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Arczi

OpenGL Problem with texturing

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Hi, I made 3d model in 3ds max and then I convert model in PolyTrans to OpenGL C code. I have a problem to add texture to object. I explore tutorials on GameDev.Net but I don't find any solution of my problem. Could anybody help me, please. This is a C code of my object. #include <math.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <windows.h> #include <gl\gl.h> #include <gl\glu.h> #include <gl\glaux.h> HDC hDC=NULL; HGLRC hRC=NULL; HWND hWnd=NULL; bool keys[256]; bool active=TRUE; bool fullscreen=false; const float pi180 = 0.0174532925f; float kat,dlobrotu=1; float x,y,z; float pozx, pozy, pozz; float dlkroku=1; GLuint texture[1]; LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc(HWND, UINT, WPARAM, LPARAM); AUX_RGBImageRec *LoadBMP(char *Filename) { FILE *File=NULL; if (!Filename) { return NULL; } File=fopen(Filename,"r"); if (File) { fclose(File); return auxDIBImageLoad(Filename); } return NULL; } int LoadGLTextures() { int Status=FALSE; AUX_RGBImageRec *TextureImage[1]; memset(TextureImage,0,sizeof(void *)*1); if (TextureImage[0]=LoadBMP("Limesto1.bmp")) { Status=TRUE; glGenTextures(1, &texture[0]); glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]); glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, 3, TextureImage[0]->sizeX, TextureImage[0]->sizeY, 0, GL_RGB, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, TextureImage[0]->data); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D,GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER,GL_LINEAR); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D,GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER,GL_LINEAR); } if (TextureImage[0]) { if (TextureImage[0]->data) { free(TextureImage[0]->data); } free(TextureImage[0]); } return Status; } GLvoid ReSizeGLScene(GLsizei width, GLsizei height) { if (height==0) { height=1; } glViewport(0,0,width,height); glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); glLoadIdentity(); gluPerspective(45.0f,(GLfloat)width/(GLfloat)height,0.1f,100.0f); glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW); glLoadIdentity(); } int InitGL(GLvoid) {if (!LoadGLTextures()) { return FALSE; } glShadeModel(GL_SMOOTH); glClearColor(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.5f); glClearDepth(1.0f); glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL); glHint(GL_PERSPECTIVE_CORRECTION_HINT, GL_NICEST); return TRUE; } void OGL_Set_Current_Material_Parameters(float shininess, float r_diffuseColor, float g_diffuseColor, float b_diffuseColor, float r_specularColor, float g_specularColor, float b_specularColor) { GLfloat glfModelSpecular[4]; glColorMaterial(GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, GL_AMBIENT_AND_DIFFUSE); glMaterialf(GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, GL_SHININESS, shininess); glfModelSpecular[0] = r_specularColor; glfModelSpecular[1] = g_specularColor; glfModelSpecular[2] = b_specularColor; glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, GL_SPECULAR, glfModelSpecular); glColor3f(r_diffuseColor, g_diffuseColor, b_diffuseColor); } void OGL_Set_Current_Texture_Map(char *texture_map_name, float u_scale, float v_scale, float u_offset, float v_offset) { } void rysuj() { glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]); static GLfloat VertexData[] = { -50.0000f, -45.8175f, -2.00275e-006f, 50.0000f, -45.8175f, -2.00275e-006f, -50.0000f, 45.8175f, 2.00275e-006f, 50.0000f, 45.8175f, 2.00275e-006f, -50.0000f, -45.8175f, 38.4030f, 50.0000f, -45.8175f, 38.4030f, -50.0000f, 45.8175f, 38.4030f, 50.0000f, 45.8175f, 38.4030f, -50.0000f, -45.8175f, -2.00275e-006f, 50.0000f, -45.8175f, -2.00275e-006f, 50.0000f, -45.8175f, 38.4030f, 50.0000f, -45.8175f, 38.4030f, -50.0000f, -45.8175f, 38.4030f, -50.0000f, -45.8175f, -2.00275e-006f, 50.0000f, 45.8175f, 2.00275e-006f, 50.0000f, -45.8175f, 38.4030f, 50.0000f, 45.8175f, 2.00275e-006f, -50.0000f, 