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jake_Ghost

OpenGL problem with tga loader

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when i run this code i get these errors....
--------------------Configuration: Maia - Win32 Debug--------------------
Compiling...
TGALoader.cpp
Linking...
TGALoader.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "bool __cdecl LoadCompressedTGA(class std::basic_string<char,struct std::char_traits<char>,class std::allocator<char> >,struct _iobuf *)" (?LoadCompressedTGA@@YA_NV?$basic_string@DU?$char_tra
its@D@std@@V?$allocator@D@2@@std@@PAU_iobuf@@@Z)
TGALoader.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "bool __cdecl LoadUncompressedTGA(class std::basic_string<char,struct std::char_traits<char>,class std::allocator<char> >,struct _iobuf *)" (?LoadUncompressedTGA@@YA_NV?$basic_string@DU?$char
_traits@D@std@@V?$allocator@D@2@@std@@PAU_iobuf@@@Z)
Debug/Maia.exe : fatal error LNK1120: 2 unresolved externals
Error executing link.exe.

Maia.exe - 3 error(s), 0 warning(s)


heres the code....
#include <windows.h>		// Header File For Windows
#include <stdio.h>			// Header File For Standard Input/Output
#include <gl\gl.h>			// Header File For The OpenGL32 Library
#include <gl\glu.h>
#include <gl\glaux.h>
#include "Tga.h"

TGAHeader tgaheader;									// TGA header
TGA tga;												// TGA image data
TGATex texture;

GLubyte uTGAcompare[12] = {0,0,2, 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0};	// Uncompressed TGA Header
GLubyte cTGAcompare[12] = {0,0,10,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0};	// Compressed TGA Header
bool LoadUncompressedTGA(std::string FileName, FILE * fTGA);	// Load an Uncompressed file
bool LoadCompressedTGA(std::string FileName, FILE * fTGA);		// Load a Compressed file

BOOL cTGA :: LoadGLTextures (std::string Filename, int TYPE)
{
	FILE * fTGA;												// File pointer to texture file
	fTGA = fopen(Filename.c_str(), "rb");								// Open file for reading

	if(fTGA == NULL)											// If it didn't open....
	{
		MessageBox(NULL, "Could not open texture file", "ERROR", MB_OK);	// Display an error message
		return false;														// Exit function
	}

	if(fread(&tgaheader, sizeof(TGAHeader), 1, fTGA) == 0)					// Attempt to read 12 byte header from file
	{
		MessageBox(NULL, "Could not read file header", "ERROR", MB_OK);		// If it fails, display an error message 
		if(fTGA != NULL)													// Check to seeiffile is still open
		{
			fclose(fTGA);													// If it is, close it
		}
		return false;														// Exit function
	}

	if(memcmp(uTGAcompare, &tgaheader, sizeof(tgaheader)) == 0)				// See if header matches the predefined header of 
	{																		// an Uncompressed TGA image
		LoadUncompressedTGA(Filename.c_str(), fTGA);						// If so, jump to Uncompressed TGA loading code
	}
	else if(memcmp(cTGAcompare, &tgaheader, sizeof(tgaheader)) == 0)		// See if header matches the predefined header of
	{																		// an RLE compressed TGA image
		LoadCompressedTGA(Filename.c_str(), fTGA);							// If so, jump to Compressed TGA loading code
	}
	else																	// If header matches neither type
	{
		MessageBox(NULL, "TGA file be type 2 or type 10 ", "Invalid Image", MB_OK);	// Display an error
		fclose(fTGA);
		return false;																// Exit function
	}

	TGATex tmpTGA;

	TGATexture.push_back(tmpTGA);
    TexCountTGA += 1;

	// Generate Textures
	if (TYPE == 1)
	{
		glGenTextures(1,&TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].imageDataNear);

		// Bind Nearest Texture
		glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].imageDataNear);
		glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D,GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER,GL_LINEAR); 
		glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D,GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER,GL_NEAREST);
		glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].bpp / 8, TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].width, TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].height, 0, TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].type, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].imageData);
	}
	else if(TYPE==2)
	{
		glGenTextures(1,&TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].imageDataLin);

