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OpenGL OpenGL Window Framework Beta [Updated - Beta 1.0.2]

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[[ Beta 1.0.2 is out, see here for upto date details. ]] Some of you, depending on how much attension you pay, might have noticed me waffling about a 'windowing framework' or even seen it in my sig. Well, after 2 days of writing an API guide and making sure the examples compiled and worked properly (including the knocking off of a couple of last moment bugs) I'm finally happy enuff to release it into the world [grin] So, why here and why not the Announcements forum I hear you ask? (yes, thats you mr mod *waves*) Well, frankly, its had somewhat 'limited' testing, and I could really do with other poking it and testing it on other hardware. Now, I dont invisage and problem (famous last words) but if some of you could see your way clear to giving it a go I'd appricate it. Currently it only support Win32/VS.Net03, I've got plans to port it to linux/X-win soon and would like an OSX port done. Also I do plan on improving win32 compiler support as well (as I know a fair amount use the free compiler, whos name has escaped me right now, heh). The project can be found here, with the address staying in my sig as well. With that in mind I've also uploaded all four tests, precompiled for win32 to here for others to test if they so wish. As always, feedback etc is welcome. Edit: See this post for the latest details, downloads can be found at the sourceforge page as before. [Edited by - _the_phantom_ on January 9, 2005 5:51:37 PM]

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Is it DevC++? MinGW Developer Studio?...
I suggest you at least support the MinGW compiler (SDL supports VC 6 and MinGW)

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Your WindowMgr CreateWin member function ignores the return value of the Window InitOpenGL member function, which makes it possible to request an OpenGL capable window and get back a non-OpenGL capable window. This can be made to occur by failing to specify the OpenGL settings*:
int main()
{
using namespace OpenGLWFW;
WindowManager windowManager;
windowManager.Init();
if(!windowManager.FindCompatibleDisplayMode(800,600))
return -4;
winHnd windowHandle = windowManager.CreateWin(winprops::initogl);
// windowHandle is now a handle to a non OpenGL-capable window
}


*The actual OpenGL settings requested in this case are undefined, usually this means they are invalid but this is not guaranteed.

EDIT: Nearly forgot. Your Window class defines a destructor that is not declared, resulting in a "Body has already been defined for function" error under BCC. You also use standard exception classes without #includeing <stdexcept>.

Enigma

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Guest Anonymous Poster
@Enigma:
ah, thanks for pointing them out.

Didnt accure to me about the exceptions stuff, VS.Net seems to let it go with no problems, I'll get that fixed.
Not sure how the lack of destructor got past either, VS.Net again didnt complain and it worked how i wanted it to, still thats what these releases are for, to get people to spot issues [smile]

Anyway I never thought about using the API that way, heh
The thing is, I'm not completely sure what todo about it, technicaly its fine as you can go back at a later date, give the window manager a valid OpenGL mode and request the window is initalised.
Your right about the lack of checking the return value as well, false technically shouldnt be able to happen, so I guess an exception of some sort might be the way to head there.
To be honest, now I go back to look at that function I'm not 100% comvinced its as exception safe as I'd like it to be.

If you've any suguestion on how to go with the issue you brought up then I'm all ears [smile]
BCC is a Borland compiler, right?

@LordMyth;
Yeah MinGW was the one I was thinking about, i'll probably get that installed later today and see about setting the project up for that as well.
I'm not too fussed about VC6.0 right now, however I dont see any reason why it couldnt be made to build on it, I'm pretty sure I'm not doing anything VC6 will choke over.

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It looks good.

Tell me about these tests. Should they draw something ? Or just disaapear as they did.

Also where can I find the code , that uses this wrapper , I couldn't find any , maybe I am just blind or something :)

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aye, they should draw a spinning cube in the window until they close.

What gfx card/driver/OS do you have?

As for the code, I was tired last night so while I updated my sig to reflect the new location I forgot that some people have sigs turned off etc
The project can be found here, link to a download page on the left (all downloads from sourceforge)

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Nope I didn't saw anything the windows just opened and closed. I have worked with OpenGl , and working right now, so it seems a bit strange.
Here are my system specs:

Windows XP SP2

Celeron 1.2 Ghz
RADEON 9000
256 MB RAM

Driver version :

6.14.10.6476 25.08.2004

About the examples , I couldn't run them. I included the link to libraries and header files. But once I try to build the application I receive the following error...

Quote:

c:\my downloads\projects\oglwfw-lib-1.0\include\oglwfw\windowmgr.hpp(16) : fatal error C1083: Cannot open include file: 'boost/shared_ptr.hpp': No such file or directory


Maybe I am missing something. I am using Visual Studio 6.

