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slippers2k

will glPrint work with arrays?

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slippers2k    138
Hello all... I've been trying to incorporate Nehe's bitmap text tutorial into a project of mine lately. Here's my dilemma. I can easily display text that I put on the screen as a string, namely: glPrint("Welcome to the internet"); This is no problem. However, instead of using the string to output text, I would like to place an array of characters in the same space: glPrint(brief_text_report); //or something like that Not asking for a code handout here :), just need some direction to get where I want to go. What parts of the glPrint code should I look at to facilitate the change? I already have something of an idea: (current code follows) [CODE] char text[256]; //holds our string va_list ap; //pointer to list of arguments if (fmt == NULL) return; //if there's no text, do nothing va_start(ap, fmt); //parses string for variables vsprintf(text, fmt, ap); //converts symbols to numbers va_end(ap); //results are stored in text glPushAttrib(GL_LIST_BIT); //pushes display list bits glListBase(base - 32); //sets base character to 32 glCallLists(strlen(text), GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, text); //draws display list text glPopAttrib(); //pops display list bits [/CODE] const char *fmt is what gets passed into glPrint as an argument. I could try replacing this with the character array of my choosing, such as... GLvoid glPrint(char brief_report[],...) ...and then when I parse, I could wind up replacing va_start() as it is right now with va_start(ap, brief_report); //parses string for variables vsprintf(text, brief_report, ap); //symbols to numbers va_end(ap); //results are stored in text I can see a compatibility problem happening with the parsing, however, since a string and a character array may be completely different things. Is there a way for me to typecast the character array as a string? Thanks for your assistance. -slippers2k update: when I tried to modify as such, even when I took away va_start and tried to pass the array directly into glCallLists, VC++ gave me cannot convert parameter 1 from 'char (__cdecl *)(void)' to 'const char *' as an error. [Edited by - slippers2k on October 3, 2004 3:22:01 PM]

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slippers2k    138
Okay. Scratch the original idea as I found by doing research that strings and arrays run together...

i.e., a string is simply an array pointing at the first element (or vice versa, I think).

Anyway...

Now that I know how to output text, any suggestions for outputting text from a file? I'm dealing with a string of characters at least 400 units long or more. Will there be any problems I run into when the text array in glPrint is only 256 units?

Thanks for your help.

-slippers2k

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Enigma    1410
Yes, there will be problems if you try and print strings longer than 255 characters long (after formatting). This is a classic buffer overrun situation. In fact I would go so far as to say that the original code is highly flawed. It suffers from 'x will be more than anybody will ever need' syndrome. In this case it's '256 characters will be more than anyone will ever want to print'. Although in defense of the code it should be pointed out that longer strings would most likely exceeded the width of the screen anyway.

There are basically three ways to solve this problem:
1. The lazy approach. High un-recommended and indeed warned against. This is the 'OK, so x wasn't quite enough, but x * y will be plenty' approach, whereby you simply set text to be a char text[8192] or whatever. This does not solve the problem, it simply delays it until you find you need to print even longer strings.

2. The C approach. Still not recommended, but much better than option 1. You need to calculate the exact size of the resulting formatted string and dynamically allocate an array of that size, i.e. char* text = malloc(strlen(fmt) - sizeOfFormattingInformation(fmt) + sizeOfFormattedData). Highly prone to bugs but if you can do it right it's a perfectly acceptable solution.

3. The C++ approach. The best option, providing you can use C++. Don't be afraid of the templates. If you don't know or have never heard of templates go and find a basic tutorial on them. They are incredibly powerful. Here is some code replacing the old C glPrint code with a C++ approach using a GLPrint object. If you're not up on your C++ then please don't be afraid to ask questions. I don't have time to give a detailed explanation right now, so I shall just present the solution (modified lesson 13):
/*
* This Code Was Created By Jeff Molofee 2000
* Modified by Shawn T. to handle (%3.2f, num) parameters.
* A HUGE Thanks To Fredric Echols For Cleaning Up
* And Optimizing The Base Code, Making It More Flexible!
* If You've Found This Code Useful, Please Let Me Know.
* Visit My Site At nehe.gamedev.net
*/


