(lineno) { }
	explicit HtmlParser(std::istream &input, unsigned chunk_mask=EVERYTHING)
		: input_(input), lineno_(1), chunk_mask_(chunk_mask) { }
	virtual ~HtmlParser() { }
	void parse();
	virtual void notify(const Chunk &chunk) = 0;

#endif // ifndef HTML_PARSER_H
My main.cc file:
#ifndef IOSTREAM
#       include 
#       define IOSTREAM
#ifndef CSTRING
#       include 
#       define CSTRING
#ifndef CSTDLIB
#       include 
#       define CSTDLIB
#       include 

const char *progname = "HtmlParserTest";

class TestParser: public HtmlParser {
	explicit TestParser(std::istream &input, unsigned notification_mask)
		: HtmlParser(input, notification_mask) { }
	virtual void notify(const Chunk &chunk);

void PrintChar(std:: ostream &output, const char ch)
	output << ''';
	switch (ch) {
	case '\n':
		output << '\' << 'n';
	case '\t':
		output << '\' << 't';
	case '\b':
		output << '\' << 'b';
	case '\r':
		output << '\' << 'r';
	case '\f':
		output << '\' << 'f';
	case '\v':
		output << '\' << 'v';
	case '\':
		output << '\' << '\';
	case ''':
		output << '\' << ''';
	case '\a':
		output << '\' << 'a';
		output << ch;

	output << ''';

void TestParser::notify(const Chunk &chunk)
	if (chunk.type_ == HtmlParser::OPENING_TAG) {
		std::cerr << "Found opening tag on line " << chunk.lineno_ << ": " << chunk.text_ << '\n';
		for (HtmlParser::AttributeMap::const_iterator attrib(chunk.attribute_map_.begin());
		     attrib != chunk.attribute_map_.end(); ++attrib)
			std::cerr << '\t' << attrib->first << " = " << attrib->second << '\n';
	else if (chunk.type_ == HtmlParser::CLOSING_TAG)
		std::cerr << "Found closing tag on line " << chunk.lineno_ << ": " << chunk.text_ << '\n';
	else if (chunk.type_ == HtmlParser::MALFORMED_TAG)
		std::cerr << "Found malformed tag on line " << chunk.lineno_ << ": " << chunk.text_ << '\n';
	else if (chunk.type_ == HtmlParser:: PUNCTUATION)
		std::cerr << "Found punctuation: " << chunk.text_[0] << '\n';
	else if (chunk.type_ == HtmlParser::WORD)
		std::cerr << "Found \"word\": " << chunk.text_ << " on line " << chunk.lineno_ << ".\n";
	else if (chunk.type_ == HtmlParser::COMMENT)
		std::cerr << "Found an HTML comment on line " << chunk.lineno_ << ".\n";
	else if (chunk.type_ == HtmlParser::WHITESPACE) {
		std::cerr << "Found whitespace ";
		PrintChar(std::cerr, chunk.text_[0]);
		std::cerr << " on line " << chunk.lineno_ << ".\n";
	else if (chunk.type_ == HtmlParser::END_OF_STREAM)
		std::cerr << "Found end-of-stream on line " << chunk.lineno_ << ".\n";
	else if (chunk.type_ == HtmlParser::UNEXPECTED_END_OF_STREAM)
		std::cerr << "Found unexpected end-of-stream on line " << chunk.lineno_ << " (" << chunk.text_ << ").\n";

void Usage()
	std::cerr << "usage: " << :: progname << " [--report-opening-tags] [--report-closing-tags]"
		  << " [--report-words] [--report-whitespace] [--report-comments] [--report-punctuation]\n";

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
	try {
		unsigned notification_mask(0);
		for (int arg_no = 1; arg_no < argc; ++arg_no) {
			if (std::strcmp("--report-opening-tags", argv[arg_no]) == 0)
				notification_mask |= HtmlParser::OPENING_TAG;
			else if (std::strcmp("--report-closing-tags", argv[arg_no]) == 0)
				notification_mask |= HtmlParser::CLOSING_TAG;
			else if (std::strcmp("--report-words", argv[arg_no]) == 0)
				notification_mask |= HtmlParser::WORD;
			else if (std::strcmp("--report-whitespace", argv[arg_no]) == 0)
				notification_mask |= HtmlParser::WHITESPACE;
			else if (std::strcmp("--report-comments", argv[arg_no]) == 0)
				notification_mask |= HtmlParser::COMMENT;
			else if (std::strcmp("--report-punctuation", argv[arg_no]) == 0)
				notification_mask |= HtmlParser:: PUNCTUATION;
		if (notification_mask == 0)
			notification_mask = HtmlParser::EVERYTHING;
		TestParser test_parser(std::cin, notification_mask);