[Edited by - DMINATOR on January 5, 2005 12:28:53 PM]

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@Drew_Benton:
cheers, I'd hold off on it a bit however, due to tiredness a rather large bug managed to sneak past with buffer swapping, I've squished it but having downloaded Dev-C++ earlier I'll be putting new packages up later tonight with all the fixes and hopefully a Dev-C++ build enviroment as well [smile]

@DMINATOR:
You'll need the boost::thread libraries installed (with the headers and libs in the compilers path) to compile the multithreaded stuff.
Boost isnt the only way todo multi-thread, but its what I'm used to and cross platform.

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nice to get something out :)

from your site
Quote:
no support for multithreading that I could find

i thought sdl supports multithreading?

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well, it probably will work fine with MT, but at least from the look I took at it I couldnt see a way to handle events in one thread and punt OGL drawing off to its own thread. I'll look later and correct the site if needs be, unless someone can point me at something in the meantime.

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heres a thought, how about doing something similar for a pda (maybe even a cellphone!!), im not aware of anything like that existing.
the ability to run mesa on a pda would be awesome :)
might even be a few bob in it as well

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Guest Anonymous Poster
i have a question .
how can you change from "console mode" to "windows mode"?
ff8.

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If you mean how to make a project without the console, then just make a Win32 windows project not a console one, the library its self doesnt care what kind of application you make

Once I get beta1.0.1 sorted I'll pop in an example without a console as well, however first I need to complete my fight with Dev-Cpp and Boost, which i'm currently losing...

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OK, I've finally got Beta 1.0.1 released;

- Fixed the lack of <stdexception> header includes all over the place
- Rejiggled the CreateWin() function so that its a bit more exception safe
- Added the destructor which was missin from the Window Class declaration
- Added 2 more examples, one of which is the library being used without a console window

Still no Dev-C++ release as I'm having a bit of a fight getting the most recent Boost libraries to compile with it, and while I could blindly just include a build script I'd rather have a working build here to test.

As before, pre-built tests are avaible from here. If you see nuffin for the window test then run the enumeration tests and let me know what you get back in the text file.

[Edited by - _the_phantom_ on January 7, 2005 1:35:02 PM]

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The same problem as before still exist. Here is the text file you ordered :)


Infomation about your graphics card
----------------------------------------------------
Vendor : ATI Technologies Inc.
Version : 1.3.4582 WinXP Release
Renderer : RADEON 9000 DDR x86/SSE
GLSL Supported : No
ARB Vertex program supported : Yes
ARB Frag program supported : No
Number of texture units : 6
Max Aniostrophic filtering level for textures : 16