#include <windows.h> // Header File For Windows
#include <math.h> // Header File For Windows Math Library
#include <stdio.h> // Header File For Standard Input/Output
#include <stdarg.h> // Header File For Variable Argument Routines

/* NEW */
#include <sstream>
#include <string>
#include <iomanip>
/* --- */

#include <gl\gl.h> // Header File For The OpenGL32 Library
#include <gl\glu.h> // Header File For The GLu32 Library
#include <gl\glaux.h> // Header File For The Glaux Library

HDC hDC=NULL; // Private GDI Device Context
HGLRC hRC=NULL; // Permanent Rendering Context
HWND hWnd=NULL; // Holds Our Window Handle
HINSTANCE hInstance; // Holds The Instance Of The Application

GLuint base; // Base Display List For The Font Set
GLfloat cnt1; // 1st Counter Used To Move Text & For Coloring
GLfloat cnt2; // 2nd Counter Used To Move Text & For Coloring

bool keys[256]; // Array Used For The Keyboard Routine
bool active=TRUE; // Window Active Flag Set To TRUE By Default
bool fullscreen=TRUE; // Fullscreen Flag Set To Fullscreen Mode By Default

LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc(HWND, UINT, WPARAM, LPARAM); // Declaration For WndProc

/* NEW */
class GLPrint
{

public:

template <typename TYPE>
const GLPrint& operator<<(const TYPE& data) const;

};

template <typename TYPE>
const GLPrint& GLPrint::operator<<(const TYPE& data) const
{
std::stringstream dataConvertor;
dataConvertor << data;
std::string text = dataConvertor.str();
glPushAttrib(GL_LIST_BIT); // Pushes The Display List Bits
glListBase(base - 32); // Sets The Base Character to 32
glCallLists(text.length(), GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, text.c_str()); // Draws The Display List Text
glPopAttrib();
return *this;
}

template <>
const GLPrint& GLPrint::operator<<(const float& data) const
{
std::stringstream dataConvertor;
dataConvertor << std::setprecision(2) << std::setiosflags(std::ios::fixed) << std::setw(7) << data; // This is the equivalent to the %7.2 formatting from the old method. Hard-coded here for simplicity.
std::string text = dataConvertor.str();
glPushAttrib(GL_LIST_BIT); // Pushes The Display List Bits
glListBase(base - 32); // Sets The Base Character to 32
glCallLists(text.length(), GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, text.c_str()); // Draws The Display List Text
glPopAttrib();
return *this;
}

const GLPrint glout;
/* --- */

GLvoid BuildFont(GLvoid) // Build Our Bitmap Font
{
HFONT font; // Windows Font ID
HFONT oldfont; // Used For Good House Keeping

base = glGenLists(96); // Storage For 96 Characters

font = CreateFont( -24, // Height Of Font
0, // Width Of Font
0, // Angle Of Escapement
0, // Orientation Angle
FW_BOLD, // Font Weight
FALSE, // Italic
FALSE, // Underline
FALSE, // Strikeout
ANSI_CHARSET, // Character Set Identifier
OUT_TT_PRECIS, // Output Precision
CLIP_DEFAULT_PRECIS, // Clipping Precision
ANTIALIASED_QUALITY, // Output Quality
FF_DONTCARE|DEFAULT_PITCH, // Family And Pitch
"Courier New"); // Font Name

oldfont = (HFONT)SelectObject(hDC, font); // Selects The Font We Want
wglUseFontBitmaps(hDC, 32, 96, base); // Builds 96 Characters Starting At Character 32
SelectObject(hDC, oldfont); // Selects The Font We Want
DeleteObject(font); // Delete The Font
}

GLvoid KillFont(GLvoid) // Delete The Font List
{
glDeleteLists(base, 96); // Delete All 96 Characters
}

GLvoid ReSizeGLScene(GLsizei width, GLsizei height) // Resize And Initialize The GL Window
{
if (height==0) // Prevent A Divide By Zero By
{
height=1; // Making Height Equal One
}

glViewport(0,0,width,height); // Reset The Current Viewport

glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); // Select The Projection Matrix
glLoadIdentity(); // Reset The Projection Matrix

