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OpenGL Beginner's woes *SOLVED*

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Hi, I just bought the book Beginning OpenGL Game Programming. This is the first example and it won't compile in Dev-C++. Error-
1 C:\Dev-Cpp\OpenGl programs\main.cpp In file included from main.cpp 
50 C:\Dev-Cpp\include\gl\glut.h redeclaration of C++ built-in type `short' 
C:\Dev-Cpp\OpenGl programs\Makefile.win [Build Error]  [main.o] Error 1 



glut.h
#ifndef __glut_h__
#define __glut_h__

/* Copyright (c) Mark J. Kilgard, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1998. */

/* This program is freely distributable without licensing fees  and is
   provided without guarantee or warrantee expressed or  implied. This
   program is -not- in the public domain. */

#if defined(_WIN32)

/* GLUT 3.7 now tries to avoid including <windows.h>
   to avoid name space pollution, but Win32's <GL/gl.h> 
   needs APIENTRY and WINGDIAPI defined properly. */
# if 0
   /* This would put tons of macros and crap in our clean name space. */
#  define  WIN32_LEAN_AND_MEAN
#  include <windows.h>
# else
   /* XXX This is from Win32's <windef.h> */
#  ifndef APIENTRY
#   define GLUT_APIENTRY_DEFINED
#   if (_MSC_VER >= 800) || defined(_STDCALL_SUPPORTED) || defined(__BORLANDC__) || defined(__LCC__)
#    define APIENTRY    __stdcall
#   else
#    define APIENTRY
#   endif
#  endif
   /* XXX This is from Win32's <winnt.h> */
#  ifndef CALLBACK
#   if (defined(_M_MRX000) || defined(_M_IX86) || defined(_M_ALPHA) || defined(_M_PPC)) && !defined(MIDL_PASS) || defined(__LCC__)
#    define CALLBACK __stdcall
#   else
#    define CALLBACK
#   endif
#  endif
   /* XXX Hack for lcc compiler.  It doesn't support __declspec(dllimport), just __stdcall. */
#  if defined( __LCC__ )
#   undef WINGDIAPI
#   define WINGDIAPI __stdcall
#  else
   /* XXX This is from Win32's <wingdi.h> and <winnt.h> */
#   ifndef WINGDIAPI
#    define GLUT_WINGDIAPI_DEFINED
#    define WINGDIAPI __declspec(dllimport)
#   endif
#  endif
   /* XXX This is from Win32's <ctype.h> */
#  ifndef _WCHAR_T_DEFINED
typedef unsigned short wchar_t;
#   define _WCHAR_T_DEFINED
#  endif
# endif

/* To disable automatic library usage for GLUT, define GLUT_NO_LIB_PRAGMA
   in your compile preprocessor options. */
# if !defined(GLUT_BUILDING_LIB) && !defined(GLUT_NO_LIB_PRAGMA)
#  pragma comment (lib, "winmm.lib")      /* link with Windows MultiMedia lib */
/* To enable automatic SGI OpenGL for Windows library usage for GLUT,
   define GLUT_USE_SGI_OPENGL in your compile preprocessor options.  */
#  ifdef GLUT_USE_SGI_OPENGL
#   pragma comment (lib, "opengl.lib")    /* link with SGI OpenGL for Windows lib */
#   pragma comment (lib, "glu.lib")       /* link with SGI OpenGL Utility lib */
#   pragma comment (lib, "glut.lib")      /* link with Win32 GLUT for SGI OpenGL lib */
#  else
#   pragma comment (lib, "opengl32.lib")  /* link with Microsoft OpenGL lib */
#   pragma comment (lib, "glu32.lib")     /* link with Microsoft OpenGL Utility lib */
#   pragma comment (lib, "glut32.lib")    /* link with Win32 GLUT lib */
#  endif
# endif

/* To disable supression of annoying warnings about floats being promoted
   to doubles, define GLUT_NO_WARNING_DISABLE in your compile preprocessor
   options. */
# ifndef GLUT_NO_WARNING_DISABLE
#  pragma warning (disable:4244)  /* Disable bogus VC++ 4.2 conversion warnings. */
#  pragma warning (disable:4305)  /* VC++ 5.0 version of above warning. */
# endif

/* Win32 has an annoying issue where there are multiple C run-time
   libraries (CRTs).  If the executable is linked with a different CRT
   from the GLUT DLL, the GLUT DLL will not share the same CRT static
   data seen by the executable.  In particular, atexit callbacks registered
   in the executable will not be called if GLUT calls its (different)
   exit routine).  GLUT is typically built with the
   "/MD" option (the CRT with multithreading DLL support), but the Visual
   C++ linker default is "/ML" (the single threaded CRT).

   One workaround to this issue is requiring users to always link with
   the same CRT as GLUT is compiled with.  That requires users supply a
   non-standard option.  GLUT 3.7 has its own built-in workaround where
   the executable's "exit" function pointer is covertly passed to GLUT.
   GLUT then calls the executable's exit function pointer to ensure that
   any "atexit" calls registered by the application are called if GLUT
   needs to exit.

   Note that the __glut*WithExit routines should NEVER be called directly.
   To avoid the atexit workaround, #define GLUT_DISABLE_ATEXIT_HACK. */

/* XXX This is from Win32's <process.h> */
# if !defined(_MSC_VER) && !defined(__cdecl)
   /* Define __cdecl for non-Microsoft compilers. */
#  define __cdecl
#  define GLUT_DEFINED___CDECL
# endif
# ifndef _CRTIMP
#  ifdef _NTSDK
    /* Definition compatible with NT SDK */
#   define _CRTIMP
#  else
    /* Current definition */
#   ifdef _DLL
#    define _CRTIMP __declspec(dllimport)
#   else
#    define _CRTIMP
#   endif
#  endif
#  define GLUT_DEFINED__CRTIMP
# endif

/* GLUT API entry point declarations for Win32. */
# ifdef GLUT_BUILDING_LIB
#  define GLUTAPI __declspec(dllexport)
# else
#  ifdef _DLL
#   define GLUTAPI __declspec(dllimport)
#  else
#   define GLUTAPI extern
#  endif
# endif

/* GLUT callback calling convention for Win32. */
# define GLUTCALLBACK __cdecl

#endif  /* _WIN32 */

#include <GL/gl.h>
#include <GL/glu.h>

#ifdef __cplusplus
extern "C" {
#endif

#if defined(_WIN32)
# ifndef GLUT_BUILDING_LIB
extern _CRTIMP void __cdecl exit(int);
# endif
#else
/* non-Win32 case. */
/* Define APIENTRY and CALLBACK to nothing if we aren't on Win32. */
# define APIENTRY
# define GLUT_APIENTRY_DEFINED
# define CALLBACK
/* Define GLUTAPI and GLUTCALLBACK as below if we aren't on Win32. */
# define GLUTAPI extern
# define GLUTCALLBACK
/* Prototype exit for the non-Win32 case (see above). */
extern void exit(int);
#endif

/**
 GLUT API revision history:
 
 GLUT_API_VERSION is updated to reflect incompatible GLUT
 API changes (interface changes, semantic changes, deletions,
 or additions).
 