		// Bind Linear Texture
		glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].imageDataLin);
		glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D,GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER,GL_LINEAR);
		glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D,GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER,GL_LINEAR);
		glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].bpp / 8, TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].width, TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].height, 0, TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].type, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].imageData);
	}
	else if(TYPE == 3)
	{
		glGenTextures(1,&TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].imageDataMip);

		// Bind Mipmap Texture
		glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].imageDataMip);
		glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D,GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER,GL_LINEAR);
		glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D,GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER,GL_LINEAR_MIPMAP_LINEAR);
		gluBuild2DMipmaps(GL_TEXTURE_2D, TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].bpp / 8, TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].width, TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].height, TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].type, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, TGATexture[TexCountTGA-1].imageData);
	}

	return true;															// All went well, continue on
}

bool LoadUncompressedTGA(TGATex * texture, std::string Filename, FILE * fTGA)	// Load an uncompressed TGA (note, much of this code is based on NeHe's 
{																			// TGA Loading code nehe.gamedev.net)
	if(fread(tga.header, sizeof(tga.header), 1, fTGA) == 0)					// Read TGA header
	{										
		MessageBox(NULL, "Could not read info header", "ERROR", MB_OK);		// Display error
		if(fTGA != NULL)													// if file is still open
		{
			fclose(fTGA);													// Close it
		}
		return false;														// Return failular
	}	

	texture->width  = tga.header[1] * 256 + tga.header[0];					// Determine The TGA Width	(highbyte*256+lowbyte)
	texture->height = tga.header[3] * 256 + tga.header[2];					// Determine The TGA Height	(highbyte*256+lowbyte)
	texture->bpp	= tga.header[4];										// Determine the bits per pixel
	tga.Width		= texture->width;										// Copy width into local structure						
	tga.Height		= texture->height;										// Copy height into local structure
	tga.Bpp			= texture->bpp;											// Copy BPP into local structure

	if((texture->width <= 0) || (texture->height <= 0) || ((texture->bpp != 24) && (texture->bpp !=32)))	// Make sure all information is valid
	{
		MessageBox(NULL, "Invalid texture information", "ERROR", MB_OK);	// Display Error
		if(fTGA != NULL)													// Check if file is still open
		{
			fclose(fTGA);													// If so, close it
		}
		return false;														// Return failed
	}

	if(texture->bpp == 24)													// If the BPP of the image is 24...
		texture->type	= GL_RGB;											// Set Image type to GL_RGB
	else																	// Else if its 32 BPP
		texture->type	= GL_RGBA;											// Set image type to GL_RGBA

	tga.bytesPerPixel	= (tga.Bpp / 8);									// Compute the number of BYTES per pixel
	tga.imageSize		= (tga.bytesPerPixel * tga.Width * tga.Height);		// Compute the total amout ofmemory needed to store data
	texture->imageData	= (GLubyte *)malloc(tga.imageSize);					// Allocate that much memory

	if(texture->imageData == NULL)											// If no space was allocated
	{
		MessageBox(NULL, "Could not allocate memory for image", "ERROR", MB_OK);	// Display Error
		fclose(fTGA);														// Close the file
		return false;														// Return failed
	}

	if(fread(texture->imageData, 1, tga.imageSize, fTGA) != tga.imageSize)	// Attempt to read image data
	{
		MessageBox(NULL, "Could not read image data", "ERROR", MB_OK);		// Display Error
		if(texture->imageData != NULL)										// If imagedata has data in it
		{
			free(texture->imageData);										// Delete data from memory
		}
		fclose(fTGA);														// Close file
		return false;														// Return failed
	}

	// Byte Swapping Optimized By Steve Thomas
	for(GLuint cswap = 0; cswap < (int)tga.imageSize; cswap += tga.bytesPerPixel)
	{
		texture->imageData[cswap] ^= texture->imageData[cswap+2] ^=
		texture->imageData[cswap] ^= texture->imageData[cswap+2];
	}

	fclose(fTGA);															// Close file
	return true;															// Return success
}

bool LoadCompressedTGA(TGATex * texture,std::string FileName, FILE * fTGA)		// Load COMPRESSED TGAs
{ 
	if(fread(tga.header, sizeof(tga.header), 1, fTGA) == 0)					// Attempt to read header
	{
		MessageBox(NULL, "Could not read info header", "ERROR", MB_OK);		// Display Error
		if(fTGA != NULL)													// If file is open
		{
			fclose(fTGA);													// Close it
		}
		return false;														// Return failed
	}