45.8175f, 2.00275e-006f, -50.0000f, 45.8175f, 38.4030f, -50.0000f, 45.8175f, 38.4030f, 50.0000f, 45.8175f, 38.4030f, 50.0000f, 45.8175f, 2.00275e-006f, -50.0000f, 45.8175f, 2.00275e-006f, -50.0000f, -45.8175f, 38.4030f, -50.0000f, -45.8175f, 38.4030f, -50.0000f, 45.8175f, 2.00275e-006f }; static GLfloat NormalData[] = { 0.000000f, 4.37114e-008f, -1.00000f, 0.000000f, -4.37114e-008f, 1.00000f, 0.000000f, -1.00000f, -4.37114e-008f, 1.00000f, -6.46120e-017f, -2.82428e-024f, 0.000000f, 1.00000f, 4.37114e-008f, -1.00000f, 0.000000f, 0.000000f }; static GLfloat TexCoordData[] = { 0.000000f, 0.000000f, 0.000000f, 1.00000f, 1.00000f, 0.000000f, 1.00000f, 1.00000f }; static GLint Indices[] = { 0, 2, 3, 3, 1, 0, 4, 5, 7, 7, 6, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 1, 14, 7, 7, 15, 1, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 0, 23, 24, 6, 25 }; glEnableClientState(GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY); glTexCoordPointer(2, GL_FLOAT, 0, TexCoordData); glEnableClientState(GL_NORMAL_ARRAY); glNormalPointer(GL_FLOAT, 0, NormalData); glEnableClientState(GL_VERTEX_ARRAY); glVertexPointer(3, GL_FLOAT, 0, VertexData); OGL_Set_Current_Material_Parameters(15.0000f, 1.00000f, 1.00000f, 1.00000f, 0.898039f, 0.898039f, 0.898039f); OGL_Set_Current_Texture_Map("limesto1.jpg", 1.00000f, 1.00000f, 0.000000f, 0.000000f); glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[0]); glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[3]); glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[6]); glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[9]); glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[12]); glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[15]); glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[18]); glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[21]); glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[24]); glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[27]); glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[30]); glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[33]); } int DrawGLScene(GLvoid) { glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); glLoadIdentity(); glTranslatef(0,0,-20); pozx=x+8*sin((kat*pi180)); pozz=z+8*cos((kat*pi180)); pozy=y; gluLookAt(x,y,z,pozx,pozy,pozz,0,1,0); rysuj(); return true; } GLvoid KillGLWindow(GLvoid) { if (hRC) { if (!wglMakeCurrent(NULL,NULL)) { MessageBox(NULL,"Release Of DC And RC Failed.","SHUTDOWN ERROR",MB_OK | MB_ICONINFORMATION); } if (!wglDeleteContext(hRC)) { MessageBox(NULL,"Release Rendering Context Failed.","SHUTDOWN ERROR",MB_OK | MB_ICONINFORMATION); } hRC=NULL; } if (hDC && !ReleaseDC(hWnd,hDC)) { MessageBox(NULL,"Release Device Context Failed.","SHUTDOWN ERROR",MB_OK | MB_ICONINFORMATION); hDC=NULL; } if (hWnd && !DestroyWindow(hWnd)) { MessageBox(NULL,"Could Not Release hWnd.","SHUTDOWN ERROR",MB_OK | MB_ICONINFORMATION); hWnd=NULL; } if (fullscreen) { ChangeDisplaySettings(NULL,0); ShowCursor(TRUE); } } BOOL CreateGLWindow(char* title, int width, int height, int bits, bool fullscreenflag) { GLuint PixelFormat; HINSTANCE hInstance; WNDCLASS wc; DWORD dwExstyle; DWORD dwstyle; fullscreen=fullscreenflag; hInstance = GetModuleHandle(NULL); wc.style = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW | CS_OWNDC; wc.lpfnWndProc = (WNDPROC) WndProc; wc.cbClsExtra = 0; wc.cbWndExtra = 0; wc.hInstance = hInstance; wc.hIcon = LoadIcon(NULL, IDI_WINLOGO); wc.hCursor = LoadCursor(NULL, IDC_ARROW); wc.hbrBackground = NULL; wc.lpszMenuName = NULL; wc.lpszClassName = "OpenGL"; if (!RegisterClass(&wc)) { MessageBox(NULL,"Failed To Register The Window Class.","ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION); return FALSE; } if (fullscreen) { DEVMODE dmScreenSettings; memset(&dmScreenSettings,0,sizeof(dmScreenSettings)); dmScreenSettings.dmSize=sizeof(dmScreenSettings); dmScreenSettings.dmPelsWidth = width; dmScreenSettings.dmPelsHeight = height; dmScreenSettings.dmBitsPerPel = bits; dmScreenSettings.dmFields=DM_BITSPERPEL|DM_PELSWIDTH|DM_PELSHEIGHT; if (ChangeDisplaySettings(&dmScreenSettings,CDS_FULLSCREEN)!