 GLUT_API_VERSION=1  First public release of GLUT.  11/29/94

 GLUT_API_VERSION=2  Added support for OpenGL/GLX multisampling,
 extension.  Supports new input devices like tablet, dial and button
 box, and Spaceball.  Easy to query OpenGL extensions.

 GLUT_API_VERSION=3  glutMenuStatus added.

 GLUT_API_VERSION=4  glutInitDisplayString, glutWarpPointer,
 glutBitmapLength, glutStrokeLength, glutWindowStatusFunc, dynamic
 video resize subAPI, glutPostWindowRedisplay, glutKeyboardUpFunc,
 glutSpecialUpFunc, glutIgnoreKeyRepeat, glutSetKeyRepeat,
 glutJoystickFunc, glutForceJoystickFunc (NOT FINALIZED!).
**/
#ifndef GLUT_API_VERSION  /* allow this to be overriden */
#define GLUT_API_VERSION		3
#endif

/**
 GLUT implementation revision history:
 
 GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION is updated to reflect both GLUT
 API revisions and implementation revisions (ie, bug fixes).

 GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION=1  mjk's first public release of
 GLUT Xlib-based implementation.  11/29/94

 GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION=2  mjk's second public release of
 GLUT Xlib-based implementation providing GLUT version 2 
 interfaces.

 GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION=3  mjk's GLUT 2.2 images. 4/17/95

 GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION=4  mjk's GLUT 2.3 images. 6/?/95

 GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION=5  mjk's GLUT 3.0 images. 10/?/95

 GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION=7  mjk's GLUT 3.1+ with glutWarpPoitner.  7/24/96

 GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION=8  mjk's GLUT 3.1+ with glutWarpPoitner
 and video resize.  1/3/97

 GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION=9 mjk's GLUT 3.4 release with early GLUT 4 routines.

 GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION=11 Mesa 2.5's GLUT 3.6 release.

 GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION=12 mjk's GLUT 3.6 release with early GLUT 4 routines + signal handling.

 GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION=13 mjk's GLUT 3.7 beta with GameGLUT support.

 GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION=14 mjk's GLUT 3.7 beta with f90gl friend interface.

 GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION=15 mjk's GLUT 3.7 beta sync'ed with Mesa <GL/glut.h>
**/
#ifndef GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION  /* Allow this to be overriden. */
#define GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION	15
#endif

/* Display mode bit masks. */
#define GLUT_RGB			0
#define GLUT_RGBA			GLUT_RGB
#define GLUT_INDEX			1
#define GLUT_SINGLE			0
#define GLUT_DOUBLE			2
#define GLUT_ACCUM			4
#define GLUT_ALPHA			8
#define GLUT_DEPTH			16
#define GLUT_STENCIL			32
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 2)
#define GLUT_MULTISAMPLE		128
#define GLUT_STEREO			256
#endif
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 3)
#define GLUT_LUMINANCE			512
#endif

/* Mouse buttons. */
#define GLUT_LEFT_BUTTON		0
#define GLUT_MIDDLE_BUTTON		1
#define GLUT_RIGHT_BUTTON		2

/* Mouse button  state. */
#define GLUT_DOWN			0
#define GLUT_UP				1

#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 2)
/* function keys */
#define GLUT_KEY_F1			1
#define GLUT_KEY_F2			2
#define GLUT_KEY_F3			3
#define GLUT_KEY_F4			4
#define GLUT_KEY_F5			5
#define GLUT_KEY_F6			6
#define GLUT_KEY_F7			7
#define GLUT_KEY_F8			8
#define GLUT_KEY_F9			9
#define GLUT_KEY_F10			10
#define GLUT_KEY_F11			11
#define GLUT_KEY_F12			12
/* directional keys */
#define GLUT_KEY_LEFT			100
#define GLUT_KEY_UP			101
#define GLUT_KEY_RIGHT			102
#define GLUT_KEY_DOWN			103
#define GLUT_KEY_PAGE_UP		104
#define GLUT_KEY_PAGE_DOWN		105
#define GLUT_KEY_HOME			106
#define GLUT_KEY_END			107
#define GLUT_KEY_INSERT			108
#endif

/* Entry/exit  state. */
#define GLUT_LEFT			0
#define GLUT_ENTERED			1

/* Menu usage  state. */
#define GLUT_MENU_NOT_IN_USE		0
#define GLUT_MENU_IN_USE		1

/* Visibility  state. */
#define GLUT_NOT_VISIBLE		0
#define GLUT_VISIBLE			1

/* Window status  state. */
#define GLUT_HIDDEN			0
#define GLUT_FULLY_RETAINED		1
#define GLUT_PARTIALLY_RETAINED		2
#define GLUT_FULLY_COVERED		3

/* Color index component selection values. */
#define GLUT_RED			0
#define GLUT_GREEN			1
#define GLUT_BLUE			2

#if defined(_WIN32)
/* Stroke font constants (use these in GLUT program). */
#define GLUT_STROKE_ROMAN		((void*)0)
#define GLUT_STROKE_MONO_ROMAN		((void*)1)

/* Bitmap font constants (use these in GLUT program). */
#define GLUT_BITMAP_9_BY_15		((void*)2)
#define GLUT_BITMAP_8_BY_13		((void*)3)
#define GLUT_BITMAP_TIMES_ROMAN_10	((void*)4)
#define GLUT_BITMAP_TIMES_ROMAN_24	((void*)5)
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 3)
#define GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_10	((void*)6)
#define GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_12	((void*)7)
#define GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_18	((void*)8)
#endif
#else
/* Stroke font opaque addresses (use constants instead in source code). */
GLUTAPI void *glutStrokeRoman;
GLUTAPI void *glutStrokeMonoRoman;

/* Stroke font constants (use these in GLUT program). */
#define GLUT_STROKE_ROMAN		(&glutStrokeRoman)
#define GLUT_STROKE_MONO_ROMAN		(&glutStrokeMonoRoman)

/* Bitmap font opaque addresses (use constants instead in source code). */
GLUTAPI void *glutBitmap9By15;
GLUTAPI void *glutBitmap8By13;
GLUTAPI void *glutBitmapTimesRoman10;
GLUTAPI void *glutBitmapTimesRoman24;
GLUTAPI void *glutBitmapHelvetica10;
GLUTAPI void *glutBitmapHelvetica12;
GLUTAPI void *glutBitmapHelvetica18;