Supported OpenGL Modes
---------------------------------------
OpenGL Mode : 0 Color Depth : 32 Alpha Depth : 8 Z-Buffer Depth : 24 Stencil Buffer Depth8 Accumulation Buffer Size : 0 Double Buffered : No Number of FSAA Samples : 0
---------------------------------------
OpenGL Mode : 1 Color Depth : 32 Alpha Depth : 8 Z-Buffer Depth : 24 Stencil Buffer Depth8 Accumulation Buffer Size : 64 Double Buffered : No Number of FSAA Samples : 0
---------------------------------------
OpenGL Mode : 2 Color Depth : 32 Alpha Depth : 8 Z-Buffer Depth : 24 Stencil Buffer Depth8 Accumulation Buffer Size : 0 Double Buffered : Yes Number of FSAA Samples : 0
---------------------------------------
OpenGL Mode : 3 Color Depth : 32 Alpha Depth : 8 Z-Buffer Depth : 24 Stencil Buffer Depth8 Accumulation Buffer Size : 64 Double Buffered : Yes Number of FSAA Samples : 0
---------------------------------------
OpenGL Mode : 4 Color Depth : 32 Alpha Depth : 0 Z-Buffer Depth : 32 Stencil Buffer Depth8 Accumulation Buffer Size : 64 Double Buffered : No Number of FSAA Samples : 0
---------------------------------------
OpenGL Mode : 5 Color Depth : 32 Alpha Depth : 0 Z-Buffer Depth : 16 Stencil Buffer Depth8 Accumulation Buffer Size : 64 Double Buffered : No Number of FSAA Samples : 0
---------------------------------------
OpenGL Mode : 6 Color Depth : 32 Alpha Depth : 0 Z-Buffer Depth : 32 Stencil Buffer Depth8 Accumulation Buffer Size : 64 Double Buffered : Yes Number of FSAA Samples : 0
---------------------------------------
OpenGL Mode : 7 Color Depth : 32 Alpha Depth : 0 Z-Buffer Depth : 16 Stencil Buffer Depth8 Accumulation Buffer Size : 64 Double Buffered : Yes Number of FSAA Samples : 0
---------------------------------------
OpenGL Mode : 8 Color Depth : 32 Alpha Depth : 8 Z-Buffer Depth : 32 Stencil Buffer Depth8 Accumulation Buffer Size : 64 Double Buffered : No Number of FSAA Samples : 0
---------------------------------------
OpenGL Mode : 9 Color Depth : 32 Alpha Depth : 8 Z-Buffer Depth : 16 Stencil Buffer Depth8 Accumulation Buffer Size : 64 Double Buffered : No Number of FSAA Samples : 0
---------------------------------------
OpenGL Mode : 10 Color Depth : 32 Alpha Depth : 8 Z-Buffer Depth : 32 Stencil Buffer Depth8 Accumulation Buffer Size : 64 Double Buffered : Yes Number of FSAA Samples : 0
---------------------------------------
OpenGL Mode : 11 Color Depth : 32 Alpha Depth : 8 Z-Buffer Depth : 16 Stencil Buffer Depth8 Accumulation Buffer Size : 64 Double Buffered : Yes Number of FSAA Samples : 0
---------------------------------------
OpenGL Mode : 12 Color Depth : 32 Alpha Depth : 0 Z-Buffer Depth : 32 Stencil Buffer Depth8 Accumulation Buffer Size : 0 Double Buffered : No Number of FSAA Samples : 0
---------------------------------------
OpenGL Mode : 13 Color Depth : 32 Alpha Depth : 0 Z-Buffer Depth : 16 Stencil Buffer Depth8 Accumulation Buffer Size : 0 Double Buffered : No Number of FSAA Samples : 0
---------------------------------------
OpenGL Mode : 14 Color Depth : 32 Alpha Depth : 0 Z-Buffer Depth : 32 Stencil Buffer Depth8 Accumulation Buffer Size : 0 Double Buffered : Yes Number of FSAA Samples : 0
---------------------------------------
OpenGL Mode : 15 Color Depth : 32 Alpha Depth : 0 Z-Buffer Depth : 16 Stencil Buffer Depth8 Accumulation Buffer Size : 0 Double Buffered : Yes Number of FSAA Samples : 0
---------------------------------------

Supported Display Modes
-----------------------
Width : 320 Height : 200 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 8
Width : 320 Height : 200 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 16
Width : 320 Height : 200 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 32
Width : 320 Height : 240 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 8
Width : 320 Height : 240 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 16
Width : 320 Height : 240 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 32
Width : 400 Height : 300 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 8
Width : 400 Height : 300 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 16
Width : 400 Height : 300 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 32
Width : 512 Height : 384 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 8
Width : 512 Height : 384 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 16
Width : 512 Height : 384 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 32
Width : 640 Height : 400 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 8
Width : 640 Height : 400 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 16
Width : 640 Height : 400 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 32
Width : 640 Height : 480 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 8
Width : 640 Height : 480 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 16
Width : 640 Height : 480 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 32
Width : 800 Height : 600 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 8
Width : 800 Height : 600 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 16
Width : 800 Height : 600 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 32
Width : 1024 Height : 768 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 8
Width : 1024 Height : 768 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 16
Width : 1024 Height : 768 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 32
Width : 1152 Height : 864 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 8
Width : 1152 Height : 864 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 16
Width : 1152 Height : 864 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 32
Width : 1280 Height : 768 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 8
Width : 1280 Height : 768 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 16
Width : 1280 Height : 768 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 32
Width : 1280 Height : 960 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 8
Width : 1280 Height : 960 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 16
Width : 1280 Height : 960 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 32
Width : 1280 Height : 1024 Refresh Rate : 86 Color Depth : 8
Width : 1280 Height : 1024 Refresh Rate : 86 Color Depth : 16
Width : 1280 Height : 1024 Refresh Rate : 86 Color Depth : 32
Width : 1600 Height : 1200 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 8
Width : 1600 Height : 1200 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 16
Width : 1600 Height : 1200 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 32
Width : 1792 Height : 1344 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 8
Width : 1792 Height : 1344 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 16
Width : 1792 Height : 1344 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 32
Width : 1800 Height : 1440 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 8
Width : 1800 Height : 1440 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 16
Width : 1800 Height : 1440 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 32
Width : 1856 Height : 1392 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 8
Width : 1856 Height : 1392 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 16
Width : 1856 Height : 1392 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 32
Width : 1920 Height : 1080 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 8
Width : 1920 Height : 1080 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 16
Width : 1920 Height : 1080 Refresh Rate : 75 Color Depth : 32
Width : 1920 Height : 1200 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 8
Width : 1920 Height : 1200 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 16
Width : 1920 Height : 1200 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 32
Width : 1920 Height : 1440 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 8
Width : 1920 Height : 1440 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 16
Width : 1920 Height : 1440 Refresh Rate : 85 Color Depth : 32
Width : 640 Height : 480 Refresh Rate : 1 Color Depth : 4
Width : 800 Height : 600 Refresh Rate : 1 Color Depth : 4


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Quote:
Original post by _the_phantom_
Still no Dev-C++ release as I'm having a bit of a fight getting the most recent Boost libraries to compile with it, and while I could blindly just include a build script I'd rather have a working build here to test.