	texture->width  = tga.header[1] * 256 + tga.header[0];					// Determine The TGA Width	(highbyte*256+lowbyte)
	texture->height = tga.header[3] * 256 + tga.header[2];					// Determine The TGA Height	(highbyte*256+lowbyte)
	texture->bpp	= tga.header[4];										// Determine Bits Per Pixel
	tga.Width		= texture->width;										// Copy width to local structure
	tga.Height		= texture->height;										// Copy width to local structure
	tga.Bpp			= texture->bpp;											// Copy width to local structure

	if((texture->width <= 0) || (texture->height <= 0) || ((texture->bpp != 24) && (texture->bpp !=32)))	//Make sure all texture info is ok
	{
		MessageBox(NULL, "Invalid texture information", "ERROR", MB_OK);	// If it isnt...Display error
		if(fTGA != NULL)													// Check if file is open
		{
			fclose(fTGA);													// Ifit is, close it
		}
		return false;														// Return failed
	}

	if(texture->bpp == 24)													// If the BPP of the image is 24...
		texture->type	= GL_RGB;											// Set Image type to GL_RGB
	else																	// Else if its 32 BPP
		texture->type	= GL_RGBA;											// Set image type to GL_RGBA

	tga.bytesPerPixel	= (tga.Bpp / 8);									// Compute BYTES per pixel
	tga.imageSize		= (tga.bytesPerPixel * tga.Width * tga.Height);		// Compute amout of memory needed to store image
	texture->imageData	= (GLubyte *)malloc(tga.imageSize);					// Allocate that much memory

	if(texture->imageData == NULL)											// If it wasnt allocated correctly..
	{
		MessageBox(NULL, "Could not allocate memory for image", "ERROR", MB_OK);	// Display Error
		fclose(fTGA);														// Close file
		return false;														// Return failed
	}

	GLuint pixelcount	= tga.Height * tga.Width;							// Nuber of pixels in the image
	GLuint currentpixel	= 0;												// Current pixel being read
	GLuint currentbyte	= 0;												// Current byte 
	GLubyte * colorbuffer = (GLubyte *)malloc(tga.bytesPerPixel);			// Storage for 1 pixel

	do
	{
		GLubyte chunkheader = 0;											// Storage for "chunk" header

		if(fread(&chunkheader, sizeof(GLubyte), 1, fTGA) == 0)				// Read in the 1 byte header
		{
			MessageBox(NULL, "Could not read RLE header", "ERROR", MB_OK);	// Display Error
			if(fTGA != NULL)												// If file is open
			{
				fclose(fTGA);												// Close file
			}
			if(texture->imageData != NULL)									// If there is stored image data
			{
				free(texture->imageData);									// Delete image data
			}
			return false;													// Return failed
		}

		if(chunkheader < 128)												// If the ehader is < 128, it means the that is the number of RAW color packets minus 1
		{																	// that follow the header
			chunkheader++;													// add 1 to get number of following color values
			for(short counter = 0; counter < chunkheader; counter++)		// Read RAW color values
			{
				if(fread(colorbuffer, 1, tga.bytesPerPixel, fTGA) != tga.bytesPerPixel) // Try to read 1 pixel
				{
					MessageBox(NULL, "Could not read image data", "ERROR", MB_OK);		// IF we cant, display an error

					if(fTGA != NULL)													// See if file is open
					{
						fclose(fTGA);													// If so, close file
					}

					if(colorbuffer != NULL)												// See if colorbuffer has data in it
					{
						free(colorbuffer);												// If so, delete it
					}

					if(texture->imageData != NULL)										// See if there is stored Image data
					{
						free(texture->imageData);										// If so, delete it too
					}

					return false;														// Return failed
				}
																						// write to memory
				texture->imageData[currentbyte		] = colorbuffer[2];				    // Flip R and B vcolor values around in the process 
				texture->imageData[currentbyte + 1	] = colorbuffer[1];
				texture->imageData[currentbyte + 2	] = colorbuffer[0];

				if(tga.bytesPerPixel == 4)												// if its a 32 bpp image
				{
					texture->imageData[currentbyte + 3] = colorbuffer[3];				// copy the 4th byte
				}

				currentbyte += tga.bytesPerPixel;										// Increase thecurrent byte by the number of bytes per pixel
				currentpixel++;															// Increase current pixel by 1


				if(currentpixel > pixelcount)											// Make sure we havent read too many pixels
				{
					MessageBox(NULL, "Too many pixels read", "ERROR", NULL);			// if there is too many... Display an error!