/* Bitmap font constants (use these in GLUT program). */
#define GLUT_BITMAP_9_BY_15		(&glutBitmap9By15)
#define GLUT_BITMAP_8_BY_13		(&glutBitmap8By13)
#define GLUT_BITMAP_TIMES_ROMAN_10	(&glutBitmapTimesRoman10)
#define GLUT_BITMAP_TIMES_ROMAN_24	(&glutBitmapTimesRoman24)
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 3)
#define GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_10	(&glutBitmapHelvetica10)
#define GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_12	(&glutBitmapHelvetica12)
#define GLUT_BITMAP_HELVETICA_18	(&glutBitmapHelvetica18)
#endif
#endif

/* glutGet parameters. */
#define GLUT_WINDOW_X			((GLenum) 100)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_Y			((GLenum) 101)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_WIDTH		((GLenum) 102)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_HEIGHT		((GLenum) 103)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_BUFFER_SIZE		((GLenum) 104)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_STENCIL_SIZE	((GLenum) 105)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_DEPTH_SIZE		((GLenum) 106)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_RED_SIZE		((GLenum) 107)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_GREEN_SIZE		((GLenum) 108)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_BLUE_SIZE		((GLenum) 109)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_ALPHA_SIZE		((GLenum) 110)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_ACCUM_RED_SIZE	((GLenum) 111)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_ACCUM_GREEN_SIZE	((GLenum) 112)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_ACCUM_BLUE_SIZE	((GLenum) 113)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_ACCUM_ALPHA_SIZE	((GLenum) 114)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_DOUBLEBUFFER	((GLenum) 115)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_RGBA		((GLenum) 116)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_PARENT		((GLenum) 117)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_NUM_CHILDREN	((GLenum) 118)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_COLORMAP_SIZE	((GLenum) 119)
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 2)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_NUM_SAMPLES		((GLenum) 120)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_STEREO		((GLenum) 121)
#endif
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 3)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_CURSOR		((GLenum) 122)
#endif
#define GLUT_SCREEN_WIDTH		((GLenum) 200)
#define GLUT_SCREEN_HEIGHT		((GLenum) 201)
#define GLUT_SCREEN_WIDTH_MM		((GLenum) 202)
#define GLUT_SCREEN_HEIGHT_MM		((GLenum) 203)
#define GLUT_MENU_NUM_ITEMS		((GLenum) 300)
#define GLUT_DISPLAY_MODE_POSSIBLE	((GLenum) 400)
#define GLUT_INIT_WINDOW_X		((GLenum) 500)
#define GLUT_INIT_WINDOW_Y		((GLenum) 501)
#define GLUT_INIT_WINDOW_WIDTH		((GLenum) 502)
#define GLUT_INIT_WINDOW_HEIGHT		((GLenum) 503)
#define GLUT_INIT_DISPLAY_MODE		((GLenum) 504)
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 2)
#define GLUT_ELAPSED_TIME		((GLenum) 700)
#endif
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 4 || GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION >= 13)
#define GLUT_WINDOW_FORMAT_ID		((GLenum) 123)
#endif

#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 2)
/* glutDeviceGet parameters. */
#define GLUT_HAS_KEYBOARD		((GLenum) 600)
#define GLUT_HAS_MOUSE			((GLenum) 601)
#define GLUT_HAS_SPACEBALL		((GLenum) 602)
#define GLUT_HAS_DIAL_AND_BUTTON_BOX	((GLenum) 603)
#define GLUT_HAS_TABLET			((GLenum) 604)
#define GLUT_NUM_MOUSE_BUTTONS		((GLenum) 605)
#define GLUT_NUM_SPACEBALL_BUTTONS	((GLenum) 606)
#define GLUT_NUM_BUTTON_BOX_BUTTONS	((GLenum) 607)
#define GLUT_NUM_DIALS			((GLenum) 608)
#define GLUT_NUM_TABLET_BUTTONS		((GLenum) 609)
#endif
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 4 || GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION >= 13)
#define GLUT_DEVICE_IGNORE_KEY_REPEAT   ((GLenum) 610)
#define GLUT_DEVICE_KEY_REPEAT          ((GLenum) 611)
#define GLUT_HAS_JOYSTICK		((GLenum) 612)
#define GLUT_OWNS_JOYSTICK		((GLenum) 613)
#define GLUT_JOYSTICK_BUTTONS		((GLenum) 614)
#define GLUT_JOYSTICK_AXES		((GLenum) 615)
#define GLUT_JOYSTICK_POLL_RATE		((GLenum) 616)
#endif

#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 3)
/* glutLayerGet parameters. */
#define GLUT_OVERLAY_POSSIBLE           ((GLenum) 800)
#define GLUT_LAYER_IN_USE		((GLenum) 801)
#define GLUT_HAS_OVERLAY		((GLenum) 802)
#define GLUT_TRANSPARENT_INDEX		((GLenum) 803)
#define GLUT_NORMAL_DAMAGED		((GLenum) 804)
#define GLUT_OVERLAY_DAMAGED		((GLenum) 805)

#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 4 || GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION >= 9)
/* glutVideoResizeGet parameters. */
#define GLUT_VIDEO_RESIZE_POSSIBLE	((GLenum) 900)
#define GLUT_VIDEO_RESIZE_IN_USE	((GLenum) 901)
#define GLUT_VIDEO_RESIZE_X_DELTA	((GLenum) 902)
#define GLUT_VIDEO_RESIZE_Y_DELTA	((GLenum) 903)
#define GLUT_VIDEO_RESIZE_WIDTH_DELTA	((GLenum) 904)
#define GLUT_VIDEO_RESIZE_HEIGHT_DELTA	((GLenum) 905)
#define GLUT_VIDEO_RESIZE_X		((GLenum) 906)
#define GLUT_VIDEO_RESIZE_Y		((GLenum) 907)
#define GLUT_VIDEO_RESIZE_WIDTH		((GLenum) 908)
#define GLUT_VIDEO_RESIZE_HEIGHT	((GLenum) 909)
#endif

/* glutUseLayer parameters. */
#define GLUT_NORMAL			((GLenum) 0)
#define GLUT_OVERLAY			((GLenum) 1)

/* glutGetModifiers return mask. */
#define GLUT_ACTIVE_SHIFT               1
#define GLUT_ACTIVE_CTRL                2
#define GLUT_ACTIVE_ALT                 4

