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DirectX application crashes, need help plz...

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Hi, I''m working on my first DirectX application, but I''m having some trouble: firstly the application is the combination of two other programs: -the first is a DirectX-tutorial that creates me a simple DirectX window. -the second is a part of Andre Lamothe''s particle-demo from his ''tricks of the game programming gurus''. => result = (or should be...) a small DirectX window in which I can start particle explosions simply by clicking in it (thus, not using that little tank...or the rest of the engine,...I need just the particles) I think the problem lies in the Draw_Pixel(), DDraw_Unlock_Back_Surface() and DDraw_Lock_Back_Surface() funtions. ...But I just can''t get it figured out Can anybody help me with this? thx here''s the code: /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// //DDraw_Class.h file 1/3 /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// #ifndef DDRAW_CLASS_H #define DDRAW_CLASS_H #include <windows.h> #include <ddraw.h> /////////////////// ///////////////// #include <iostream.h> // include important C/C++ stuff #include <conio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <malloc.h> #include <memory.h> #include <string.h> #include <stdarg.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <math.h> #include <io.h> #include <fcntl.h> // The dimensions of our window #define WIN_WIDTH 640 #define WIN_HEIGHT 480 // The width and height of our bitmap #define BMP_WID 400 #define BMP_HGT 200 //--------------------------------------------------------------- //Particle system //--------------------------------------------------------------- #define PARTICLE_STATE_DEAD 0 #define PARTICLE_STATE_ALIVE 1 #define PARTICLE_TYPE_FLICKER 0 #define PARTICLE_TYPE_FADE 1 #define PARTICLE_COLOR_RED 0 #define PARTICLE_COLOR_GREEN 1 #define PARTICLE_COLOR_BLUE 2 #define PARTICLE_COLOR_WHITE 3 #define MAX_PARTICLES 128 #define COLOR_RED_START 32 #define COLOR_RED_END 47 #define COLOR_GREEN_START 96 #define COLOR_GREEN_END 111 #define COLOR_BLUE_START 144 #define COLOR_BLUE_END 159 #define COLOR_WHITE_START 16 #define COLOR_WHITE_END 31 #define RAND_RANGE(x,y) ( (x) + ( rand() % ((y)-(x)+1) ) ); const double PI = 3.1415926535; void Init_Reset_Particles(void); void Start_Particle(int,int,int,float,float,float,float); void Process_Particles(void); void Draw_Particles(void); void Start_Particle_Ring(int ,int ,int ,int ,int ,int ,int ,int ); //--------------------------------------------------------------- //--------------------------------------------------------------- //detect mouse button void MouseButtonDown(int x, int y, BOOL bLeft); extern float cos_look[360]; extern float sin_look[360]; extern int back_lpitch; extern UCHAR *back_buffer; //extern LPDIRECTDRAWSURFACE4 lpddsback;//4 extern DDSURFACEDESC ddsd;//2 #define DDRAW_INIT_STRUCT(ddstruct) { memset(&ddstruct,0,sizeof(ddstruct)); ddstruct.dwSize=sizeof(ddstruct); } void Build_Sin_Cos_Tables(void); UCHAR *DDraw_Lock_Back_Surface(void); int DDraw_Unlock_Back_Surface(void); inline int Draw_Pixel(int x, int y,int color,UCHAR *video_buffer, int lpitch); int Draw_Pixel(int x, int y,int color,UCHAR *video_buffer, int lpitch); // This is going to be our Direct Draw object -- It will set up Direct Draw so we // can blit to a window application class DD_OBJ { public: // The Constructor -- Just set everything to NULL for starters DD_OBJ():lpDD(NULL),primarySurface(NULL),backSurface(NULL), clipper(NULL) { /* do nothing */ } bool Init(HWND hwnd); // This basically invokes the Direct Draw required setup code bool InitClipper(HWND hwnd); // This inits the clipper object bool InitSurfaces(); // This