					if(fTGA != NULL)													// If there is a file open
					{
						fclose(fTGA);													// Close file
					}	

					if(colorbuffer != NULL)												// If there is data in colorbuffer
					{
						free(colorbuffer);												// Delete it
					}

					if(texture->imageData != NULL)										// If there is Image data
					{
						free(texture->imageData);										// delete it
					}

					return false;														// Return failed
				}
			}
		}
		else																			// chunkheader > 128 RLE data, next color reapeated chunkheader - 127 times
		{
			chunkheader -= 127;															// Subteact 127 to get rid of the ID bit
			if(fread(colorbuffer, 1, tga.bytesPerPixel, fTGA) != tga.bytesPerPixel)		// Attempt to read following color values
			{	
				MessageBox(NULL, "Could not read from file", "ERROR", MB_OK);			// If attempt fails.. Display error (again)

				if(fTGA != NULL)														// If thereis a file open
				{
					fclose(fTGA);														// Close it
				}

				if(colorbuffer != NULL)													// If there is data in the colorbuffer
				{
					free(colorbuffer);													// delete it
				}

				if(texture->imageData != NULL)											// If thereis image data
				{
					free(texture->imageData);											// delete it
				}

				return false;															// return failed
			}

			for(short counter = 0; counter < chunkheader; counter++)					// copy the color into the image data as many times as dictated 
			{																			// by the header
				texture->imageData[currentbyte		] = colorbuffer[2];					// switch R and B bytes areound while copying
				texture->imageData[currentbyte + 1	] = colorbuffer[1];
				texture->imageData[currentbyte + 2	] = colorbuffer[0];

				if(tga.bytesPerPixel == 4)												// If TGA images is 32 bpp
				{
					texture->imageData[currentbyte + 3] = colorbuffer[3];				// Copy 4th byte
				}

				currentbyte += tga.bytesPerPixel;										// Increase current byte by the number of bytes per pixel
				currentpixel++;															// Increase pixel count by 1

				if(currentpixel > pixelcount)											// Make sure we havent written too many pixels
				{
					MessageBox(NULL, "Too many pixels read", "ERROR", NULL);			// if there is too many... Display an error!

					if(fTGA != NULL)													// If there is a file open
					{
						fclose(fTGA);													// Close file
					}	

					if(colorbuffer != NULL)												// If there is data in colorbuffer
					{
						free(colorbuffer);												// Delete it
					}

					if(texture->imageData != NULL)										// If there is Image data
					{
						free(texture->imageData);										// delete it
					}

					return false;														// Return failed
				}
			}
		}
	}

	while(currentpixel < pixelcount);													// Loop while there are still pixels left
	fclose(fTGA);																		// Close the file
	return true;																		// return success
}

GLuint cTGA ::Texture(std::string Filename)
{
	int i, FileNum;

	for (i = 0;i < TexCountTGA; i++)
	{
		if (Filename == TGATexture.FileName) 
		{
			FileNum = i;
		}
	}

	return TGATexture[FileNum].imageDataMip;
}


GLuint cTGA :: Texture (std::string Filename, int TYPE)
{
	int i, FileNum;

	for (i = 0;i < TexCountTGA; i++)
	{
		if (Filename == TGATexture.FileName) 
		{
			FileNum = i;
		}
	}

	if (TYPE == 0)
	{
		return TGATexture[FileNum].imageDataNear;
	}
	else if (TYPE == 1)
	{
		return TGATexture[FileNum].imageDataLin;
	}
	else if (TYPE == 2)
	{
		return TGATexture[FileNum].imageDataMip;
	}
	return -1;
}

cTGA :: cTGA() {}

cTGA :: ~cTGA()
{
	 TGATexture.clear();
}

any hlep would be great thx jake

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add a #include <string>

and then a

using namespace std;

you're not including the headers for basic_string.


and here is another tip. when wrapping the LoadTga functions change up the mallocs with news.