/* glutSetCursor parameters. */
/* Basic arrows. */
#define GLUT_CURSOR_RIGHT_ARROW		0
#define GLUT_CURSOR_LEFT_ARROW		1
/* Symbolic cursor shapes. */
#define GLUT_CURSOR_INFO		2
#define GLUT_CURSOR_DESTROY		3
#define GLUT_CURSOR_HELP		4
#define GLUT_CURSOR_CYCLE		5
#define GLUT_CURSOR_SPRAY		6
#define GLUT_CURSOR_WAIT		7
#define GLUT_CURSOR_TEXT		8
#define GLUT_CURSOR_CROSSHAIR		9
/* Directional cursors. */
#define GLUT_CURSOR_UP_DOWN		10
#define GLUT_CURSOR_LEFT_RIGHT		11
/* Sizing cursors. */
#define GLUT_CURSOR_TOP_SIDE		12
#define GLUT_CURSOR_BOTTOM_SIDE		13
#define GLUT_CURSOR_LEFT_SIDE		14
#define GLUT_CURSOR_RIGHT_SIDE		15
#define GLUT_CURSOR_TOP_LEFT_CORNER	16
#define GLUT_CURSOR_TOP_RIGHT_CORNER	17
#define GLUT_CURSOR_BOTTOM_RIGHT_CORNER	18
#define GLUT_CURSOR_BOTTOM_LEFT_CORNER	19
/* Inherit from parent window. */
#define GLUT_CURSOR_INHERIT		100
/* Blank cursor. */
#define GLUT_CURSOR_NONE		101
/* Fullscreen crosshair (if available). */
#define GLUT_CURSOR_FULL_CROSSHAIR	102
#endif

/* GLUT initialization sub-API. */
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutInit(int *argcp, char **argv);
#if defined(_WIN32) && !defined(GLUT_DISABLE_ATEXIT_HACK)
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY __glutInitWithExit(int *argcp, char **argv, void (__cdecl *exitfunc)(int));
#ifndef GLUT_BUILDING_LIB
static void APIENTRY glutInit_ATEXIT_HACK(int *argcp, char **argv) { __glutInitWithExit(argcp, argv, exit); }
#define glutInit glutInit_ATEXIT_HACK
#endif
#endif
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutInitDisplayMode(unsigned int mode);
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 4 || GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION >= 9)
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutInitDisplayString(const char *string);
#endif
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutInitWindowPosition(int x, int y);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutInitWindowSize(int width, int height);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutMainLoop(void);

/* GLUT window sub-API. */
GLUTAPI int APIENTRY glutCreateWindow(const char *title);
#if defined(_WIN32) && !defined(GLUT_DISABLE_ATEXIT_HACK)
GLUTAPI int APIENTRY __glutCreateWindowWithExit(const char *title, void (__cdecl *exitfunc)(int));
#ifndef GLUT_BUILDING_LIB
static int APIENTRY glutCreateWindow_ATEXIT_HACK(const char *title) { return __glutCreateWindowWithExit(title, exit); }
#define glutCreateWindow glutCreateWindow_ATEXIT_HACK
#endif
#endif
GLUTAPI int APIENTRY glutCreateSubWindow(int win, int x, int y, int width, int height);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutDestroyWindow(int win);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutPostRedisplay(void);
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 4 || GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION >= 11)
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutPostWindowRedisplay(int win);
#endif
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSwapBuffers(void);
GLUTAPI int APIENTRY glutGetWindow(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSetWindow(int win);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSetWindowTitle(const char *title);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSetIconTitle(const char *title);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutPositionWindow(int x, int y);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutReshapeWindow(int width, int height);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutPopWindow(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutPushWindow(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutIconifyWindow(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutShowWindow(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutHideWindow(void);
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 3)
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutFullScreen(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSetCursor(int cursor);
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 4 || GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION >= 9)
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutWarpPointer(int x, int y);
#endif

/* GLUT overlay sub-API. */
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutEstablishOverlay(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutRemoveOverlay(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutUseLayer(GLenum layer);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutPostOverlayRedisplay(void);
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 4 || GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION >= 11)
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutPostWindowOverlayRedisplay(int win);
#endif
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutShowOverlay(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutHideOverlay(void);
#endif

/* GLUT menu sub-API. */
GLUTAPI int APIENTRY glutCreateMenu(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int));
#if defined(_WIN32) && !defined(GLUT_DISABLE_ATEXIT_HACK)
GLUTAPI int APIENTRY __glutCreateMenuWithExit(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int), void (__cdecl *exitfunc)(int));
#ifndef GLUT_BUILDING_LIB
static int APIENTRY glutCreateMenu_ATEXIT_HACK(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int)) { return __glutCreateMenuWithExit(func, exit); }
#define glutCreateMenu glutCreateMenu_ATEXIT_HACK
#endif
#endif
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutDestroyMenu(int menu);
GLUTAPI int APIENTRY glutGetMenu(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSetMenu(int menu);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutAddMenuEntry(const char *label, int value);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutAddSubMenu(const char *label, int submenu);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutChangeToMenuEntry(int item, const char *label, int value);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutChangeToSubMenu(int item, const char *label, int submenu);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutRemoveMenuItem(int item);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutAttachMenu(int button);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutDetachMenu(int button);

/* GLUT window callback sub-API. */
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutDisplayFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(void));
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutReshapeFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int width, int height));
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutKeyboardFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(unsigned char key, int x, int y));
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutMouseFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int button, int state, int x, int y));
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutMotionFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int x, int y));
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutPassiveMotionFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int x, int y));
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutEntryFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int state));
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutVisibilityFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int state));
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutIdleFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(void));
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutTimerFunc(unsigned int millis, void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int value), int value);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutMenuStateFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int state));
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 2)
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSpecialFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int key, int x, int y));
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSpaceballMotionFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int x, int y, int z));
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSpaceballRotateFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int x, int y, int z));
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSpaceballButtonFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int button, int state));
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutButtonBoxFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int button, int state));
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutDialsFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int dial, int value));
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutTabletMotionFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int x, int y));
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutTabletButtonFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int button, int state, int x, int y));
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 3)
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutMenuStatusFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int status, int x, int y));
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutOverlayDisplayFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(void));
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 4 || GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION >= 9)
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutWindowStatusFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int state));
#endif
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 4 || GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION >= 13)
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutKeyboardUpFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(unsigned char key, int x, int y));
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSpecialUpFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(int key, int x, int y));
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutJoystickFunc(void (GLUTCALLBACK *func)(unsigned int buttonMask, int x, int y, int z), int pollInterval);
#endif
#endif
#endif

/* GLUT color index sub-API. */
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSetColor(int, GLfloat red, GLfloat green, GLfloat blue);
GLUTAPI GLfloat APIENTRY glutGetColor(int ndx, int component);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutCopyColormap(int win);