Have you tried using the BJam files to compile the boost library? I found it took a lot of the pain away when I needed some of the libraries from it - it's a lot better than trying to manually compile boost anyway.

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Quote:
Original post by _the_phantom_
@DMINATOR
Thanks for the log, I'll look into the problem and see if I can work out whats p


I may try to help you and build the application . I installed boost libraries, and now have some linker errors. Any libs I am missing to link ?

Quote:

INK : warning LNK4098: defaultlib "LIBC" conflicts with use of other libs; use /NODEFAULTLIB:library
OpenGLWFW.lib(WindowMgr.obj) : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "public: void __thiscall std::_String_base::_Xran(void)const " (?_Xran@_String_base@std@@QBEXXZ)
OpenGLWFW.lib(OpenGLCaps.obj) : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "public: void __thiscall std::_String_base::_Xran(void)const " (?_Xran@_String_base@std@@QBEXXZ)
OpenGLWFW.lib(DeviceCaps.obj) : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "public: void __thiscall std::_String_base::_Xran(void)const " (?_Xran@_String_base@std@@QBEXXZ)
OpenGLWFW.lib(Window.obj) : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "public: void __thiscall std::_String_base::_Xran(void)const " (?_Xran@_String_base@std@@QBEXXZ)
OpenGLWFW.lib(WindowMgr.obj) : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "public: void __thiscall std::_String_base::_Xlen(void)const " (?_Xlen@_String_base@std@@QBEXXZ)
OpenGLWFW.lib(OpenGLCaps.obj) : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "public: void __thiscall std::_String_base::_Xlen(void)const " (?_Xlen@_String_base@std@@QBEXXZ)
OpenGLWFW.lib(DeviceCaps.obj) : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "public: void __thiscall std::_String_base::_Xlen(void)const " (?_Xlen@_String_base@std@@QBEXXZ)
OpenGLWFW.lib(Window.obj) : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "public: void __thiscall std::_String_base::_Xlen(void)const " (?_Xlen@_String_base@std@@QBEXXZ)
OpenGLWFW.lib(DeviceCaps.obj) : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol ___security_cookie
OpenGLWFW.lib(Win32DisplayChange.obj) : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol ___security_cookie
OpenGLWFW.lib(GLee.obj) : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol ___security_cookie
OpenGLWFW.lib(DeviceCaps.obj) : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol @__security_check_cookie@4
OpenGLWFW.lib(Win32DisplayChange.obj) : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol @__security_check_cookie@4
OpenGLWFW.lib(GLee.obj) : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol @__security_check_cookie@4
Debug/test.exe : fatal error LNK1120: 4 unresolved externals

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hmm I'm not sure to be honest and i dont have my copy of VS6 installed.

I'd guess its something todo with the standard library linkage, but without VC6 its going to be a pain to work it out.

Try turning off the '/NODEFAULTLIB:library' switch for the linker and check which C-lib you are linking against.

I'll try and get my copy of VC6 installed at some point..

edit: I think I know what the issue could be, you're output doesnt show any 60hz capible display modes and the library defaults to 60hz, I'm going to change it that so that it doesnt try to change the refresh rate at all.

edit2: Ok, I've uploaded a new version of simple test to here, give it a go and let me know if it works [smile]

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Quote:
Original post by _the_phantom_
edit2: Ok, I've uploaded a new version of simple test to here, give it a go and let me know if it works [smile]


I think I have to dissapoint you it still produces same results - console starts and quits, without showing anything.

Il try further to try and link libs with VC6.

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can you atleast make it output some info ? to the console like :

-> program started
-> loading OGL
-> failed - code 434
-> aborting

and so on.

However I don't know if it can actually help, the problem is probably with window creation, as I understand a new window should appear, but it's not.