Its good pratice to keep with language conventions.

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or you can try mine, i've modify it to load tga(comp./uncomp.), bmp and jpg
and i've write an alpha channel builer that will make an alpha channel for you with the colour of your choice.

here:
http://www.freewebs.com/vortex666/index.html

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Your functions are inconsistantly defined:


bool LoadUncompressedTGA(std::string FileName, FILE * fTGA);
bool LoadCompressedTGA(std::string FileName, FILE * fTGA);

//...

bool LoadUncompressedTGA(TGATex * texture, std::string Filename, FILE * fTGA)
{
//...
}

bool LoadCompressedTGA(TGATex * texture,std::string FileName, FILE * fTGA)
{
//...
}




Notice how when you declare the functions at first you're passing in a string and a FILE* but when you define them further down you include a TGATex* as well. Your compiler is obviously expecting the functions to have no TGATex* so when you define functions WITH a TGATex* it says "oh this isn't what I want" and then thinks "they must be elsewhere", so it compiles fine and then when it's linking everything it notices those functions aren't anywhere, and that's the error you're having. You need to update the forward declarations to the parameters in the definitions.

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      #include "Brain.h" #include <glm/gtc/matrix_transform.hpp> #include <vector> struct Sprite::Implementation { //Position. struct pos pos; //Tag. std::string tag; //Texture. Texture *texture; //Model matrix. glm::mat4 model; //Vertex Array Object. VertexArray *vao; //Vertex Buffer Object. VertexBuffer *vbo; //Layout. VertexBufferLayout *layout; //Index Buffer Object. IndexBuffer *ibo; //Shader. Shader *program; //Brains. std::vector<Brain *> brains; //Deconstructor. ~Implementation(); }; Sprite::Sprite(std::string image_path, std::string tag, float x, float y) { //Create Pointer To Implementaion. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Set the Position of the Sprite object. m_Impl->pos.x = x; m_Impl->pos.y = y; //Set the tag. m_Impl->tag = tag; //Create The Texture. m_Impl->texture = new Texture(image_path); //Initialize the model Matrix. m_Impl->model = glm::mat4(1.0f); //Get the Width and the Height of the Texture. int width = m_Impl->texture->GetWidth(); int height = m_Impl->texture->GetHeight(); //Create the Verticies. float verticies[] = { //Positions //Texture Coordinates. x, y, 0.0f, 0.0f, x + width, y, 1.0f, 0.0f, x + width, y + height, 1.0f, 1.0f, x, y + height, 0.0f, 1.0f }; //Create the Indicies. unsigned int indicies[] = { 0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 0 }; //Create Vertex Array. m_Impl->vao = new VertexArray(); //Create the Vertex Buffer. m_Impl->vbo = new VertexBuffer((void *)verticies, sizeof(verticies)); //Create The Layout. m_Impl->layout = new VertexBufferLayout(); m_Impl->layout->PushFloat(2); m_Impl->layout->PushFloat(2); m_Impl->vao->AddBuffer(m_Impl->vbo, m_Impl->layout); //Create the Index Buffer. m_Impl->ibo = new IndexBuffer(indicies, 6); //Create the new