/* GLUT state retrieval sub-API. */
GLUTAPI int APIENTRY glutGet(GLenum type);
GLUTAPI int APIENTRY glutDeviceGet(GLenum type);
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 2)
/* GLUT extension support sub-API */
GLUTAPI int APIENTRY glutExtensionSupported(const char *name);
#endif
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 3)
GLUTAPI int APIENTRY glutGetModifiers(void);
GLUTAPI int APIENTRY glutLayerGet(GLenum type);
#endif

/* GLUT font sub-API */
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutBitmapCharacter(void *font, int character);
GLUTAPI int APIENTRY glutBitmapWidth(void *font, int character);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutStrokeCharacter(void *font, int character);
GLUTAPI int APIENTRY glutStrokeWidth(void *font, int character);
#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 4 || GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION >= 9)
GLUTAPI int APIENTRY glutBitmapLength(void *font, const unsigned char *string);
GLUTAPI int APIENTRY glutStrokeLength(void *font, const unsigned char *string);
#endif

/* GLUT pre-built models sub-API */
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutWireSphere(GLdouble radius, GLint slices, GLint stacks);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSolidSphere(GLdouble radius, GLint slices, GLint stacks);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutWireCone(GLdouble base, GLdouble height, GLint slices, GLint stacks);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSolidCone(GLdouble base, GLdouble height, GLint slices, GLint stacks);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutWireCube(GLdouble size);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSolidCube(GLdouble size);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutWireTorus(GLdouble innerRadius, GLdouble outerRadius, GLint sides, GLint rings);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSolidTorus(GLdouble innerRadius, GLdouble outerRadius, GLint sides, GLint rings);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutWireDodecahedron(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSolidDodecahedron(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutWireTeapot(GLdouble size);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSolidTeapot(GLdouble size);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutWireOctahedron(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSolidOctahedron(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutWireTetrahedron(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSolidTetrahedron(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutWireIcosahedron(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSolidIcosahedron(void);

#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 4 || GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION >= 9)
/* GLUT video resize sub-API. */
GLUTAPI int APIENTRY glutVideoResizeGet(GLenum param);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSetupVideoResizing(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutStopVideoResizing(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutVideoResize(int x, int y, int width, int height);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutVideoPan(int x, int y, int width, int height);

/* GLUT debugging sub-API. */
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutReportErrors(void);
#endif

#if (GLUT_API_VERSION >= 4 || GLUT_XLIB_IMPLEMENTATION >= 13)
/* GLUT device control sub-API. */
/* glutSetKeyRepeat modes. */
#define GLUT_KEY_REPEAT_OFF		0
#define GLUT_KEY_REPEAT_ON		1
#define GLUT_KEY_REPEAT_DEFAULT		2

/* Joystick button masks. */
#define GLUT_JOYSTICK_BUTTON_A		1
#define GLUT_JOYSTICK_BUTTON_B		2
#define GLUT_JOYSTICK_BUTTON_C		4
#define GLUT_JOYSTICK_BUTTON_D		8

GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutIgnoreKeyRepeat(int ignore);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutSetKeyRepeat(int repeatMode);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutForceJoystickFunc(void);

/* GLUT game mode sub-API. */
/* glutGameModeGet. */
#define GLUT_GAME_MODE_ACTIVE           ((GLenum) 0)
#define GLUT_GAME_MODE_POSSIBLE         ((GLenum) 1)
#define GLUT_GAME_MODE_WIDTH            ((GLenum) 2)
#define GLUT_GAME_MODE_HEIGHT           ((GLenum) 3)
#define GLUT_GAME_MODE_PIXEL_DEPTH      ((GLenum) 4)
#define GLUT_GAME_MODE_REFRESH_RATE     ((GLenum) 5)
#define GLUT_GAME_MODE_DISPLAY_CHANGED  ((GLenum) 6)

GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutGameModeString(const char *string);
GLUTAPI int APIENTRY glutEnterGameMode(void);
GLUTAPI void APIENTRY glutLeaveGameMode(void);
GLUTAPI int APIENTRY glutGameModeGet(GLenum mode);
#endif

#ifdef __cplusplus
}

#endif

#ifdef GLUT_APIENTRY_DEFINED
# undef GLUT_APIENTRY_DEFINED
# undef APIENTRY
#endif

#ifdef GLUT_WINGDIAPI_DEFINED
# undef GLUT_WINGDIAPI_DEFINED
# undef WINGDIAPI
#endif

#ifdef GLUT_DEFINED___CDECL
# undef GLUT_DEFINED___CDECL
# undef __cdecl
#endif

#ifdef GLUT_DEFINED__CRTIMP
# undef GLUT_DEFINED__CRTIMP
# undef _CRTIMP
#endif

#endif                  /* __glut_h__ */



main.cpp
#include <gl\glut.h>

void Initialize();
void MouseHandler(int button, int state, int x, int y);
void KeyboardHandler(unsigned char key, int x, int y);
void MainMenuHandler(int option);
void Animate();
void Reshape(int width, int height);
void Display();

/****************************************************************************
 main()

 Setup GLUT and OpenGL, drop into the event loop
*****************************************************************************/
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
  // Setup the basic GLUT stuff
  glutInit(&argc, argv);
  glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_RGB | GLUT_DEPTH);

  // Create the window
  glutInitWindowSize(1024, 768);
  glutInitWindowPosition(100, 150);
  glutCreateWindow("BOGLGP Chapter 1");

  Initialize();

  // Register the event callback functions
  glutDisplayFunc(Display); 
  glutReshapeFunc(Reshape);
  glutMouseFunc(MouseHandler);
  glutKeyboardFunc(KeyboardHandler);
  glutIdleFunc(Animate);

  // At this point, control is relinquished to the GLUT event handler.
  // Control is returned as events occur, via the callback functions.
  glutMainLoop();   
   
  return 0;
} // end main()


/****************************************************************************
 Initialize()

 One time setup, including creating menus, creating a light, setting the
 shading mode and clear color, and loading textures.
*****************************************************************************/
void Initialize()
{
  // set up the only meny
  int mainMenu;

  mainMenu = glutCreateMenu(MainMenuHandler);

  glutSetMenu(mainMenu);
  glutAddMenuEntry("Exit", 0);
  glutAttachMenu(GLUT_RIGHT_BUTTON);

  glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST);
} // end Initialize()


/****************************************************************************
 MouseHandler()
 
 Handle mouse events. For this simple demo, just exit on a left click.
*****************************************************************************/
void MouseHandler(int button, int state, int x, int y)
{
  switch (button)
  {
  case GLUT_LEFT_BUTTON:
    {
      exit(0);
    } break;
  default:
    break;
  }

  // force a screen redraw
  glutPostRedisplay();
} // end MouseHandler()


/****************************************************************************
 KeyboardHandler()

