# newbie question: How to use vertex

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Hello I got this piece of code from codesampler.com. what confuses me is this vertex structure and createvertexbuffer functions. Can you guys tell me how does this work? I only put this in my code but I don't know the details of how this codes works. I hope that you will help me with this one guys. Thanks! Here are the codes that keeps me wondering:
struct Vertex
{
float x, y, z;
float tu, tv;
};

{
{-1.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f,  0.0f,0.0f },
{ 1.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f,  1.0f,0.0f },
{-1.0f,-1.0f, 0.0f,  0.0f,1.0f },
{ 1.0f,-1.0f, 0.0f,  1.0f,1.0f }
};


g_pd3dDevice->CreateVertexBuffer( 4*sizeof(Vertex), D3DUSAGE_WRITEONLY,
D3DFVF_CUSTOMVERTEX, D3DPOOL_DEFAULT,
&Vertex_Buffer, NULL );
void *pVertices = NULL;

Vertex_Buffer->Lock( 0, sizeof(g_quadVertices), (void**)&pVertices, 0 );
Vertex_Buffer->Unlock();

D3DXMATRIX matProj;
640.0f / 480.0f, 0.1f, 100.0f );



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See the top bit, defines a vertex structure that has 5 components the first 3 are the vertices x, y and z coordinates (in 3d space), the next 2 are its texture coordinates (if a texture was applied to the vertex, this would matter).

In the bottom bit, A Vertex Buffer (DirectX's array used to hold vertices), to render (draw the vertices, you must use a Vertex Buffer). The buffer is first locked (allows writing of vertex data into the Vertex Buffer), saying that the pVertices pointer holds the vertex data. Then the vertex data is copied into the pVertices pointer. Then the Vertex Buffer is unlocked, doing the opposite of the Lock() function.

The last two lines create a perspective projection matrix, this just sets up how we view the seen (where the camera we look through is situated, and how far it can see).

Hope that helps, I probably confused you further.

All the best,
Keith

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Yeah I got you thanks. What confuses me now is the parameters in the lock(), D3DXMatrixPerspectiveFovLH and memcopy. can you tell me a few details of those parameters? specially the (void**)&pVertices. Thank you very much!

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Okay

memcpy will copy a portion of data in memory to another location in memory so pVertices was NULL, before this line (ie. It was pointing to memory location 0, but after it is pointing to a new location in memory with the vertex data at that location.

When you set up a 3d scene you need to use a projection matrix, this sets up how close and far object appear on the screen. this is what D3DMATRIXPERSPECTIVEFOVLH(). Here is a quick explanation of the paramaters:

• The first one is the projection matrix, result of the function
• The next one is the field of view (almost always 45 degrees, however the function only understands radians so we must convert it).
• The next one is the aspect ratio, this is the
• The next one is the distance to the near plane (closest visible point)
• The next one is the distance to the far plane (furthest visible point)

The &(**void)pVertices result means "A pointer to a Pointer to a void type", we must do this because the Lock function expects this paramater as a "void **ptr".

Lock function:

• The first paramater The offset in byte from start of buffer to lock
• The next one is the amount of the buffer to lock
• The next one is the vertex data (void**)
• The last one is a flag, whether to lock entire buffer or just a segment of it.

DirectX has loads of these ugly interfaces, once you get used to them there ok!

All the best,
Keith

[Edited by - khalligan on November 15, 2004 9:42:57 AM]

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Remarkable! Thanks a lot for your time khalligan. It really helps alot :)

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