// Calculate The Aspect Ratio Of The Window
gluPerspective(45.0f,(GLfloat)width/(GLfloat)height,0.1f,100.0f);

glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW); // Select The Modelview Matrix
glLoadIdentity(); // Reset The Modelview Matrix
}

int InitGL(GLvoid) // All Setup For OpenGL Goes Here
{
glShadeModel(GL_SMOOTH); // Enable Smooth Shading
glClearColor(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.5f); // Black Background
glClearDepth(1.0f); // Depth Buffer Setup
glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); // Enables Depth Testing
glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL); // The Type Of Depth Testing To Do
glHint(GL_PERSPECTIVE_CORRECTION_HINT, GL_NICEST); // Really Nice Perspective Calculations

BuildFont(); // Build The Font

return TRUE; // Initialization Went OK
}

int DrawGLScene(GLvoid) // Here's Where We Do All The Drawing
{
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); // Clear Screen And Depth Buffer
glLoadIdentity(); // Reset The Current Modelview Matrix
glTranslatef(0.0f,0.0f,-1.0f); // Move One Unit Into The Screen
// Pulsing Colors Based On Text Position
glColor3f(1.0f*float(cos(cnt1)),1.0f*float(sin(cnt2)),1.0f-0.5f*float(cos(cnt1+cnt2)));
// Position The Text On The Screen
glRasterPos2f(-0.45f+0.05f*float(cos(cnt1)), 0.32f*float(sin(cnt2)));

/* NEW */
glout << "Active OpenGL Text With NeHe - " << cnt1;
/* --- */

cnt1+=0.051f; // Increase The First Counter
cnt2+=0.005f; // Increase The First Counter
return TRUE; // Everything Went OK
}

GLvoid KillGLWindow(GLvoid) // Properly Kill The Window
{
if (fullscreen) // Are We In Fullscreen Mode?
{
ChangeDisplaySettings(NULL,0); // If So Switch Back To The Desktop
ShowCursor(TRUE); // Show Mouse Pointer
}

if (hRC) // Do We Have A Rendering Context?
{
if (!wglMakeCurrent(NULL,NULL)) // Are We Able To Release The DC And RC Contexts?
{
MessageBox(NULL,"Release Of DC And RC Failed.","SHUTDOWN ERROR",MB_OK | MB_ICONINFORMATION);
}

if (!wglDeleteContext(hRC)) // Are We Able To Delete The RC?
{
MessageBox(NULL,"Release Rendering Context Failed.","SHUTDOWN ERROR",MB_OK | MB_ICONINFORMATION);
}
hRC=NULL; // Set RC To NULL
}

if (hDC && !ReleaseDC(hWnd,hDC)) // Are We Able To Release The DC
{
MessageBox(NULL,"Release Device Context Failed.","SHUTDOWN ERROR",MB_OK | MB_ICONINFORMATION);
hDC=NULL; // Set DC To NULL
}

if (hWnd && !DestroyWindow(hWnd)) // Are We Able To Destroy The Window?
{
MessageBox(NULL,"Could Not Release hWnd.","SHUTDOWN ERROR",MB_OK | MB_ICONINFORMATION);
hWnd=NULL; // Set hWnd To NULL
}

if (!UnregisterClass("OpenGL",hInstance)) // Are We Able To Unregister Class
{
MessageBox(NULL,"Could Not Unregister Class.","SHUTDOWN ERROR",MB_OK | MB_ICONINFORMATION);
hInstance=NULL; // Set hInstance To NULL
}

KillFont();
}

/* This Code Creates Our OpenGL Window. Parameters Are: *
* title - Title To Appear At The Top Of The Window *
* width - Width Of The GL Window Or Fullscreen Mode *
* height - Height Of The GL Window Or Fullscreen Mode *
* bits - Number Of Bits To Use For Color (8/16/24/32) *
* fullscreenflag - Use Fullscreen Mode (TRUE) Or Windowed Mode (FALSE) */