 Keyboard handler. Again, we'll just exit when q is pressed.
*****************************************************************************/
void KeyboardHandler(unsigned char key, int x, int y)
{
  switch (key)
  {
  case 'q':  // exit
    {
      exit(0);
    } break;
  default:
    {
    } break;
  }
  glutPostRedisplay();
} // end KeyboardHandler()


/****************************************************************************
 MainMenuHandler()

 Main menu callback.
*****************************************************************************/
void MainMenuHandler(int option)
{
  switch(option)
  {
  case 0:
    {
      exit(0);
    } break;
  default:
    break;
  }
  glutPostRedisplay();
} // end MainMenuHandler()


/****************************************************************************
 Animate()

 Rotate the cube by 4 degrees and force a redisplay.
*****************************************************************************/
void Animate()
{
  glutPostRedisplay();
} // end Animate()


/****************************************************************************
 Reshape()

 Reset the viewport for window changes
*****************************************************************************/
void Reshape(int width, int height)
{
  if (height == 0)
    return;

  glViewport(0, 0, (GLsizei) width, (GLsizei) height);
  glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION);
  glLoadIdentity();
  gluPerspective(90.0, width/height, 1.0, 100.0);

  glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW);
} // end Reshape


/****************************************************************************
 Display()

 Clear and redraw the scene.
*****************************************************************************/
void Display()
{
  // set up the camera
  glLoadIdentity();
  gluLookAt(0.0, 1.0, 6.0,
            0.0, 0.0, 0.0,
            0.0, 1.0, 0.0);

  // clear the screen
  glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);

  // draw a triangle
  glBegin(GL_TRIANGLES);
    glColor3f(1.0, 0.0, 0.0);
    glVertex3f(2.0, 2.5, -1.0);
    glColor3f(0.0, 1.0, 0.0);
    glVertex3f(-3.5, -2.5, -1.0);
    glColor3f(0.0, 0.0, 1.0);
    glVertex3f(2.0, -4.0, 0.0);
  glEnd();

  // draw a polygon
  glBegin(GL_POLYGON);
    glColor3f(1.0, 1.0, 1.0);
    glVertex3f(-1.0, 2.0, 0.0);
    glColor3f(1.0, 1.0, 0.0);
    glVertex3f(-3.0, -0.5, 0.0);
    glColor3f(0.0, 1.0, 1.0);
    glVertex3f(-1.5, -3.0, 0.0);
    glColor3f(0.0, 0.0, 0.0);
    glVertex3f(1.0, -2.0, 0.0);
    glColor3f(1.0, 0.0, 1.0);
    glVertex3f(1.0, 1.0, 0.0);
  glEnd();

  // draw everything and swap the display buffer
  glutSwapBuffers();
} // end Display()




I'm stuck. Thanks for any help! [Edited by - BlackReign on March 17, 2005 7:30:53 AM]

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Tried it already, but I'll I get is linker errors. Line 50 is surrounded by # ifndef and #endif so I would think it wouldn't have a redeclaration error. If anyone is wondering Line 50 is:

typedef unsigned wchar_t;

EDIT: I tried the above method but it didn't work. I still get linker errors.

Edit 2: New Errors:

[Linker error] undefined reference to `__glutCreateWindowWithExit@8'
[Linker error] undefined reference to .......................
...............................
..................................
collect2 C:\Dev-Cpp\OpenGl programs\collect2 ld returned 1 exit status
C:\Dev-Cpp\OpenGl programs\Makefile.win [Build Error] [OpenGl.exe] Error 1

[Edited by - BlackReign on March 15, 2005 6:15:11 PM]

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Quote:
Original post by BlackReign
[Linker error] undefined reference to `__glutCreateWindowWithExit@8'
[Linker error] undefined reference to .......................
...............................
..................................
collect2 C:\Dev-Cpp\OpenGl programs\collect2 ld returned 1 exit status
C:\Dev-Cpp\OpenGl programs\Makefile.win [Build Error] [OpenGl.exe] Error 1


Make sure you are linking glut32.lib.

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The header appears to be redefining wchar_t as unsigned short. First of all, this is a mistake since wchar_t is a standard C++ type, but also I believe <windows.h> does #define it to be unsigned short already.

Which means the line reads typedef unsigned short unsigned short

Run your code through the preprocessor (g++ -E main.cpp or cpp main.cpp depending on what tools you've got available) and search for that line (g++ -E main.cpp | grep "typedef unsigned short"). See if I'm correct or not.

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Quote:
Original post by Kalidor

Make sure you are linking glut32.lib.


Oh, I am.


Quote:
Original post by Fruny
The header appears to be redefining wchar_t as unsigned short. First of all, this is a mistake since wchar_t is a standard C++ type, but also I believe <windows.h> does #define it to be unsigned short already.

Which means the line reads typedef unsigned short unsigned short

Run your code through the preprocessor (g++ -E main.cpp or cpp main.cpp depending on what tools you've got available) and search for that line (g++ -E main.cpp | grep "typedef unsigned short"). See if I'm correct or not.


How would I go about doing that?

One thing I've noticed that even if I modified line 15 of glut.h and then changed it back to what it originaly was I still get the linker error. Weird.