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      An alternative way to design the API would be to expose command queue and command lists directly. This approach however does not map well to Direct3D11 and OpenGL. Besides, some functionality (such as dynamic descriptor allocation) can be much more efficiently implemented when it is known that a command list is recorded by a certain deferred context from some thread.
      The approach taken in the engine does not limit scalability as the application is expected to create one deferred context per thread, and internally every deferred context records a command list in lock-free fashion. At the same time this approach maps well to older APIs.
      In current implementation, only one immediate context that uses default graphics command queue is created. To support multiple GPUs or multiple command queue types (compute, copy, etc.), it is natural to have one immediate contexts per queue. Cross-context synchronization utilities will be necessary.
      Swap Chain (ISwapChain interface). Swap chain interface represents a chain of back buffers and is responsible for showing the final rendered image on the screen.
      Render device, device contexts and swap chain are created during the engine initialization.
      Resources (ITexture and IBuffer interfaces). There are two types of resources - textures and buffers. There are many different texture types (2D textures, 3D textures, texture array, cubmepas, etc.) that can all be represented by ITexture interface.
      Resources Views (ITextureView and IBufferView interfaces). While textures and buffers are mere data containers, texture views and buffer views describe how the data should be interpreted. For instance, a 2D texture can be used as a render target for rendering commands or as a shader resource.
      Pipeline State (IPipelineState interface). GPU pipeline contains many configurable stages (depth-stencil, rasterizer and blend states, different shader stage, etc.). Direct3D11 uses coarse-grain objects to set all stage parameters at once (for instance, a rasterizer object encompasses all rasterizer attributes), while OpenGL contains myriad functions to fine-grain control every individual attribute of every stage. Both methods do not map very well to modern graphics hardware that combines all states into one monolithic state under the hood. Direct3D12 directly exposes pipeline state object in the API, and Diligent Engine uses the same approach.
      Shader Resource Binding (IShaderResourceBinding interface). Shaders are programs that run on the GPU. Shaders may access various resources (textures and buffers), and setting correspondence between shader variables and actual resources is called resource binding. Resource binding implementation varies considerably between different API. Diligent Engine introduces a new object called shader resource binding that encompasses all resources needed by all shaders in a certain pipeline state.
      API Basics
      Creating Resources
      Device resources are created by the render device. The two main resource types are buffers, which represent linear memory, and textures, which use memory layouts optimized for fast filtering. Graphics APIs usually have a native object that represents linear buffer. Diligent Engine uses IBuffer interface as an abstraction for a native buffer. To create a buffer, one needs to populate BufferDesc structure and call IRenderDevice::CreateBuffer() method as in the following example:
      BufferDesc BuffDesc; BufferDesc.Name = "Uniform buffer"; BuffDesc.BindFlags = BIND_UNIFORM_BUFFER; BuffDesc.Usage = USAGE_DYNAMIC; BuffDesc.uiSizeInBytes = sizeof(ShaderConstants); BuffDesc.CPUAccessFlags = CPU_ACCESS_WRITE; m_pDevice->CreateBuffer( BuffDesc, BufferData(), &m_pConstantBuffer ); While there is usually just one buffer object, different APIs use very different approaches to represent textures. For instance, in Direct3D11, there are ID3D11Texture1D, ID3D11Texture2D, and ID3D11Texture3D objects. In OpenGL, there is individual object for every texture dimension (1D, 2D, 3D, Cube), which may be a texture array, which may also be multisampled (i.e. GL_TEXTURE_2D_MULTISAMPLE_ARRAY). As a result there are nine different GL texture types that Diligent Engine may create under the hood. In Direct3D12, there is only one resource interface. Diligent Engine hides all these details in ITexture interface. There is only one  IRenderDevice::CreateTexture() method that is capable of creating all texture types. Dimension, format, array size and all other parameters are specified by the members of the TextureDesc structure:
      TextureDesc TexDesc; TexDesc.Name = "My texture 2D"; TexDesc.Type = TEXTURE_TYPE_2D; TexDesc.Width = 1024; TexDesc.Height = 1024; TexDesc.Format = TEX_FORMAT_RGBA8_UNORM; TexDesc.Usage = USAGE_DEFAULT; TexDesc.BindFlags = BIND_SHADER_RESOURCE | BIND_RENDER_TARGET | BIND_UNORDERED_ACCESS; TexDesc.Name = "Sample 2D Texture"; m_pRenderDevice->CreateTexture( TexDesc, TextureData(), &m_pTestTex ); If native API supports multithreaded resource creation, textures and buffers can be created by multiple threads simultaneously.
      Interoperability with native API provides access to the native buffer/texture objects and also allows creating Diligent Engine objects from native handles. It allows applications seamlessly integrate native API-specific code with Diligent Engine.
      Next-generation APIs allow fine level-control over how resources are allocated. Diligent Engine does not currently expose this functionality, but it can be added by implementing IResourceAllocator interface that encapsulates specifics of resource allocation and providing this interface to CreateBuffer() or CreateTexture() methods. If null is provided, default allocator should be used.
      Initializing the Pipeline State