BOOL CreateGLWindow(char* title, int width, int height, int bits, bool fullscreenflag)
{
GLuint PixelFormat; // Holds The Results After Searching For A Match
WNDCLASS wc; // Windows Class Structure
DWORD dwExStyle; // Window Extended Style
DWORD dwStyle; // Window Style
RECT WindowRect; // Grabs Rectangle Upper Left / Lower Right Values
WindowRect.left=(long)0; // Set Left Value To 0
WindowRect.right=(long)width; // Set Right Value To Requested Width
WindowRect.top=(long)0; // Set Top Value To 0
WindowRect.bottom=(long)height; // Set Bottom Value To Requested Height

fullscreen=fullscreenflag; // Set The Global Fullscreen Flag

hInstance = GetModuleHandle(NULL); // Grab An Instance For Our Window
wc.style = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW | CS_OWNDC; // Redraw On Size, And Own DC For Window.
wc.lpfnWndProc = (WNDPROC) WndProc; // WndProc Handles Messages
wc.cbClsExtra = 0; // No Extra Window Data
wc.cbWndExtra = 0; // No Extra Window Data
wc.hInstance = hInstance; // Set The Instance
wc.hIcon = LoadIcon(NULL, IDI_WINLOGO); // Load The Default Icon
wc.hCursor = LoadCursor(NULL, IDC_ARROW); // Load The Arrow Pointer
wc.hbrBackground = NULL; // No Background Required For GL
wc.lpszMenuName = NULL; // We Don't Want A Menu
wc.lpszClassName = "OpenGL"; // Set The Class Name

if (!RegisterClass(&wc)) // Attempt To Register The Window Class
{
MessageBox(NULL,"Failed To Register The Window Class.","ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION);
return FALSE; // Return FALSE
}

if (fullscreen) // Attempt Fullscreen Mode?
{
DEVMODE dmScreenSettings; // Device Mode
memset(&dmScreenSettings,0,sizeof(dmScreenSettings)); // Makes Sure Memory's Cleared
dmScreenSettings.dmSize=sizeof(dmScreenSettings); // Size Of The Devmode Structure
dmScreenSettings.dmPelsWidth = width; // Selected Screen Width
dmScreenSettings.dmPelsHeight = height; // Selected Screen Height
dmScreenSettings.dmBitsPerPel = bits; // Selected Bits Per Pixel
dmScreenSettings.dmFields=DM_BITSPERPEL|DM_PELSWIDTH|DM_PELSHEIGHT;

// Try To Set Selected Mode And Get Results. NOTE: CDS_FULLSCREEN Gets Rid Of Start Bar.
if (ChangeDisplaySettings(&dmScreenSettings,CDS_FULLSCREEN)!=DISP_CHANGE_SUCCESSFUL)
{
// If The Mode Fails, Offer Two Options. Quit Or Use Windowed Mode.
if (MessageBox(NULL,"The Requested Fullscreen Mode Is Not Supported By\nYour Video Card. Use Windowed Mode Instead?","NeHe GL",MB_YESNO|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION)==IDYES)
{
fullscreen=FALSE; // Windowed Mode Selected. Fullscreen = FALSE
}
else
{
// Pop Up A Message Box Letting User Know The Program Is Closing.
MessageBox(NULL,"Program Will Now Close.","ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONSTOP);
return FALSE; // Return FALSE
}
}
}

if (fullscreen) // Are We Still In Fullscreen Mode?
{
dwExStyle=WS_EX_APPWINDOW; // Window Extended Style
dwStyle=WS_POPUP; // Windows Style
ShowCursor(FALSE); // Hide Mouse Pointer
}
else
{
dwExStyle=WS_EX_APPWINDOW | WS_EX_WINDOWEDGE; // Window Extended Style
dwStyle=WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW; // Windows Style
}

AdjustWindowRectEx(&WindowRect, dwStyle, FALSE, dwExStyle); // Adjust Window To True Requested Size

