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question about object initialization

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i wrote code below:
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
class A {
	A() :i(0) {
		cout << "default constructor called" << endl;
	A(int n) : i(n) {
		cout << "1 argument constructor called" << endl;
	A(const A& obj) : i(obj.i) {
		cout << "copy constructor called" << endl;

	int i;
int main()
	A a1(10);

	A a2 = A::A(10);

	A a3;
	a3 = A::A(10);
	return 0;
Somebody says that the second clause in the main function creates a nameless temporary A instance. Then, a2 is initialized from that temporary by the copy constructor. But the output is "1 argument constructor called", it is just like the output of the first clause:just one constructor called and no copy constructor called. so, will somebody tell me what does this clause "A a2 = A::A(10);" actually do , and what is the difference between the three methods in the main function ?

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When you first create an object, the compiler is allowed to use the initialization, rather than copy or assignment operator.

In other words

A a = A::A(10);
is the same as
A a = A(10);
is the same as
A a = 10;
is the same as
A a(10);

This isn't the case for a3 in your code, where = is used to copy instead.

In other words, =, when used on an object being first created, means "initialization" rather than "copy".

A more interesting question is - what does:
A a(A(10));
do? (I don't know, I'd have to try it and see - my guess is copy).

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I guess A a(A(10)); will be optimised by the compiler, but it looks like it should create a temporary variable initialized with 10, then copy construct a with this temporary variable.

The easiest way to find out would be to build it and see what happens, but I'm too lazy ;) hehe

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