=DISP_CHANGE_SUCCESSFUL) { if (MessageBox(NULL,"The Requested Fullscreen Mode Is Not Supported By\nYour Video Card. Use Windowed Mode Instead?","NeHe GL",MB_YESNO|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION)==IDYES) { fullscreen=FALSE; } else { MessageBox(NULL,"Program Will Now Close.","ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONSTOP); return FALSE; } } } if (fullscreen) { dwExstyle=WS_EX_APPWINDOW; dwstyle=WS_POPUP | WS_CLIPSIBLINGS | WS_CLIPCHILDREN; ShowCursor(FALSE); } else { dwExstyle=WS_EX_APPWINDOW | WS_EX_WINDOWEDGE; dwstyle=WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW | WS_CLIPSIBLINGS | WS_CLIPCHILDREN; } if (!(hWnd=CreateWindowEx( dwExstyle, "OpenGL", title, dwstyle, 0, 0, width, height, NULL, NULL, hInstance, NULL))) { KillGLWindow(); MessageBox(NULL,"Window Creation Error.","ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION); return FALSE; } static PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR pfd= { sizeof(PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR), 1, PFD_DRAW_TO_WINDOW | PFD_SUPPORT_OPENGL | PFD_DOUBLEBUFFER, PFD_TYPE_RGBA, bits, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 16, 0, 0, PFD_MAIN_PLANE, 0, 0, 0, 0 }; if (!(hDC=GetDC(hWnd))) { KillGLWindow(); MessageBox(NULL,"Can't Create A GL Device Context.","ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION); return FALSE; } if (!(PixelFormat=ChoosePixelFormat(hDC,&pfd))) { KillGLWindow(); MessageBox(NULL,"Can't Find A Suitable PixelFormat.","ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION); return FALSE; } if(!SetPixelFormat(hDC,PixelFormat,&pfd)) { KillGLWindow(); MessageBox(NULL,"Can't Set The PixelFormat.","ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION); return FALSE; } if (!(hRC=wglCreateContext(hDC))) { KillGLWindow(); MessageBox(NULL,"Can't Create A GL Rendering Context.","ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION); return FALSE; } if(!wglMakeCurrent(hDC,hRC)) { KillGLWindow(); MessageBox(NULL,"Can't Activate The GL Rendering Context.","ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION); return FALSE; } ShowWindow(hWnd,SW_SHOW); SetForegroundWindow(hWnd); SetFocus(hWnd); ReSizeGLScene(width, height); if (!InitGL()) { KillGLWindow(); MessageBox(NULL,"Initialization Failed.","ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION); return FALSE; } return TRUE; } LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc( HWND hWnd, UINT uMsg, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam) { switch (uMsg) { case WM_ACTIVATE: { if (!HIWORD(wParam)) { active=TRUE; } else { active=FALSE; } return 0; } case WM_SYSCOMMAND: { switch (wParam) { case SC_SCREENSAVE: case SC_MONITORPOWER: return 0; } break; } case WM_CLOSE: { PostQuitMessage(0); return 0; } case WM_KEYDOWN: { keys[wParam] = TRUE; return 0; } case WM_KEYUP: { keys[wParam] = FALSE; return 0; } case WM_SIZE: { ReSizeGLScene(LOWORD(lParam),HIWORD(lParam)); return 0; } } return DefWindowProc(hWnd,uMsg,wParam,lParam); } int WINAPI WinMain( HINSTANCE hInstance, HINSTANCE hPrevInstance, LPSTR lpCmdLine, int nCmdShow) { MSG msg; BOOL done=FALSE; if (!CreateGLWindow("¯uraw Mostostal 120/160",1024,768,16,fullscreen)) { return 0; } while(!done) { if (PeekMessage(&msg,NULL,0,0,PM_REMOVE)) { if (msg.message==WM_QUIT) { done=TRUE; } else { TranslateMessage(&msg); DispatchMessage(&msg); } } else { if ((active && !DrawGLScene()) || keys[VK_ESCAPE]) { done=TRUE; } else { SwapBuffers(hDC); } if(keys[VK_LEFT]==true) {if(kat>360.0f){kat=0.0f;};kat+=dlobrotu;} if(keys[VK_RIGHT]==true) {if(kat<-360.0f){kat=0.0f;};kat-=dlobrotu;} if(keys[VK_UP]==true) { y=0; x=x+dlkroku*sin((kat*pi180)); z=z+dlkroku*cos((kat*pi180)); } if(keys[VK_DOWN]==true) { y=0; x=x-dlkroku*sin((kat*pi180)); z=z-dlkroku*cos((kat*pi180));} } } KillGLWindow(); return (msg.wParam); } Could anybody correct this code, please. Thanks in advance, Arczi