// Create The Window
if (!(hWnd=CreateWindowEx( dwExStyle, // Extended Style For The Window
"OpenGL", // Class Name
title, // Window Title
dwStyle | // Defined Window Style
WS_CLIPSIBLINGS | // Required Window Style
WS_CLIPCHILDREN, // Required Window Style
0, 0, // Window Position
WindowRect.right-WindowRect.left, // Calculate Window Width
WindowRect.bottom-WindowRect.top, // Calculate Window Height
NULL, // No Parent Window
NULL, // No Menu
hInstance, // Instance
NULL))) // Dont Pass Anything To WM_CREATE
{
KillGLWindow(); // Reset The Display
MessageBox(NULL,"Window Creation Error.","ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION);
return FALSE; // Return FALSE
}

static PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR pfd= // pfd Tells Windows How We Want Things To Be
{
sizeof(PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR), // Size Of This Pixel Format Descriptor
1, // Version Number
PFD_DRAW_TO_WINDOW | // Format Must Support Window
PFD_SUPPORT_OPENGL | // Format Must Support OpenGL
PFD_DOUBLEBUFFER, // Must Support Double Buffering
PFD_TYPE_RGBA, // Request An RGBA Format
bits, // Select Our Color Depth
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, // Color Bits Ignored
0, // No Alpha Buffer
0, // Shift Bit Ignored
0, // No Accumulation Buffer
0, 0, 0, 0, // Accumulation Bits Ignored
16, // 16Bit Z-Buffer (Depth Buffer)
0, // No Stencil Buffer
0, // No Auxiliary Buffer
PFD_MAIN_PLANE, // Main Drawing Layer
0, // Reserved
0, 0, 0 // Layer Masks Ignored
};

if (!(hDC=GetDC(hWnd))) // Did We Get A Device Context?
{
KillGLWindow(); // Reset The Display
MessageBox(NULL,"Can't Create A GL Device Context.","ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION);
return FALSE; // Return FALSE
}

if (!(PixelFormat=ChoosePixelFormat(hDC,&pfd))) // Did Windows Find A Matching Pixel Format?
{
KillGLWindow(); // Reset The Display
MessageBox(NULL,"Can't Find A Suitable PixelFormat.","ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION);
return FALSE; // Return FALSE
}

if(!SetPixelFormat(hDC,PixelFormat,&pfd)) // Are We Able To Set The Pixel Format?
{
KillGLWindow(); // Reset The Display
MessageBox(NULL,"Can't Set The PixelFormat.","ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION);
return FALSE; // Return FALSE
}

if (!(hRC=wglCreateContext(hDC))) // Are We Able To Get A Rendering Context?
{
KillGLWindow(); // Reset The Display
MessageBox(NULL,"Can't Create A GL Rendering Context.","ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION);
return FALSE; // Return FALSE
}

if(!wglMakeCurrent(hDC,hRC)) // Try To Activate The Rendering Context
{
KillGLWindow(); // Reset The Display
MessageBox(NULL,"Can't Activate The GL Rendering Context.","ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION);
return FALSE; // Return FALSE
}

ShowWindow(hWnd,SW_SHOW); // Show The Window
SetForegroundWindow(hWnd); // Slightly Higher Priority
SetFocus(hWnd); // Sets Keyboard Focus To The Window
ReSizeGLScene(width, height); // Set Up Our Perspective GL Screen

if (!InitGL()) // Initialize Our Newly Created GL Window
{
KillGLWindow(); // Reset The Display
MessageBox(NULL,"Initialization Failed.","ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION);
return FALSE; // Return FALSE
}

return TRUE; // Success
}

LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc( HWND hWnd, // Handle For This Window
UINT uMsg, // Message For This Window
WPARAM wParam, // Additional Message Information
LPARAM lParam) // Additional Message Information
{
switch (uMsg) // Check For Windows Messages
{
case WM_ACTIVATE: // Watch For Window Activate Message
{
if (!HIWORD(wParam)) // Check Minimization State
{
active=TRUE; // Program Is Active
}
else
{
active=FALSE; // Program Is No Longer Active
}

return 0; // Return To The Message Loop
}

case WM_SYSCOMMAND: // Intercept System Commands
{
switch (wParam) // Check System Calls
{
case SC_SCREENSAVE: // Screensaver Trying To Start?
case SC_MONITORPOWER: // Monitor Trying To Enter Powersave?
return 0; // Prevent From Happening
}
break; // Exit
}