      As it was mentioned earlier, Diligent Engine follows next-gen APIs to configure the graphics/compute pipeline. One big Pipelines State Object (PSO) encompasses all required states (all shader stages, input layout description, depth stencil, rasterizer and blend state descriptions etc.). This approach maps directly to Direct3D12/Vulkan, but is also beneficial for older APIs as it eliminates pipeline misconfiguration errors. With many individual calls tweaking various GPU pipeline settings it is very easy to forget to set one of the states or assume the stage is already properly configured when in fact it is not. Using pipeline state object helps avoid these problems as all stages are configured at once.
      Creating Shaders
      While in earlier APIs shaders were bound separately, in the next-generation APIs as well as in Diligent Engine shaders are part of the pipeline state object. The biggest challenge when authoring shaders is that Direct3D and OpenGL/Vulkan use different shader languages (while Apple uses yet another language in their Metal API). Maintaining two versions of every shader is not an option for real applications and Diligent Engine implements shader source code converter that allows shaders authored in HLSL to be translated to GLSL. To create a shader, one needs to populate ShaderCreationAttribs structure. SourceLanguage member of this structure tells the system which language the shader is authored in:
      SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_DEFAULT - The shader source language matches the underlying graphics API: HLSL for Direct3D11/Direct3D12 mode, and GLSL for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL - The shader source is in HLSL. For OpenGL and OpenGLES modes, the source code will be converted to GLSL. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_GLSL - The shader source is in GLSL. There is currently no GLSL to HLSL converter, so this value should only be used for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. There are two ways to provide the shader source code. The first way is to use Source member. The second way is to provide a file path in FilePath member. Since the engine is entirely decoupled from the platform and the host file system is platform-dependent, the structure exposes pShaderSourceStreamFactory member that is intended to provide the engine access to the file system. If FilePath is provided, shader source factory must also be provided. If the shader source contains any #include directives, the source stream factory will also be used to load these files. The engine provides default implementation for every supported platform that should be sufficient in most cases. Custom implementation can be provided when needed.
      When sampling a texture in a shader, the texture sampler was traditionally specified as separate object that was bound to the pipeline at run time or set as part of the texture object itself. However, in most cases it is known beforehand what kind of sampler will be used in the shader. Next-generation APIs expose new type of sampler called static sampler that can be initialized directly in the pipeline state. Diligent Engine exposes this functionality: when creating a shader, textures can be assigned static samplers. If static sampler is assigned, it will always be used instead of the one initialized in the texture shader resource view. To initialize static samplers, prepare an array of StaticSamplerDesc structures and initialize StaticSamplers and NumStaticSamplers members. Static samplers are more efficient and it is highly recommended to use them whenever possible. On older APIs, static samplers are emulated via generic sampler objects.
      The following is an example of shader initialization:
      ShaderCreationAttribs Attrs; Attrs.Desc.Name = "MyPixelShader"; Attrs.FilePath = "MyShaderFile.fx"; Attrs.SearchDirectories = "shaders;shaders\\inc;"; Attrs.EntryPoint = "MyPixelShader"; Attrs.Desc.ShaderType = SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL; Attrs.SourceLanguage = SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL; BasicShaderSourceStreamFactory BasicSSSFactory(Attrs.SearchDirectories); Attrs.pShaderSourceStreamFactory = &BasicSSSFactory; ShaderVariableDesc ShaderVars[] = {     {"g_StaticTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC},     {"g_MutableTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE},     {"g_DynamicTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC} }; Attrs.Desc.VariableDesc = ShaderVars; Attrs.Desc.NumVariables = _countof(ShaderVars); Attrs.Desc.DefaultVariableType = SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC; StaticSamplerDesc StaticSampler; StaticSampler.Desc.MinFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.Desc.MagFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.Desc.MipFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.TextureName = "g_MutableTexture"; Attrs.Desc.NumStaticSamplers = 1; Attrs.Desc.StaticSamplers = &StaticSampler; ShaderMacroHelper Macros; Macros.AddShaderMacro("USE_SHADOWS", 1); Macros.AddShaderMacro("NUM_SHADOW_SAMPLES", 4); Macros.Finalize(); Attrs.Macros = Macros; RefCntAutoPtr<IShader> pShader; m_pDevice->CreateShader( Attrs, &pShader );
      Creating the Pipeline State Object
      After all required shaders are created, the rest of the fields of the PipelineStateDesc structure provide depth-stencil, rasterizer, and blend state descriptions, the number and format of render targets, input layout format, etc. For instance, rasterizer state can be described as follows:
      PipelineStateDesc PSODesc; RasterizerStateDesc &RasterizerDesc = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.RasterizerDesc; RasterizerDesc.FillMode = FILL_MODE_SOLID; RasterizerDesc.CullMode = CULL_MODE_NONE; RasterizerDesc.FrontCounterClockwise = True; RasterizerDesc.ScissorEnable = True; RasterizerDesc.AntialiasedLineEnable = False; Depth-stencil and blend states are defined in a similar fashion.