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Hi,
Try to use this tag next time ,if you don't mind :)
[*source]code[*/source]
remove *.

you forget to enable GL_TEXTURE_2D just put glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D); somewhere in your code.
bye

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If you do this whole point of glDrawElements is lost. Just do it once.


glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[0]);
glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[3]);
glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[6]);
glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[9]);
glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[12]);
glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[15]);
glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[18]);
glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[21]);
glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[24]);
glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[27]);
glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[30]);
glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 3, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[33]);



Do it once only


glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 36, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, &Indices[0]);



For now you can put glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D) in you initGL code.

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Quote:
Original post by Arczi
Now it's working but texture is display only at one wall of box.


Thats probably because here you have info only for 1 triangle/quad


static GLfloat TexCoordData[] = {
0.000000f, 0.000000f, 0.000000f, 1.00000f, 1.00000f, 0.000000f,
1.00000f, 1.00000f
};



The number of texture coordinates should be equal to number of vertices. So if you have 24 vertices, you need 24 texture coordinates. Currently this looks like a cube so make a copy of the same data. Generally vertices have 3 values - x, y, z so they have total number of values = 72 while texture coordinates are generally have only s, t values so they would be 48 values in total in the array ie if you have 24 vertices. Same goes for normals -> they have 3 values, x, y, z so they also will have to be 72 values ie if you want to use glDrawElements but if you use immediate mode then what you have should probably suffice.


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Holly molly check the length of that code, dude seriously!!!
Next time, please use the source tags to encapsulate your code layout.
Thank you
PS: You can check the FAQ to get to know how to use the said tag.

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Hallo again
I,ve seriously problem to put texture on the Box so I exported *.3ds to c++ in another aplication and I've the same problem like in the topic: how to add texture to the box ?

It's realy important to me because I've 4 days to exam so if you could help me, please.

My texture name is limesto1.bmp


#include <windows.h>
#include <GL\gl.h>
#include <GL\glu.h>


struct sample_MATERIAL{
GLfloat ambient[3];
GLfloat diffuse[3];
GLfloat specular[3];
GLfloat emission[3];
GLfloat alpha;
GLfloat phExp;
int texture;
};

static sample_MATERIAL materials [1] = {
{{0.117647f,0.117647f,0.117647f}, {0.752941f,0.752941f,0.752941f}, {0.752941f,0.752941f,0.752941f}, {0.0f,0.0f,0.0f}, 1.0f,8.0f,-1} //Explorer Default
};