shader. m_Impl->program = new Shader("Shaders/SpriteShader.shader"); } //Render. void Sprite::Render(Window * window) { //Create the projection Matrix based on the current window width and height. glm::mat4 proj = glm::ortho(0.0f, (float)window->GetWidth(), 0.0f, (float)window->GetHeight(), -1.0f, 1.0f); //Set the MVP Uniform. m_Impl->program->setUniformMat4f("u_MVP", proj * m_Impl->model); //Run All The Brains (Scripts) of this game object (sprite). for (unsigned int i = 0; i < m_Impl->brains.size(); i++) { //Get Current Brain. Brain *brain = m_Impl->brains[i]; //Call the start function only once! if (brain->GetStart()) { brain->SetStart(false); brain->Start(); } //Call the update function every frame. brain->Update(); } //Render. window->GetRenderer()->Draw(m_Impl->vao, m_Impl->ibo, m_Impl->texture, m_Impl->program); } void Sprite::Move(float speed, bool left, bool right, bool up, bool down) { if (left) { m_Impl->pos.x -= speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(-speed, 0, 0)); } if (right) { m_Impl->pos.x += speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(speed, 0, 0)); } if (up) { m_Impl->pos.y += speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(0, speed, 0)); } if (down) { m_Impl->pos.y -= speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(0, -speed, 0)); } } void Sprite::AddBrain(Brain * brain) { //Push back the brain object. m_Impl->brains.push_back(brain); } pos *Sprite::GetPos() { return &m_Impl->pos; } std::string Sprite::GetTag() { return m_Impl->tag; } int Sprite::GetWidth() { return m_Impl->texture->GetWidth(); } int Sprite::GetHeight() { return m_Impl->texture->GetHeight(); } Sprite::~Sprite() { delete m_Impl; } //Implementation Deconstructor. Sprite::Implementation::~Implementation() { delete texture; delete vao; delete vbo; delete layout; delete ibo; delete program; }  
      Renderer Class
      #include "Renderer.h" #include "Error.h" Renderer::Renderer() { } Renderer::~Renderer() { } void Renderer::Draw(VertexArray * vao, IndexBuffer * ibo, Texture *texture, Shader * program) { vao->Bind(); ibo->Bind(); program->Bind(); if (texture != NULL) texture->Bind(); GLCall(glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, ibo->GetCount(), GL_UNSIGNED_INT, NULL)); } void Renderer::Clear(float r, float g, float b) { GLCall(glClearColor(r, g, b, 1.0)); GLCall(glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT)); } void Renderer::Update(GLFWwindow *window) { /* Swap front and back buffers */ glfwSwapBuffers(window); /* Poll for and process events */ glfwPollEvents(); }  
      Shader Code
      #shader vertex #version 330 core layout(location = 0) in vec4 aPos; layout(location = 1) in vec2 aTexCoord; out vec2 t_TexCoord; uniform mat4 u_MVP; void main() { gl_Position = u_MVP * aPos; t_TexCoord = aTexCoord; } #shader fragment #version 330 core out vec4 aColor; in vec2 t_TexCoord; uniform sampler2D u_Texture; void main() { aColor = texture(u_Texture, t_TexCoord); } Also i'm pretty sure that every time i'm hitting the up, down, left and right arrows on the keyboard, i'm changing the model Matrix of the Player and not the others.
       