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      TextureDesc TexDesc; TexDesc.Name = "My texture 2D"; TexDesc.Type = TEXTURE_TYPE_2D; TexDesc.Width = 1024; TexDesc.Height = 1024; TexDesc.Format = TEX_FORMAT_RGBA8_UNORM; TexDesc.Usage = USAGE_DEFAULT; TexDesc.BindFlags = BIND_SHADER_RESOURCE | BIND_RENDER_TARGET | BIND_UNORDERED_ACCESS; TexDesc.Name = "Sample 2D Texture"; m_pRenderDevice->CreateTexture( TexDesc, TextureData(), &m_pTestTex ); If native API supports multithreaded resource creation, textures and buffers can be created by multiple threads simultaneously.
      Interoperability with native API provides access to the native buffer/texture objects and also allows creating Diligent Engine objects from native handles. It allows applications seamlessly integrate native API-specific code with Diligent Engine.
      Next-generation APIs allow fine level-control over how resources are allocated. Diligent Engine does not currently expose this functionality, but it can be added by implementing IResourceAllocator interface that encapsulates specifics of resource allocation and providing this interface to CreateBuffer() or CreateTexture() methods. If null is provided, default allocator should be used.
      Initializing the Pipeline State
      As it was mentioned earlier, Diligent Engine follows next-gen APIs to configure the graphics/compute pipeline. One big Pipelines State Object (PSO) encompasses all required states (all shader stages, input layout description, depth stencil, rasterizer and blend state descriptions etc.). This approach maps directly to Direct3D12/Vulkan, but is also beneficial for older APIs as it eliminates pipeline misconfiguration errors. With many individual calls tweaking various GPU pipeline settings it is very easy to forget to set one of the states or assume the stage is already properly configured when in fact it is not. Using pipeline state object helps avoid these problems as all stages are configured at once.
      Creating Shaders
      While in earlier APIs shaders were bound separately, in the next-generation APIs as well as in Diligent Engine shaders are part of the pipeline state object. The biggest challenge when authoring shaders is that Direct3D and OpenGL/Vulkan use different shader languages (while Apple uses yet another language in their Metal API). Maintaining two versions of every shader is not an option for real applications and Diligent Engine implements shader source code converter that allows shaders authored in HLSL to be translated to GLSL. To create a shader, one needs to populate ShaderCreationAttribs structure. SourceLanguage member of this structure tells the system which language the shader is authored in:
      SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_DEFAULT - The shader source language matches the underlying graphics API: HLSL for Direct3D11/Direct3D12 mode, and GLSL for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL - The shader source is in HLSL. For OpenGL and OpenGLES modes, the source code will be converted to GLSL. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_GLSL - The shader source is in GLSL. There is currently no GLSL to HLSL converter, so this value should only be used for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. There are two ways to provide the shader source code. The first way is to use Source member. The second way is to provide a file path in FilePath member. Since the engine is entirely decoupled from the platform and the host file system is platform-dependent, the structure exposes pShaderSourceStreamFactory member that is intended to provide the engine access to the file system. If FilePath is provided, shader source factory must also be provided. If the shader source contains any #include directives, the source stream factory will also be used to load these files. The engine provides default implementation for every supported platform that should be sufficient in most cases. Custom implementation can be provided when needed.
      When sampling a texture in a shader, the texture sampler was traditionally specified as separate object that was bound to the pipeline at run time or set as part of the texture object itself. However, in most cases it is known beforehand what kind of sampler will be used in the shader. Next-generation APIs expose new type of sampler called static sampler that can be initialized directly in the pipeline state. Diligent Engine exposes this functionality: when creating a shader, textures can be assigned static samplers. If static sampler is assigned, it will always be used instead of the one initialized in the texture shader resource view. To initialize static samplers, prepare an array of StaticSamplerDesc structures and initialize StaticSamplers and NumStaticSamplers members. Static samplers are more efficient and it is highly recommended to use them whenever possible. On older APIs, static samplers are emulated via generic sampler objects.
      The following is an example of shader initialization:
      ShaderCreationAttribs Attrs; Attrs.Desc.Name = "MyPixelShader"; Attrs.FilePath = "MyShaderFile.fx"; Attrs.SearchDirectories = "shaders;shaders\\inc;"; Attrs.EntryPoint = "MyPixelShader"; Attrs.Desc.ShaderType = SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL; Attrs.SourceLanguage = SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL; BasicShaderSourceStreamFactory BasicSSSFactory(Attrs.SearchDirectories); Attrs.pShaderSourceStreamFactory = &BasicSSSFactory; ShaderVariableDesc ShaderVars[] = {     {"g_StaticTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC},     {"g_MutableTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE},     {"g_DynamicTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC} }; Attrs.Desc.VariableDesc = ShaderVars; Attrs.Desc.NumVariables = _countof(ShaderVars); Attrs.Desc.DefaultVariableType = SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC; StaticSamplerDesc StaticSampler; StaticSampler.Desc.MinFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.Desc.MagFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.Desc.MipFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.TextureName = "g_MutableTexture"; Attrs.Desc.NumStaticSamplers = 1; Attrs.Desc.StaticSamplers = &StaticSampler; ShaderMacroHelper Macros; Macros.AddShaderMacro("USE_SHADOWS", 1); Macros.AddShaderMacro("NUM_SHADOW_SAMPLES", 4); Macros.Finalize(); Attrs.Macros = Macros; RefCntAutoPtr<IShader> pShader; m_pDevice->CreateShader( Attrs, &pShader );
      Creating the Pipeline State Object
      After all required shaders are created, the rest of the fields of the PipelineStateDesc structure provide depth-stencil, rasterizer, and blend state descriptions, the number and format of render targets, input layout format, etc. For instance, rasterizer state can be described as follows:
      PipelineStateDesc PSODesc; RasterizerStateDesc &RasterizerDesc = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.RasterizerDesc; RasterizerDesc.FillMode = FILL_MODE_SOLID; RasterizerDesc.CullMode = CULL_MODE_NONE; RasterizerDesc.FrontCounterClockwise = True; RasterizerDesc.ScissorEnable = True; RasterizerDesc.AntialiasedLineEnable = False; Depth-stencil and blend states are defined in a similar fashion.
      Another important thing that pipeline state object encompasses is the input layout description that defines how inputs to the vertex shader, which is the very first shader stage, should be read from the memory. Input layout may define several vertex streams that contain values of different formats and sizes:
      // Define input layout InputLayoutDesc &Layout = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.InputLayout; LayoutElement TextLayoutElems[] = {     LayoutElement( 0, 0, 3, VT_FLOAT32, False ),     LayoutElement( 1, 0, 4, VT_UINT8, True ),     LayoutElement( 2, 0, 2, VT_FLOAT32, False ), }; Layout.LayoutElements = TextLayoutElems; Layout.NumElements = _countof( TextLayoutElems ); Finally, pipeline state defines primitive topology type. When all required members are initialized, a pipeline state object can be created by IRenderDevice::CreatePipelineState() method:
      // Define shader and primitive topology PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.PrimitiveTopologyType = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TYPE_TRIANGLE; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pVS = pVertexShader; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pPS = pPixelShader; PSODesc.Name = "My pipeline state"; m_pDev->CreatePipelineState(PSODesc, &m_pPSO); When PSO object is bound to the pipeline, the engine invokes all API-specific commands to set all states specified by the object. In case of Direct3D12 this maps directly to setting the D3D12 PSO object. In case of Direct3D11, this involves setting individual state objects (such as rasterizer and blend states), shaders, input layout etc. In case of OpenGL, this requires a number of fine-grain state tweaking calls. Diligent Engine keeps track of currently bound states and only calls functions to update these states that have actually changed.
      Binding Shader Resources