		return EXIT_SUCCESS;
	catch (const std:: exception &x) {
		std::cerr << :: progname << ": caught exception: %s" << x.what() << '\n';
I'm still working on the HtmlParser class, I know I'll need to add some private member functions and a few more member variables. Also I'll explain the nested chunk structure a little. Basically when I find an opening tag ( < ) and whatever is inside it ( ie. a href = "http://...." ) I will assign it to one of the variables. lineno_ will be used to determine the line number of where the html tag was found. But I have a question, how would I go about reading what's inside the html tag; should I read each character one at a time? Here's a basic idea of what I will be doing in the third file I'm working on (HtmlParser.cc):
#include "HtmlParser.h"

void HtmlParser:: parse()

//found opening tag
  Chunk *chunk;
  chunk = new Chunk(OPENING_TAG, text, lineno_);
  chunk -> attribute_map_.insert(// **(read below) still figuring out what to do here)
  if(chunk_mask = &OPENING_TAG)
    delete chunk;


** (I was thinking of adding two new variables, "name" and "value" so for example if there is an html tag like:   

I know everything is kind of messy right now, but can someone lend me some help.

[edited by - -dcx- on December 3, 2002 6:28:50 PM]    

Guest Anonymous Poster
I can''t imagine any reason to write a HTML parser. Well, perhaps you could read in web pages, convert the text/images into 3D objects, and then shoot them up in a FPS game. That might be fun: rocket launcher to annoying pop-up ad.

But assuming you have some good reason to do this, you might want to look into lex/yacc or their GNU twins flex/bison. These are tools for *automatically* creating lexical scanners (for converting strings to tokens) and parsers. The learning curve is steep, but once mastered, you just have to write regular expressions for the tokens and a grammar for HTML.

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Few things:
- use [ source ] blocks for code on here.
- make the parser into one big finite state machine.
- for parsing whats inside the tag, break it into tokens. names become a token, = is a token, and if you encounter a '' or ", scan up to the next '' or " and make that one token.
- may want to add a handler class so that something gets called when an event occurs. Just so you can do something useful with the parser.

This may help if you haven''t already looked at it, and this may be over your head, but you could learn from it.

50% of people are below average.

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I''d love to BFG a damn popup

"With my feet upon the ground I lose myself between the sounds and open wide to suck it in, I feel it move across my skin. I''m reaching up and reaching out. I''m reaching for the random or what ever will bewilder me, what ever will bewilder me. And following our will and wind we may just go where no one''s been. We''ll ride the spiral to the end and may just go where no one''s been." - Maynard James Keenan
Name: TheBlackJester
Team: Wildfire Studios

O A.D.
The Last Alliance

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I agree with AP. Use lex/yacc or flex/bison. Not only is it simpler to write a parser once you've learned how, you'll have a lot less code to debug. In my experience, parser bugs show up everywhere. They're one of the most difficult things for me to write bug-free, and usually I end up having tons of exception cases to fix any bugs that come up.

Binaries for flex and bison on Win32 are available. Search around on Google. Most noticably they come with the Cygwin package, but you can find individual binaries without Cygwin dependencies, I think.

You'll also need the following documentation on how to use Bison and Flex. Like the AP said, the learning curve is steep, but well worth it.

Bison Documentation
Flex Documentation

[edited by - mutex on December 4, 2002 1:32:38 AM]

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If you''re going to use flex/bison to write a XML (or HTML) parser you might be interested in reading this. Just a brief list of characteristics of XML''s grammar which may be difficult to handle in a pure LALR-grammar parser...

I also assume you have a vadid reason to write your own HTML parser instead of using one of several already in existance...

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Or try ANTLR (www.antlr.org) which is an OO lexical scanner generator tool. It also already has an HTML parser with it as an example...you''d need to make a few adjustments for your purposes of course.

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The learning curve for lex and flex is a bit to steep for me. And since I've already started this program, I'd rather finish it, for learning purposes.

Now I have a question;

How would I deal with attributes for html tags(ie. a href = "http://gamedev.net" )

I know the Opening tag should be a, but should I also assign a new variable called "name" to "href" and a variable "value" to "http://..."

How should I approach this problem?

[edited by - -dcx- on December 5, 2002 4:34:40 AM]

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