inits the primary and back surfaces // This will "fill" our backSurface with the bitmap we pass in bool LoadBackSurface(HINSTANCE hinstance, char *bmp_name); bool Draw(HWND hwnd); // Draw the backSurface to the primarySurface (the screen) // The Deconstructor ~DD_OBJ(); private: LPDIRECTDRAW2 lpDD; // This is an our "main" DirectDraw object // It "comes from" the IDirectDraw2 interface USE4!! LPDIRECTDRAWSURFACE primarySurface; // This is our primary surface (our front buffer) LPDIRECTDRAWSURFACE backSurface; // This is our back surface (our back buffer) LPDIRECTDRAWCLIPPER clipper; // This is our clipper object -- It will clip "Direct Draw" // to our window HDC hdc; // A handle to our device context void Free(); // This private function will free up all memory associated with // the DD_OBJ }; #endif /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// //DDraw_Class.cpp file 2/3 /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// #include "DDraw_Class.h" #include <math.h> //----------------------------------------------------------------- //Particle structure //----------------------------------------------------------------- typedef struct PARTICLE_TYP { int state; int type; float x,y; float xv,yv; int curr_color; int start_color; int end_color; int counter; int max_count; } PARTICLE, *PARTICLE_PTR; float particle_wind = 0; float particle_gravity = 0; PARTICLE particles[MAX_PARTICLES]; float cos_look[360]; float sin_look[360]; int back_lpitch = 0; UCHAR *back_buffer = NULL; //LPDIRECTDRAWSURFACE4 lpddsback = NULL; DDSURFACEDESC ddsd;//2 LPDIRECTDRAWSURFACE backSurface = NULL; //----------------------------------------------------------------- //----------------------------------------------------------------- // Set up our DirectDraw interface AND save off a compatible HDC AND load our clipper bool DD_OBJ::Init(HWND hwnd) { HRESULT result; // For the return codes from DirectDraw function/method calls LPDIRECTDRAW temp_lpdd = NULL; // This is a temp LPDIRECTDRAW object -- DirectDrawCreate() // requires we pass in one of these, but once we have this // "interface" we''re going to query it for a IDirectDraw2 interface // By Parameter: /* NULL -- This is a GUID (Globaly Unique ID) that represents which "display driver" we want to use -- By passing in NULL we''re selecting the active "driver" */ // temp_lpdd -- Address of our Direct Draw Structure for initializing // NULL -- Must be NULL (is there for future expansion) result = DirectDrawCreate(NULL,&temp_lpdd,NULL); // Error Check if(result != DD_OK) return false; /* For DirectDraw function/method calls, if they are successful the return value is DD_OK */ // What we doing here is "creating" an IDirectDraw2 Interface (if possible) result = temp_lpdd->QueryInterface(IID_IDirectDraw2,(void**)&lpDD); temp_lpdd->Release(); // It''s served it''s purpose, it''s time to let it go // Error Check if(result != DD_OK) return false; /** Now we want to store a compatible HDC **/ // First we''ll get the window''s HDC HDC win_hdc = GetDC(hwnd); // Error Check if(!win_hdc) return false; // Create the compatible HDC hdc = CreateCompatibleDC(win_hdc); // Free the win_hdc -- It''s served it''s purpose ReleaseDC(hwnd,win_hdc); // Error Check if(hdc == NULL) return false; /** Now we''ll use our new acquired IDirectDraw2 interface to finish initializing **/ // Here we''re "setting the cooperative level" which really just answers the question, // "What is going to be the behavior of this app?" // hwnd -- The handle of the application // DDSCL_NORMAL -- This app will function like a normal Window app result = lpDD->SetCooperativeLevel(hwnd,DDSCL_NORMAL); // Error Check if(result != DD_OK) return false; // Finally we load our clipper (return it''s success or