      Window Class:
      #include "Window.h" #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include "Error.h" #include "Renderer.h" #include "Scene.h" #include "Input.h" //Global Variables. int screen_width, screen_height; //On Window Resize. void OnWindowResize(GLFWwindow *window, int width, int height); //Implementation Structure. struct Window::Implementation { //GLFW Window. GLFWwindow *GLFW_window; //Renderer. Renderer *renderer; //Delta Time. double delta_time; //Frames Per Second. int fps; //Scene. Scene *scnene; //Input. Input *input; //Deconstructor. ~Implementation(); }; //Window Constructor. Window::Window(std::string title, int width, int height) { //Initializing width and height. screen_width = width; screen_height = height; //Create Pointer To Implementation. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Try initializing GLFW. if (!glfwInit()) { std::cout << "GLFW could not be initialized!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); exit(-1); } //Setting up OpenGL Version 3.3 Core Profile. glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MAJOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MINOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_PROFILE, GLFW_OPENGL_CORE_PROFILE); /* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */ m_Impl->GLFW_window = glfwCreateWindow(width, height, title.c_str(), NULL, NULL); if (!m_Impl->GLFW_window) { std::cout << "GLFW could not create a window!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); glfwTerminate(); exit(-1); } /* Make the window's context current */ glfwMakeContextCurrent(m_Impl->GLFW_window); //Initialize GLEW. if(glewInit() != GLEW_OK) { std::cout << "GLEW could not be initialized!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); glfwTerminate(); exit(-1); } //Enabling Blending. GLCall(glEnable(GL_BLEND)); GLCall(glBlendFunc(GL_SRC_ALPHA, GL_ONE_MINUS_SRC_ALPHA)); //Setting the ViewPort. GLCall(glViewport(0, 0, width, height)); //**********Initializing Implementation**********// m_Impl->renderer = new Renderer(); m_Impl->delta_time = 0.0; m_Impl->fps = 0; m_Impl->input = new Input(this); //**********Initializing Implementation**********// //Set Frame Buffer Size Callback. glfwSetFramebufferSizeCallback(m_Impl->GLFW_window, OnWindowResize); } //Window Deconstructor. Window::~Window() { delete m_Impl; } //Window Main Loop. void Window::MainLoop() { //Time Variables. double start_time = 0, end_time = 0, old_time = 0, total_time = 0; //Frames Counter. int frames = 0; /* Loop until the user closes the window */ while (!glfwWindowShouldClose(m_Impl->GLFW_window)) { old_time = start_time; //Total time of previous frame. start_time = glfwGetTime(); //Current frame start time. //Calculate the Delta Time. m_Impl->delta_time = start_time - old_time; //Get Frames Per Second. if (total_time >= 1) { m_Impl->fps = frames; total_time = 0; frames = 0; } //Clearing The Screen. m_Impl->renderer->Clear(0, 0, 0); //Render The Scene. if (m_Impl->scnene != NULL) m_Impl->scnene->Render(this); //Updating the Screen. m_Impl->renderer->Update(m_Impl->GLFW_window); //Increasing frames counter. frames++; //End Time. end_time = glfwGetTime(); //Total time after the frame completed. total_time += end_time - start_time; } //Terminate GLFW. glfwTerminate(); } //Load Scene. void Window::LoadScene(Scene * scene) { //Set the scene. m_Impl->scnene = scene; } //Get Delta Time. double Window::GetDeltaTime() { return m_Impl->delta_time; } //Get FPS. int Window::GetFPS() { return m_Impl->fps; } //Get Width. int Window::GetWidth() { return screen_width; } //Get Height. int Window::GetHeight() { return screen_height; } //Get Input. Input * Window::GetInput() { return m_Impl->input; } Renderer * Window::GetRenderer() { return m_Impl->renderer; } GLFWwindow * Window::GetGLFWindow() { return m_Impl->GLFW_window; } //Implementation Deconstructor. Window::Implementation::~Implementation() { delete renderer; delete input; } //OnWindowResize void OnWindowResize(GLFWwindow *window, int width, int height) { screen_width = width; screen_height = height; //Updating the ViewPort. GLCall(glViewport(0, 0, width, height)); }  
      Brain Class
      #include "Brain.h" #include "Sprite.h" #include "Window.h" struct Brain::Implementation { //Just A Flag. bool started; //Window Pointer. Window *window; //Sprite Pointer. Sprite *sprite; }; Brain::Brain(Window *window, Sprite *sprite) { //Create Pointer To Implementation. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Initialize Implementation. m_Impl->started = true; m_Impl->window = window; m_Impl->sprite = sprite; } Brain::~Brain() { //Delete Pointer To Implementation. delete m_Impl; } void Brain::Start() { } void Brain::Update() { } Window * Brain::GetWindow() { return m_Impl->window; } Sprite * Brain::GetSprite() { return m_Impl->sprite; } bool Brain::GetStart() { return m_Impl->started; } void Brain::SetStart(bool value) { m_Impl->started = value; } Script Class (Its a Brain Subclass!!!)
      #include "Script.h" Script::Script(Window *window, Sprite *sprite) : Brain(window, sprite) { } Script::~Script() { } void Script::Start() { std::cout << "Game Started!" << std::endl; } void Script::Update() { Input *input = this->GetWindow()->GetInput(); Sprite *sp = this->GetSprite(); //Move this sprite. this->GetSprite()->Move(200 * this->GetWindow()->GetDeltaTime(), input->GetKeyDown("left"), input->GetKeyDown("right"), input->GetKeyDown("up"), input->GetKeyDown("down")); std::cout << sp->GetTag().c_str() << ".x = " << sp->GetPos()->x << ", " << sp->GetTag().c_str() << ".y = " << sp->GetPos()->y << std::endl; }  
      Main:
      #include "SpaceShooterEngine.h" #include "Script.h" int main() { Window w("title", 600,600); Scene *scene = new Scene(); Sprite *player = new Sprite("Resources/Images/player.png", "Player", 100,100); Sprite *other = new Sprite("Resources/Images/cherno.png", "Other", 400, 100); Sprite *other2 = new Sprite("Resources/Images/cherno.png", "Other", 300, 400); Brain *brain = new Script(&w, player); player->AddBrain(brain); scene->AddSprite(player); scene->AddSprite(other); scene->AddSprite(other2); w.LoadScene(scene); w.MainLoop(); return 0; }  
       
