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is this good or bad?

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what about using ProcessVertices() to transform everything on the scene, and then render all the passes needed with the same results from ProcessVertices. wouldn''t that be faster than re-rendering everything for multiple passes? i imagine it''d be slower if there are 2, maybe 3 or less passes though.

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The most important thing to remember about ProcessVertices is it will *ALWAYS* be performed by the CPU so will never take advantage of any hardware vertex processing (H/W T&L) on the graphics chip (which should be thought of as "write only" devices in most cases).

Whether ProcessVertices() to transform and light (perhaps with a vertex shader) then multiple Draw*Primitive() calls from the transformed ProcessVertices result will be faster than multiple calls to Draw*Primitive() with untransformed data is pretty much application AND hardware dependent.

If your app is running on a machine with a non-T&L device (e.g. TNT, G400 etc, basically anything before a GeForce 256*), then using ProcessVertices in this way for multi-pass will ALWAYS be a good thing.

On a machine with hardware shader support (or just hardware T&L if your app uses fixed function vertex processing), whether it''s a win is something you should profile - and will be dependent on things such as:

- how complex your vertex shader is (more complex = more CPU cycles inside ProcessVertices)

- whether you have a lot of static vertex buffers (buffers for ProcessVertices should always be in system memory, the optimal place for static vertex data is in video or AGP memory which implies a lot of copying across the AGP bus which may be avoided with the multiple passes).

- the speed of the hardware T&L versus the speed of the software processing on the CPU.

- the amount of other demands there are for the CPU (anything which forces even a partial serialisation between CPU and GPU and burns lots of CPU cycles isn''t good *IF* you have lots of other work such as physics which needs doing on the CPU).

[*consumer level - 3DLabs had T&L parts out before nVidia, but they were aimed at the professional artist market]

Simon O''Connor
Creative Asylum Ltd

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