failure) return InitClipper(hwnd); } // This creates a clipper object for us bool DD_OBJ::InitClipper(HWND hwnd) { HRESULT result; // This is for checking the return calls from Direct Draw method calls // This is the function that will create our clipper -- By parameter: // 0 -- This must currently be set to zero // &clipper -- This is the address of a LPDIRECTDRAWCLIPPER object (our clipper object) // It will be filled with our newly created clipper // NULL -- Again this parameter must be NULL (it''s there for expanding the API at a later time) result = DirectDrawCreateClipper(0,&clipper,NULL); // Error Check if(result != DD_OK) return false; // Okay now we''ll set the handle of our clipper to our window hwnd, by parameter: // 0 -- Yet another "future compatibility parameter" this must be zero // hwnd -- The HWND of the window to use as the "clipper window" result = clipper->SetHWnd(0,hwnd); if(result != DD_OK) return false; return true; // Everything went well } // This will init our primary and back surfaces bool DD_OBJ::InitSurfaces() { HRESULT result; // For the return codes from DirectDraw function/method calls // Our Direct Draw surface descriptor -- It will define our surfaces attributes DDSURFACEDESC surfaceDesc = {0}; // Set the stuff we care about for the primary surface surfaceDesc.dwSize = sizeof(DDSURFACEDESC); // Has to be set // Okay this says that the ddsCaps member will be valid (ie filled in) in our // DDSURFACEDESC surfaceDesc.dwFlags = DDSD_CAPS; // Here we setting the ddsCaps -- The flags mean this: // DDSCAPS_VIDEOMEMORY -- This surface will be created in video memory // DDSCAPS_PRIMARYSURFACE -- This surface that will be displayed to the monitor surfaceDesc.ddsCaps.dwCaps = DDSCAPS_VIDEOMEMORY | DDSCAPS_PRIMARYSURFACE; // Try and create the surface, by parameter: // &surfaceDesc -- Address of the surface descriptor // &primarySurface -- Address of the where to create the surface // NULL -- This has to be NULL result = lpDD->CreateSurface(&surfaceDesc,&primarySurface,NULL); // Error Check if(result != DD_OK) return false; /* Okay now we''ll change around the DDSURFACEDESC for our "back buffer" */ // The ddsCaps, dwHeight, and dwWidth will be valid member in our DDSURFACEDESC surfaceDesc.dwFlags = DDSD_CAPS | DDSD_HEIGHT | DDSD_WIDTH; // Fill in the width and height for our surface surfaceDesc.dwHeight = WIN_HEIGHT; surfaceDesc.dwWidth = WIN_WIDTH; // We make a slight change to our dwCaps // DDSCAPS_VIDEOMEMORY -- This surface will be created in video memory // DDSCAPS_OFFSCREENPLAIN -- Means this surface will be a "rectangular area" in memory // that is commonly used for holding bitmaps/sprites surfaceDesc.ddsCaps.dwCaps = DDSCAPS_VIDEOMEMORY | DDSCAPS_OFFSCREENPLAIN; // Now we''ll create our back surface // &surfaceDesc -- Address of the surface descriptor // &backSurface -- Address of the where to create the surface // NULL -- This has to be NULL result = lpDD->CreateSurface(&surfaceDesc,&backSurface,NULL); // Error Check if(result != DD_OK) return false; // Now we need to set our clipper -- Clippers are usually set to surfaces which are // being used as overlays or blitted to the primary surface BUT since our primary // surface needs to be restricted to the size of our window, we''ll set the primary // surface''s clipper result = primarySurface->SetClipper(clipper); // Error Check if(result != DD_OK) return false; // Now we''ll get the backSurface''s HDC HDC bSurfDC = NULL; // To be filled with the backSurface''s HDC // Get the HDC result = backSurface->GetDC(&bSurfDC); // Error Check if(result != DD_OK) return false; // Create a rect defining the backSurface RECT rect = {0,0,WIN_WIDTH,WIN_HEIGHT}; // Remember we set it''s width and height // Fill the backSurface with black // FillRect(bSurfDC,&rect,(HBRUSH)GetStockObject(BLACK_BRUSH)); // Unlock the backSurface (if you don''t do this BAD THINGS HAPPEN result = backSurface->ReleaseDC(bSurfDC); // Error Check if(result != DD_OK) return false; return true; // Surfaces created successfully } // This will load the backSurface with our bitmap // (In a more elaborate application, you could have a surface for each bitmap, draw these // bitmap surfaces to the backSurface, for the current frame, then blit the backSurface // to the primary surface) bool DD_OBJ::LoadBackSurface(HINSTANCE hinstance, char *bmp_name) { // If we didn''t get a "good" file name, return false if(!bmp_name) return false; // Load the bitmap HBITMAP hbitmap = (HBITMAP)LoadImage(hinstance,bmp_name,IMAGE_BITMAP,0,0,LR_LOADFROMFILE); // Error Check if(hbitmap == NULL) return false; // Select the object into our compatible HDC HBITMAP old_bitmap = (HBITMAP)SelectObject(hdc,hbitmap); // Error Check if(old_bitmap == NULL) { DeleteObject(hbitmap); return false; } HDC surfaceDC = NULL; // We''re going to fill this with the HDC of our backSurface // Fill surfaceDC with the backSurface''s HDC HRESULT result = backSurface->GetDC(&surfaceDC); // Error Check if(result != DD_OK) { // Free memory SelectObject(hdc,old_bitmap); DeleteObject(hbitmap); return false; } // Fill the backSurface with the bitmap BitBlt(surfaceDC,120,140,BMP_WID,BMP_HGT,hdc,0,0,SRCCOPY); // **Note the (120,140) comes from the fact our window is (640,480) our bitmap (400,200) // So to center it on the screen, the upper left corner needs to be (120,140) // Effectively "unlock" the backSurface (it''s okay to use again) backSurface->ReleaseDC(surfaceDC); // Free memory SelectObject(hdc,old_bitmap); DeleteObject(hbitmap); return true; } // end of DD_OBJ::LoadBackSurface(HINSTANCE hinstance, char *bmp_name) // This draws the backSurface to the primarySurface bool DD_OBJ::Draw(HWND hwnd) { RECT rect; // This will hold the rect of our window GetWindowRect(hwnd,&rect); // This fills rect with the RECT of our window in // in screen coordinates (ie relative to the screen) DDBLTFX ddbltfx = {0}; // This is the final parameter to be passed to the Blt method // There''s tons of flags and what-not that can be set to // modify your blit any number of ways -- All we''re going to set // is a "No tear flag" that should avoid "tearing" (this can occur // when the screen refresh rate is out of sync with // the application''s frame rate, a blit will actually appear tore) ddbltfx.dwSize = sizeof(DDBLTFX); // This has to be initialized ddbltfx.dwDDFX = DDBLTFX_NOTEARING; // This should avoid tearing // Okay the Blt() method could return this "error code" // which means "the Blt can''t be made cause the hardware is busy" // So when we Blt (blit) we''re going to pass in a flag DDBLT_WAIT that will // keep attempting to Blt until it''s successful or another error has occurred HRESULT result = DDERR_WASSTILLDRAWING; // While we still haven''t flipped while(result == DDERR_WASSTILLDRAWING) // The Blt method by parameter // &rect -- Address of a RECT that specifies the rectangular region to blit to // backSurface -- LPDIRECTDRAWSURFACE that is the source of the blit // NULL -- Address of RECT that specifies the source blit area, if it''s NULL // (like our case) the entire rectangular region of the source surface // will be used // DDBLT_WAIT -- Keeps trying to Blt until successful OR an error has occurred // (other than DDERR_WASSTILLDRAWING) // &ddbltfx -- Address of the DDBLTFX structure we filled in result = primarySurface->Blt(&rect,backSurface,NULL,DDBLT_WAIT,&ddbltfx); /* Remember the above line of code is in the while loop (kinda doesn''t look that way with all the comments above it) */ // Error Check if(result != DD_OK) return