      I literally can't find what is wrong. If you need more code, ask me to post it. I will also attach all the source files.
      Brain.cpp
      Error.cpp
      IndexBuffer.cpp
      Input.cpp
      Renderer.cpp
      Scene.cpp
      Shader.cpp
      Sprite.cpp
      Texture.cpp
      VertexArray.cpp
      VertexBuffer.cpp
      VertexBufferLayout.cpp
      Window.cpp
      Brain.h
      Error.h
      IndexBuffer.h
      Input.h
      Renderer.h
      Scene.h
      Shader.h
      SpaceShooterEngine.h
      Sprite.h
      Texture.h
      VertexArray.h
      VertexBuffer.h
      VertexBufferLayout.h
      Window.h
    • By Cristian Decu
      Hello fellow programmers,
      For a couple of days now i've decided to build my own planet renderer just to see how floating point precision issues
      can be tackled. As you probably imagine, i've quickly faced FPP issues when trying to render absurdly large planets.
       
      I have used the classical quadtree LOD approach;
      I've generated my grids with 33 vertices, (x: -1 to 1, y: -1 to 1, z = 0).
      Each grid is managed by a TerrainNode class that, depending on the side it represents (top, bottom, left right, front, back),
      creates a special rotation-translation matrix that moves and rotates the grid away from the origin so that when i finally
      normalize all the vertices on my vertex shader i can get a perfect sphere.
      T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, 1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(180.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[0] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, T * R, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_FRONT)); T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, -1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(0.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[1] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, R * T, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_BACK)); // So on and so forth for the rest of the sides As you can see, for the front side grid, i rotate it 180 degrees to make it face the camera and push it towards the eye;
      the back side is handled almost the same way only that i don't need to rotate it but simply push it away from the eye.
      The same technique is applied for the rest of the faces (obviously, with the proper rotations / translations).
      The matrix that result from the multiplication of R and T (in that particular order) is send to my vertex shader as `r_Grid'.
      // spherify vec3 V = normalize((r_Grid * vec4(r_Vertex, 1.0)).xyz); gl_Position = r_ModelViewProjection * vec4(V, 1.0); The `r_ModelViewProjection' matrix is generated on the CPU in this manner.
      // No the most efficient way, but it works. glm::dmat4 Camera::getMatrix() { // Create the view matrix // Roll, Yaw and Pitch are all quaternions. glm::dmat4 View = glm::toMat4(Roll) * glm::toMat4(Pitch) * glm::toMat4(Yaw); // The model matrix is generated by translating in the oposite direction of the camera. glm::dmat4 Model = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), -Position); // Projection = glm::perspective(fovY, aspect, zNear, zFar); // zNear = 0.1, zFar = 1.0995116e12 return Projection * View * Model; } I managed to get rid of z-fighting by using a technique called Logarithmic Depth Buffer described in this article; it works amazingly well, no z-fighting at all, at least not visible.
      Each frame i'm rendering each node by sending the generated matrices this way.
      // set the r_ModelViewProjection uniform // Sneak in the mRadiusMatrix which is a matrix that contains the radius of my planet. Shader::setUniform(0, Camera::getInstance()->getMatrix() * mRadiusMatrix); // set the r_Grid matrix uniform i created earlier. Shader::setUniform(1, r_Grid); grid->render(); My planet's radius is around 6400000.0 units, absurdly large, but that's what i really want to achieve;
      Everything works well, the node's split and merge as you'd expect, however whenever i get close to the surface
      of the planet the rounding errors start to kick in giving me that lovely stairs effect.
      I've read that if i could render each grid relative to the camera i could get better precision on the surface, effectively
      getting rid of those rounding errors.
       
      My question is how can i achieve this relative to camera rendering in my scenario here?
      I know that i have to do most of the work on the CPU with double, and that's exactly what i'm doing.
      I only use double on the CPU side where i also do most of the matrix multiplications.
      As you can see from my vertex shader i only do the usual r_ModelViewProjection * (some vertex coords).
       
      Thank you for your suggestions!
       
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