      Another important thing that pipeline state object encompasses is the input layout description that defines how inputs to the vertex shader, which is the very first shader stage, should be read from the memory. Input layout may define several vertex streams that contain values of different formats and sizes:
      // Define input layout InputLayoutDesc &Layout = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.InputLayout; LayoutElement TextLayoutElems[] = {     LayoutElement( 0, 0, 3, VT_FLOAT32, False ),     LayoutElement( 1, 0, 4, VT_UINT8, True ),     LayoutElement( 2, 0, 2, VT_FLOAT32, False ), }; Layout.LayoutElements = TextLayoutElems; Layout.NumElements = _countof( TextLayoutElems ); Finally, pipeline state defines primitive topology type. When all required members are initialized, a pipeline state object can be created by IRenderDevice::CreatePipelineState() method:
      // Define shader and primitive topology PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.PrimitiveTopologyType = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TYPE_TRIANGLE; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pVS = pVertexShader; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pPS = pPixelShader; PSODesc.Name = "My pipeline state"; m_pDev->CreatePipelineState(PSODesc, &m_pPSO); When PSO object is bound to the pipeline, the engine invokes all API-specific commands to set all states specified by the object. In case of Direct3D12 this maps directly to setting the D3D12 PSO object. In case of Direct3D11, this involves setting individual state objects (such as rasterizer and blend states), shaders, input layout etc. In case of OpenGL, this requires a number of fine-grain state tweaking calls. Diligent Engine keeps track of currently bound states and only calls functions to update these states that have actually changed.
      Binding Shader Resources
      Direct3D11 and OpenGL utilize fine-grain resource binding models, where an application binds individual buffers and textures to certain shader or program resource binding slots. Direct3D12 uses a very different approach, where resource descriptors are grouped into tables, and an application can bind all resources in the table at once by setting the table in the command list. Resource binding model in Diligent Engine is designed to leverage this new method. It introduces a new object called shader resource binding that encapsulates all resource bindings required for all shaders in a certain pipeline state. It also introduces the classification of shader variables based on the frequency of expected change that helps the engine group them into tables under the hood:
      Static variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC) are variables that are expected to be set only once. They may not be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. Such variables are intended to hold global constants such as camera attributes or global light attributes constant buffers. Mutable variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE) define resources that are expected to change on a per-material frequency. Examples may include diffuse textures, normal maps etc. Dynamic variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC) are expected to change frequently and randomly. Shader variable type must be specified during shader creation by populating an array of ShaderVariableDesc structures and initializing ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::VariableDesc and ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::NumVariables members (see example of shader creation above).
      Static variables cannot be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. They are bound directly to the shader object. For instance, a shadow map texture is not expected to change after it is created, so it can be bound directly to the shader:
      PixelShader->GetShaderVariable( "g_tex2DShadowMap" )->Set( pShadowMapSRV ); Mutable and dynamic variables are bound via a new Shader Resource Binding object (SRB) that is created by the pipeline state (IPipelineState::CreateShaderResourceBinding()):
      m_pPSO->CreateShaderResourceBinding(&m_pSRB); Note that an SRB is only compatible with the pipeline state it was created from. SRB object inherits all static bindings from shaders in the pipeline, but is not allowed to change them.
      Mutable resources can only be set once for every instance of a shader resource binding. Such resources are intended to define specific material properties. For instance, a diffuse texture for a specific material is not expected to change once the material is defined and can be set right after the SRB object has been created:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL, "tex2DDiffuse")->Set(pDiffuseTexSRV); In some cases it is necessary to bind a new resource to a variable every time a draw command is invoked. Such variables should be labeled as dynamic, which will allow setting them multiple times through the same SRB object:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_VERTEX, "cbRandomAttribs")->Set(pRandomAttrsCB); Under the hood, the engine pre-allocates descriptor tables for static and mutable resources when an SRB objcet is created. Space for dynamic resources is dynamically allocated at run time. Static and mutable resources are thus more efficient and should be used whenever possible.