false; return true; } // Free all memory associated with DD_OBJ void DD_OBJ::Free() { // If a backSurface has been allocated if(backSurface) { backSurface->Release(); backSurface = NULL; } // If a primarySurface has been allocated if(primarySurface) { primarySurface->Release(); primarySurface = NULL; } // If a clipper has been allocated if(clipper) { clipper->Release(); clipper = NULL; } // If an IDirectDraw2 interface has been instantiated if(lpDD) { lpDD->Release(); lpDD = NULL; } // If the hdc has been filled if(hdc) { DeleteDC(hdc); hdc = NULL; } } // end of DD_OBJ::Free() //get all particles ready for use void Init_Reset_Particles(void) { for(int index=0; index= particles[index].max_count) particles[index].state = PARTICLE_STATE_DEAD; } //}//deze??? else { if(++particles[index].counter >= particles[index].max_count) { particles[index].counter = 0; if(particles[index].curr_color > particles[index].end_color) particles[index].state = PARTICLE_STATE_DEAD; } }//end else //particle off window? if(particles[index].x > WIN_WIDTH || particles[index].x < 0 || particles[index].y > WIN_HEIGHT || particles[index].y < 0) particles[index].state = PARTICLE_STATE_DEAD; }//end if }//end for } void Draw_Particles(void) { DDraw_Lock_Back_Surface(); for(int index=0; index= WIN_WIDTH || x < 0 || y >= WIN_HEIGHT || y < 0) continue; //drawPixel // Draw_Pixel(x,y,particles[index].curr_color, back_buffer, back_lpitch); } } DDraw_Unlock_Back_Surface(); } void Start_Particle_Ring(int type,int color,int count,int x,int y,int vx,int yv,int num_particles) { float vel = 2 + rand()%4; while(--num_particles >= 0) { int ang = rand() % 360; Start_Particle(type, color, count, x, y, vx + cos_look[ang] * vel, yv + sin_look[ang] * vel); } } inline int Draw_Pixel(int x, int y,int color, UCHAR *video_buffer, int lpitch) { // this function plots a single pixel at x,y with color video_buffer[x + y*lpitch] = color; // return success return(1); } // end Draw_Pixel void Build_Sin_Cos_Tables(void) { // create sin/cos lookup table // generate the tables for (int ang = 0; ang < 360; ang++) { // convert ang to radians float theta = (float)ang*PI/(float)180; // insert next entry into table cos_look[ang] = cos(theta); sin_look[ang] = sin(theta); } // end for ang } // end Build_Sin_Cos_Tables UCHAR *DDraw_Lock_Back_Surface(void) { // this function locks the secondary back surface and returns a pointer to it // and updates the global variables secondary buffer, and back_lpitch // is this surface already locked if (back_buffer) { // return to current lock return(back_buffer); } // end if // lock the primary surface DDRAW_INIT_STRUCT(ddsd); backSurface->Lock(NULL,&ddsd,DDLOCK_WAIT | DDLOCK_SURFACEMEMORYPTR,NULL); //lpddsback // set globals back_buffer = (UCHAR *)ddsd.lpSurface; back_lpitch = ddsd.lPitch; // return pointer to surface return(back_buffer); } int DDraw_Unlock_Back_Surface(void) { // this unlocks the secondary // is this surface valid if (!back_buffer) return(0); // unlock the secondary surface backSurface->Unlock(NULL); //lpddsback // reset the secondary surface back_buffer = NULL; back_lpitch = 0; // return success return(1); } // The deconstructor -- When a DD_OBJ is "destroyed" be sure all the memory is freed DD_OBJ::~DD_OBJ() { Free(); } /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// //win_main.cpp file 3/3 /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // Done by TheTutor -- 9/19/01 /* **WARNING** If you''ve updated to DirectX8.0 (or higher), there''s a chance you CAN''T compile this tutorial What we''re going to do here is set up a "windowed" direct draw application. Then we''re going to blit a pretty picture to our "windowed" direct draw app. This isn''t anything that''s going to win ya a programming contest, but