case WM_CLOSE: // Did We Receive A Close Message?
{
PostQuitMessage(0); // Send A Quit Message
return 0; // Jump Back
}

case WM_KEYDOWN: // Is A Key Being Held Down?
{
keys[wParam] = TRUE; // If So, Mark It As TRUE
return 0; // Jump Back
}

case WM_KEYUP: // Has A Key Been Released?
{
keys[wParam] = FALSE; // If So, Mark It As FALSE
return 0; // Jump Back
}

case WM_SIZE: // Resize The OpenGL Window
{
ReSizeGLScene(LOWORD(lParam),HIWORD(lParam)); // LoWord=Width, HiWord=Height
return 0; // Jump Back
}
}

// Pass All Unhandled Messages To DefWindowProc
return DefWindowProc(hWnd,uMsg,wParam,lParam);
}

int WINAPI WinMain( HINSTANCE hInstance, // Instance
HINSTANCE hPrevInstance, // Previous Instance
LPSTR lpCmdLine, // Command Line Parameters
int nCmdShow) // Window Show State
{
MSG msg; // Windows Message Structure
BOOL done=FALSE; // Bool Variable To Exit Loop

// Ask The User Which Screen Mode They Prefer
if (MessageBox(NULL,"Would You Like To Run In Fullscreen Mode?", "Start FullScreen?",MB_YESNO|MB_ICONQUESTION)==IDNO)
{
fullscreen=FALSE; // Windowed Mode
}

// Create Our OpenGL Window
if (!CreateGLWindow("NeHe's Bitmap Font Tutorial",640,480,16,fullscreen))
{
return 0; // Quit If Window Was Not Created
}

while(!done) // Loop That Runs While done=FALSE
{
if (PeekMessage(&msg,NULL,0,0,PM_REMOVE)) // Is There A Message Waiting?
{
if (msg.message==WM_QUIT) // Have We Received A Quit Message?
{
done=TRUE; // If So done=TRUE
}
else // If Not, Deal With Window Messages
{
TranslateMessage(&msg); // Translate The Message
DispatchMessage(&msg); // Dispatch The Message
}
}
else // If There Are No Messages
{
// Draw The Scene. Watch For ESC Key And Quit Messages From DrawGLScene()
if ((active && !DrawGLScene()) || keys[VK_ESCAPE]) // Active? Was There A Quit Received?
{
done=TRUE; // ESC or DrawGLScene Signalled A Quit
}
else // Not Time To Quit, Update Screen
{
SwapBuffers(hDC); // Swap Buffers (Double Buffering)
}

if (keys[VK_F1]) // Is F1 Being Pressed?
{
keys[VK_F1]=FALSE; // If So Make Key FALSE
KillGLWindow(); // Kill Our Current Window
fullscreen=!fullscreen; // Toggle Fullscreen / Windowed Mode
// Recreate Our OpenGL Window
if (!CreateGLWindow("NeHe's Bitmap Font Tutorial",640,480,16,fullscreen))
{
return 0; // Quit If Window Was Not Created
}
}
}
}

// Shutdown
KillGLWindow(); // Kill The Window
return (msg.wParam); // Exit The Program
}



Enigma

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slippers2k    138
Enigma, thanks for your help. I will try to work on the code tonight to see what kind of an impact this has.

Update: I tried compiling the example code from the last post by itself, but unfortunately my compiler gave me these error messages (running VC++ 6.0):

1. error C2511: '<<' : overloaded member function 'const class GLPrint &(const float &) const' not found in 'GLPrint'

2. error C2893: Failed to specialize function template 'const class GLPrint &__thiscall GLPrint::operator <<(const TYPE &) const'
With the following template arguments:
'char [32]'

3. error C2676: binary '<<' : 'const class GLPrint' does not define this operator or a conversion to a type acceptable to the predefined operator

Error #1 I can get rid of really easily, since I only want to output text (and not the second part of the text output - the numbers that keep changing). Errors 2 and 3 are more complicated. Again, I don't want code, just trying to get an angle on how to solve this myself. From what I can figure, my compiler is complaining about the bit shift operator.

[Edited by - slippers2k on October 12, 2004 9:28:51 PM]

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