      As you can see, Diligent Engine does not expose low-level details of how resources are bound to shader variables. One reason for this is that these details are very different for various APIs. The other reason is that using low-level binding methods is extremely error-prone: it is very easy to forget to bind some resource, or bind incorrect resource such as bind a buffer to the variable that is in fact a texture, especially during shader development when everything changes fast. Diligent Engine instead relies on shader reflection system to automatically query the list of all shader variables. Grouping variables based on three types mentioned above allows the engine to create optimized layout and take heavy lifting of matching resources to API-specific resource location, register or descriptor in the table.
      This post gives more details about the resource binding model in Diligent Engine.
      Setting the Pipeline State and Committing Shader Resources
      Before any draw or compute command can be invoked, the pipeline state needs to be bound to the context:
      m_pContext->SetPipelineState(m_pPSO); Under the hood, the engine sets the internal PSO object in the command list or calls all the required native API functions to properly configure all pipeline stages.
      The next step is to bind all required shader resources to the GPU pipeline, which is accomplished by IDeviceContext::CommitShaderResources() method:
      m_pContext->CommitShaderResources(m_pSRB, COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES); The method takes a pointer to the shader resource binding object and makes all resources the object holds available for the shaders. In the case of D3D12, this only requires setting appropriate descriptor tables in the command list. For older APIs, this typically requires setting all resources individually.
      Next-generation APIs require the application to track the state of every resource and explicitly inform the system about all state transitions. For instance, if a texture was used as render target before, while the next draw command is going to use it as shader resource, a transition barrier needs to be executed. Diligent Engine does the heavy lifting of state tracking.  When CommitShaderResources() method is called with COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES flag, the engine commits and transitions resources to correct states at the same time. Note that transitioning resources does introduce some overhead. The engine tracks state of every resource and it will not issue the barrier if the state is already correct. But checking resource state is an overhead that can sometimes be avoided. The engine provides IDeviceContext::TransitionShaderResources() method that only transitions resources:
      m_pContext->TransitionShaderResources(m_pPSO, m_pSRB); In some scenarios it is more efficient to transition resources once and then only commit them.
      Invoking Draw Command
      The final step is to set states that are not part of the PSO, such as render targets, vertex and index buffers. Diligent Engine uses Direct3D11-syle API that is translated to other native API calls under the hood:
      ITextureView *pRTVs[] = {m_pRTV}; m_pContext->SetRenderTargets(_countof( pRTVs ), pRTVs, m_pDSV); // Clear render target and depth buffer const float zero[4] = {0, 0, 0, 0}; m_pContext->ClearRenderTarget(nullptr, zero); m_pContext->ClearDepthStencil(nullptr, CLEAR_DEPTH_FLAG, 1.f); // Set vertex and index buffers IBuffer *buffer[] = {m_pVertexBuffer}; Uint32 offsets[] = {0}; Uint32 strides[] = {sizeof(MyVertex)}; m_pContext->SetVertexBuffers(0, 1, buffer, strides, offsets, SET_VERTEX_BUFFERS_FLAG_RESET); m_pContext->SetIndexBuffer(m_pIndexBuffer, 0); Different native APIs use various set of function to execute draw commands depending on command details (if the command is indexed, instanced or both, what offsets in the source buffers are used etc.). For instance, there are 5 draw commands in Direct3D11 and more than 9 commands in OpenGL with something like glDrawElementsInstancedBaseVertexBaseInstance not uncommon. Diligent Engine hides all details with single IDeviceContext::Draw() method that takes takes DrawAttribs structure as an argument. The structure members define all attributes required to perform the command (primitive topology, number of vertices or indices, if draw call is indexed or not, if draw call is instanced or not, if draw call is indirect or not, etc.). For example:
      DrawAttribs attrs; attrs.IsIndexed = true; attrs.IndexType = VT_UINT16; attrs.NumIndices = 36; attrs.Topology = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLE_LIST; pContext->Draw(attrs); For compute commands, there is IDeviceContext::DispatchCompute() method that takes DispatchComputeAttribs structure that defines compute grid dimension.
      Source Code
      Full engine source code is available on GitHub and is free to use. The repository contains tutorials, sample applications, asteroids performance benchmark and an example Unity project that uses Diligent Engine in native plugin.
      Atmospheric scattering sample demonstrates how Diligent Engine can be used to implement various rendering tasks: loading textures from files, using complex shaders, rendering to multiple render targets, using compute shaders and unordered access views, etc.

      Asteroids performance benchmark is based on this demo developed by Intel. It renders 50,000 unique textured asteroids and allows comparing performance of Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 implementations. Every asteroid is a combination of one of 1000 unique meshes and one of 10 unique textures.

      Finally, there is an example project that shows how Diligent Engine can be integrated with Unity.

      Future Work
      The engine is under active development. It currently supports Windows desktop, Universal Windows, Linux, Android, MacOS, and iOS platforms. Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES backends are now feature complete. Vulkan backend is coming next, and Metal backend is in the plan.
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