it should increase your knowledge about Direct Draw and windowed (ie NOT full screen) apps. */ #include "DDraw_Class.h" // Load our libraries for doing Direct Draw stuff #pragma comment(lib,"ddraw.lib") #pragma comment(lib,"dxguid.lib") #define class_name "DirectDraw_InAWindow" // Global DD_OBJ dd_obj; // Standard callback function LRESULT CALLBACK WinProc(HWND hwnd, UINT message, WPARAM wparam, LPARAM lparam); int WINAPI WinMain(HINSTANCE hinstance, HINSTANCE hprev, PSTR cmdline, int ishow) { HWND hwnd; MSG msg; WNDCLASSEX wndclassex = {0}; // Fill the fields we care about wndclassex.cbSize = sizeof(WNDCLASSEX); = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW; wndclassex.lpfnWndProc = WinProc; wndclassex.hInstance = hinstance; wndclassex.hbrBackground = (HBRUSH)GetStockObject(BLACK_BRUSH); wndclassex.lpszClassName = class_name; RegisterClassEx(&wndclassex); // Register the WNDCLASSEX hwnd = CreateWindowEx(WS_EX_CLIENTEDGE, // Window should have a "sunken edge border" class_name, "Particle System", WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW, CW_USEDEFAULT, CW_USEDEFAULT, WIN_WIDTH, // Window''s width WIN_HEIGHT, // Window''s height NULL, NULL, hinstance, NULL); // Error check if(!hwnd) { UnregisterClass(class_name,hinstance); return EXIT_FAILURE; // Something really bad happened! } // Init our DD_OBJ if(dd_obj.Init(hwnd) == false) { MessageBox(hwnd,"Couldn''t init DD_OBJ!","Error",MB_OK | MB_ICONERROR); UnregisterClass(class_name,hinstance); return EXIT_FAILURE; // Something really bad happened! } // Init our DD_OBJ''s surfaces if(dd_obj.InitSurfaces() == false) { MessageBox(hwnd,"Couldn''t init DD_OBJ''s surfaces!","Error",MB_OK | MB_ICONERROR); UnregisterClass(class_name,hinstance); return EXIT_FAILURE; // Something really bad happened! } Build_Sin_Cos_Tables(); Init_Reset_Particles(); // Start_Particle(PARTICLE_TYPE_FADE,PARTICLE_COLOR_GREEN,90,10,20,0,-5); // Process_Particles(); // Draw_Particles(); // Show and update the window ShowWindow(hwnd, ishow); UpdateWindow(hwnd); while(1) { // Get message(s) if there is one if(PeekMessage(&msg,hwnd,0,0,PM_REMOVE)) { if(msg.message == WM_QUIT) break; TranslateMessage(&msg); DispatchMessage(&msg); } else { // Do all the hardcore computational stuff here %) } } // Free Memory UnregisterClass(class_name,hinstance); // Frees memory with WNDCLASSEX return msg.wParam; } // The WinProc LRESULT CALLBACK WinProc(HWND hwnd, UINT message, WPARAM wparam, LPARAM lparam) { // Depending on the message -- we''ll do different stuff switch(message) { // If they drag the window, redraw our pretty picture case WM_MOVE: dd_obj.Draw(hwnd); return 0; // ESC will quit program case WM_KEYDOWN: if((int)wparam == VK_ESCAPE) PostQuitMessage(0); return 0; // case WM_SETCURSOR: // Turn off window cursor. // SetCursor( 0 ); // ShowCursor( TRUE ); // return TRUE; // Prevent Windows from setting cursor to window class cursor. case WM_LBUTTONDOWN: MouseButtonDown(LOWORD(lparam), HIWORD(lparam), TRUE); return 0; case WM_DESTROY: case WM_CLOSE: PostQuitMessage(0); return 0; } // end of switch(message) return DefWindowProc(hwnd, message, wparam, lparam); } void MouseButtonDown(int x, int y, BOOL bLeft) { // MessageBox(NULL,"Left MB Pressed","Info",MB_OK | MB_ICONINFORMATION); // Build_Sin_Cos_Tables(); // Init_Reset_Particles(); // Start_Particle(PARTICLE_TYPE_FADE,PARTICLE_COLOR_GREEN,90,10,20,0,-5); // Start_Particle_Ring(PARTICLE_TYPE_FADE, PARTICLE_COLOR_RED+rand()%4, RAND_RANGE(2,5), x, y, 0, 0,RAND_RANGE(75,100)); Start_Particle_Ring(PARTICLE_TYPE_FADE, PARTICLE_COLOR_RED+rand()%4, RAND_RANGE(2,5), missiles[index].x, missiles[index].y, 0, 0,RAND_RANGE(75,100)); Process_Particles(); // Draw_Particles(); }

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