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# Radiosity for Beginners: Concerning form factors

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quote:
Original post by Gammastrahler
Which approach is esier to implement?

Raytraced FFs.

quote:

So i think about determining the form factors by raytracing. what are the performance and accurracy issues compared to the hemicube algorithm. can someone tell me which method produces better quality?

Raytracing achieves better quality (more precise), but is slower (but not always, depends on how you implement it). Hemicubes are an image space method, and suffer from the usual quality tradeoffs. Raytracing is object space, but you''ll need to shoot/gather lots of rays to get good soft shadows.

quote:

and what about the matrix solution? how is it actually performed?

It''s a theoretical model, used to derive the more advanced radiosity algorithms, but is unusable in pratice. You could solve it with a Gauss Seidel relaxation or something similar, but the memory requirements for using matrix radiosity directly are totally insane.

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I have coded a very simple app in which i "tried" to implement radiosity. I render a hollow cube.

I´think i post my code here (i know that it is not correct), but maybe you could give me the right formulas.

The form factor calculation is very cheap and slow... it is currently only for testing purposes. I also don´t take into account the patch´s differential area since each of my patch has the same size.

Another problem in my form factor calculation is: i get negative form factors! I dont´know why... therefore, i use fabs to flip the sign.

The rad_calc function should then calculate the radiosity for each patch, but i have problems solving the solution... how is p calculated? and how is E updated... i just don´t get agrip on it...

i would be very happy if someone could guide me !

thanks
Gammastrahler

void calc_form_factors(){	for (int i = 0; i < patches.size(); i++)	{		float ff = 0.0f;		for (int j = 0; j < patches.size(); j++)		{			if (i != j)			{				vec3 ci = patches[i].center();				vec3 cj = patches[j].center();				vec3 r = ci - cj;				float l = r.length();				r.normalize();								float cosA = r.dot(patches[i].p._normal);				float cosB = r.dot(patches[j].p._normal);				ff += fabs((cosA * cosB) / 3.1415926 * l*l);			}		}		patches[i].formFactor = ff * 0.00015f;	}}void rad_calc(){	for (int k = 0; k < 3; k++)	{		for (int i = 0; i < patches.size(); i++)		{			float incident = 0.0f;			for (int j = 0; j < patches.size(); j++)			{				if (i != j)				{					incident += patches[j].radiosity * patches[j].formFactor;				}			}			patches[i].radiosity = patches[i].emission + incident;		}	}}

[edited by - Gammastrahler on April 13, 2004 8:26:36 AM]

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Here is the output of my crappy code...

greets
Gammastrahler

[edited by - Gammastrahler on April 13, 2004 8:32:20 AM]

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Here is my code to get the formfactors between two patches (S = sender, R = receiver). It''s slow, but it works great.

// Make sure sender and receiver aren''t the sameif( S == R ) continue;// get vector V, pointing from the center of S to the center of RV = R->position - S->position;// get length(V) and normalize itr = V.length();V.normalize();// Compute shadow factor// TODO: multisamplingHij = Raytracer->TestShadowRay(S->position, R->position);if( Hij == 0 ) continue;// compute geometric formfactor between S and R (range: 0..1)phi_p = S->normal * V;phi_r = -(R->normal * V);if( phi_p <= 0 || phi_r <= 0 ) continue;double ff = (phi_p*phi_r) / (pi*r*r);// Take differential area and shadow factor into accountff *= Hij * S->area;// Make sure we are using sane valuesassert( ff <= 1.0 && ff >= 0.0 );// Consider monochromatic energy absorptionff *= GeneralPatchReflectance;	// shoot energy to R->energy and R->radiance, modulated by the receiving patch colourRGB<double> d = S->energy * ff * R->colour;R->energy += d; R->radiance += d;// Reset sender energyS->energy = 0;

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I have oriented my code on your´s and as well took some pseudo code from "Computer Graphics & Principles" to use it in my current application:

My radiosity processor now looks like this:

void do_radiosity(){    for (int i = 0; i < patches.size(); i++)    {	for (int j = 0; j < patches.size(); j++)	{	    if (i == j) continue;				    vec3 ci = patches[i].center();	    vec3 cj = patches[j].center();	    vec3 r = ci - cj;	    float l = r.length();            r.normalize();				    float cosA = -r.dot(patches[i].p._normal);	    float cosB = r.dot(patches[j].p._normal);	    if (cosA <= 0 || cosB <= 0) continue;	    patches[j].formFactor = (cosA * cosB) /(3.14159265358979323846 * l*l);	}	for (int j = 0; j < patches.size(); j++)	{	    float Radiosity = patches[i].deltaB * patches[j].formFactor * 0.3;	    patches[j].deltaB += Radiosity;	    patches[j].B += Radiosity;        }	patches[i].deltaB = 0.0;    }}

But the output looks somewhat wired!

Can someone tell me the error?

Thanks
Gammastrahler

[edited by - Gammastrahler on April 13, 2004 2:51:33 PM]

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Weird. Are you sure that your patch centers and normals are correctly computed ? It looks like something is wrong with them, especially on the back wall.

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I have checked all patch normals and patch centers... they seem to be okay.

Can you find any potentional errors in my code?

Or is the problem with the scaling of my final radiosity values to RGB values?

i do this

to get acceptable results.

thanks
Gammastrahler

[edited by - Gammastrahler on April 14, 2004 6:53:07 AM]

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Is it point sampled?? It looks like a lightmap of 16x16 pixels (count the rasters). Try switching linear point sampling on.

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No, the patches are currently rendered as quads, with the color set to the radiosity´s values.

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