      Direct3D11 and OpenGL utilize fine-grain resource binding models, where an application binds individual buffers and textures to certain shader or program resource binding slots. Direct3D12 uses a very different approach, where resource descriptors are grouped into tables, and an application can bind all resources in the table at once by setting the table in the command list. Resource binding model in Diligent Engine is designed to leverage this new method. It introduces a new object called shader resource binding that encapsulates all resource bindings required for all shaders in a certain pipeline state. It also introduces the classification of shader variables based on the frequency of expected change that helps the engine group them into tables under the hood:
      Static variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC) are variables that are expected to be set only once. They may not be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. Such variables are intended to hold global constants such as camera attributes or global light attributes constant buffers. Mutable variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE) define resources that are expected to change on a per-material frequency. Examples may include diffuse textures, normal maps etc. Dynamic variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC) are expected to change frequently and randomly. Shader variable type must be specified during shader creation by populating an array of ShaderVariableDesc structures and initializing ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::VariableDesc and ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::NumVariables members (see example of shader creation above).
      Static variables cannot be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. They are bound directly to the shader object. For instance, a shadow map texture is not expected to change after it is created, so it can be bound directly to the shader:
      PixelShader->GetShaderVariable( "g_tex2DShadowMap" )->Set( pShadowMapSRV ); Mutable and dynamic variables are bound via a new Shader Resource Binding object (SRB) that is created by the pipeline state (IPipelineState::CreateShaderResourceBinding()):
      m_pPSO->CreateShaderResourceBinding(&m_pSRB); Note that an SRB is only compatible with the pipeline state it was created from. SRB object inherits all static bindings from shaders in the pipeline, but is not allowed to change them.
      Mutable resources can only be set once for every instance of a shader resource binding. Such resources are intended to define specific material properties. For instance, a diffuse texture for a specific material is not expected to change once the material is defined and can be set right after the SRB object has been created:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL, "tex2DDiffuse")->Set(pDiffuseTexSRV); In some cases it is necessary to bind a new resource to a variable every time a draw command is invoked. Such variables should be labeled as dynamic, which will allow setting them multiple times through the same SRB object:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_VERTEX, "cbRandomAttribs")->Set(pRandomAttrsCB); Under the hood, the engine pre-allocates descriptor tables for static and mutable resources when an SRB objcet is created. Space for dynamic resources is dynamically allocated at run time. Static and mutable resources are thus more efficient and should be used whenever possible.
      As you can see, Diligent Engine does not expose low-level details of how resources are bound to shader variables. One reason for this is that these details are very different for various APIs. The other reason is that using low-level binding methods is extremely error-prone: it is very easy to forget to bind some resource, or bind incorrect resource such as bind a buffer to the variable that is in fact a texture, especially during shader development when everything changes fast. Diligent Engine instead relies on shader reflection system to automatically query the list of all shader variables. Grouping variables based on three types mentioned above allows the engine to create optimized layout and take heavy lifting of matching resources to API-specific resource location, register or descriptor in the table.
      This post gives more details about the resource binding model in Diligent Engine.
      Setting the Pipeline State and Committing Shader Resources
      Before any draw or compute command can be invoked, the pipeline state needs to be bound to the context:
      m_pContext->SetPipelineState(m_pPSO); Under the hood, the engine sets the internal PSO object in the command list or calls all the required native API functions to properly configure all pipeline stages.
      The next step is to bind all required shader resources to the GPU pipeline, which is accomplished by IDeviceContext::CommitShaderResources() method:
      m_pContext->CommitShaderResources(m_pSRB, COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES); The method takes a pointer to the shader resource binding object and makes all resources the object holds available for the shaders. In the case of D3D12, this only requires setting appropriate descriptor tables in the command list. For older APIs, this typically requires setting all resources individually.
      Next-generation APIs require the application to track the state of every resource and explicitly inform the system about all state transitions. For instance, if a texture was used as render target before, while the next draw command is going to use it as shader resource, a transition barrier needs to be executed. Diligent Engine does the heavy lifting of state tracking.  When CommitShaderResources() method is called with COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES flag, the engine commits and transitions resources to correct states at the same time. Note that transitioning resources does introduce some overhead. The engine tracks state of every resource and it will not issue the barrier if the state is already correct. But checking resource state is an overhead that can sometimes be avoided. The engine provides IDeviceContext::TransitionShaderResources() method that only transitions resources:
      m_pContext->TransitionShaderResources(m_pPSO, m_pSRB); In some scenarios it is more efficient to transition resources once and then only commit them.
      Invoking Draw Command
      The final step is to set states that are not part of the PSO, such as render targets, vertex and index buffers. Diligent Engine uses Direct3D11-syle API that is translated to other native API calls under the hood:
      ITextureView *pRTVs[] = {m_pRTV}; m_pContext->SetRenderTargets(_countof( pRTVs ), pRTVs, m_pDSV); // Clear render target and depth buffer const float zero[4] = {0, 0, 0, 0}; m_pContext->ClearRenderTarget(nullptr, zero); m_pContext->ClearDepthStencil(nullptr, CLEAR_DEPTH_FLAG, 1.f); // Set vertex and index buffers IBuffer *buffer[] = {m_pVertexBuffer}; Uint32 offsets[] = {0}; Uint32 strides[] = {sizeof(MyVertex)}; m_pContext->SetVertexBuffers(0, 1, buffer, strides, offsets, SET_VERTEX_BUFFERS_FLAG_RESET); m_pContext->SetIndexBuffer(m_pIndexBuffer, 0); Different native APIs use various set of function to execute draw commands depending on command details (if the command is indexed, instanced or both, what offsets in the source buffers are used etc.). For instance, there are 5 draw commands in Direct3D11 and more than 9 commands in OpenGL with something like glDrawElementsInstancedBaseVertexBaseInstance not uncommon. Diligent Engine hides all details with single IDeviceContext::Draw() method that takes takes DrawAttribs structure as an argument. The structure members define all attributes required to perform the command (primitive topology, number of vertices or indices, if draw call is indexed or not, if draw call is instanced or not, if draw call is indirect or not, etc.). For example:
      DrawAttribs attrs; attrs.IsIndexed = true; attrs.IndexType = VT_UINT16; attrs.NumIndices = 36; attrs.Topology = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLE_LIST; pContext->Draw(attrs); For compute commands, there is IDeviceContext::DispatchCompute() method that takes DispatchComputeAttribs structure that defines compute grid dimension.
      Source Code
      Full engine source code is available on GitHub and is free to use. The repository contains tutorials, sample applications, asteroids performance benchmark and an example Unity project that uses Diligent Engine in native plugin.
      Atmospheric scattering sample demonstrates how Diligent Engine can be used to implement various rendering tasks: loading textures from files, using complex shaders, rendering to multiple render targets, using compute shaders and unordered access views, etc.

      Asteroids performance benchmark is based on this demo developed by Intel. It renders 50,000 unique textured asteroids and allows comparing performance of Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 implementations. Every asteroid is a combination of one of 1000 unique meshes and one of 10 unique textures.

      Finally, there is an example project that shows how Diligent Engine can be integrated with Unity.

      Future Work
      The engine is under active development. It currently supports Windows desktop, Universal Windows, Linux, Android, MacOS, and iOS platforms. Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES backends are now feature complete. Vulkan backend is coming next, and Metal backend is in the plan.
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