// 8 Verticies
// 4 Texture Coordinates
// 6 Normals
// 12 Triangles

static BYTE face_indicies[12][9] = {
// Object #-1
{0,2,3 ,0,0,0 ,0,1,2 }, {3,1,0 ,0,0,0 ,2,3,0 }, {4,5,7 ,1,1,1 ,3,0,1 },
{7,6,4 ,1,1,1 ,1,2,3 }, {0,1,5 ,2,2,2 ,3,0,1 }, {5,4,0 ,2,2,2 ,1,2,3 },
{1,3,7 ,3,3,3 ,3,0,1 }, {7,5,1 ,3,3,3 ,1,2,3 }, {3,2,6 ,4,4,4 ,3,0,1 },
{6,7,3 ,4,4,4 ,1,2,3 }, {2,0,4 ,5,5,5 ,3,0,1 }, {4,6,2 ,5,5,5 ,1,2,3 }
};
static GLfloat vertices [8][3] = {
{-0.5f,0.256356f,-0.430085f},{0.5f,0.256356f,-0.430085f},{-0.5f,0.256356f,0.430085f},
{0.5f,0.256356f,0.430085f},{-0.5f,-0.256356f,-0.430085f},{0.5f,-0.256356f,-0.430085f},
{-0.5f,-0.256356f,0.430085f},{0.5f,-0.256356f,0.430085f}
};
static GLfloat normals [6][3] = {
{0.0f,1.0f,4.37114e-008f},{0.0f,-1.0f,-4.94219e-008f},{0.0f,8.29145e-008f,-1.0f},
{1.0f,0.0f,0.0f},{0.0f,-8.29145e-008f,1.0f},{-1.0f,0.0f,0.0f}
};
static GLfloat textures [4][2] = {
{1.0f,0.0f},{1.0f,1.0f},{0.0f,1.0f},
{0.0f,0.0f}
};
/*Material indicies*/
/*{material index,face count}*/
static int material_ref [1][2] = {
{0,12}
};
void MyMaterial(GLenum mode,GLfloat *f,GLfloat alpha)
{
GLfloat d[4];
d[0]=f[0];
d[1]=f[1];
d[2]=f[2];
d[3]=alpha;
glMaterialfv (GL_FRONT_AND_BACK,mode,d);
}
/*
* SelectMaterial uses OpenGL commands to define facet colors.
*
* Returns:
* Nothing
*/


void SelectMaterial(int i)
{
//
// Define the reflective properties of the 3D Object faces.
//
glEnd();
GLfloat alpha=materials.alpha;
MyMaterial (GL_AMBIENT, materials.ambient,alpha);
MyMaterial (GL_DIFFUSE, materials.diffuse,alpha);
MyMaterial (GL_SPECULAR, materials.specular,alpha);
MyMaterial (GL_EMISSION, materials.emission,alpha);
glMaterialf (GL_FRONT_AND_BACK,GL_SHININESS,materials.phExp);
glBegin(GL_TRIANGLES);

};

GLint Gen3DObjectList()
{
int i;
int j;

GLint lid=glGenLists(1);
int mcount=0;
int mindex=0;
glNewList(lid, GL_COMPILE);

glBegin (GL_TRIANGLES);
for(i=0;i<sizeof(face_indicies)/sizeof(face_indicies[0]);i++)
{
if(!mcount)
{
SelectMaterial(material_ref[mindex][0]);
mcount=material_ref[mindex][1];
mindex++;
}
mcount--;
for(j=0;j<3;j++)
{
int vi=face_indicies[j];
int ni=face_indicies[j+3];//Normal index
int ti=face_indicies[j+6];//Texture index
glNormal3f (normals[ni][0],normals[ni][1],normals[ni][2]);
glTexCoord2f(textures[ti][0],textures[ti][1]);
glVertex3f (vertices[vi][0],vertices[vi][1],vertices[vi][2]);
}
}
glEnd ();

glEndList();
return lid;
};

float sizex,sizey;
LONG WINAPI WndProc (HWND, UINT, WPARAM, LPARAM);
GLsizei glnWidth, glnHeight;
GLdouble gldAspect;
void SetDCPixelFormat (HWND,HDC);
void InitializeRC (void);
void DrawScene (HDC, UINT,UINT);

HPALETTE hPalette = NULL;
GLfloat nSize = 0.0f;
GLfloat nCol = 0.0f;
GLfloat nTop = 1.0f;
GLfloat nBottom = 0.0f;
int bFlag = 1;
char wndname[256]="";

GLint hlist=0;

int WINAPI WinMain (HINSTANCE hInstance, HINSTANCE hPrevInstance,
LPSTR lpszCmdLine, int nCmdShow)
{
static char szAppName[] = "3D Exploration Open GL test application";
WNDCLASS wc;
HWND hwnd;
MSG msg;


wc.style = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW;
wc.lpfnWndProc = (WNDPROC) WndProc;
wc.cbClsExtra = 0;
wc.cbWndExtra = 0;
wc.hInstance = hInstance;
wc.hIcon = LoadIcon (NULL, IDI_APPLICATION);
wc.hCursor = LoadCursor (NULL, IDC_ARROW);
wc.hbrBackground = (HBRUSH) (COLOR_WINDOW + 1);
wc.lpszMenuName = NULL;
wc.lpszClassName = szAppName;

RegisterClass (&wc);

hwnd = CreateWindow (szAppName, szAppName,
WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW | WS_CLIPCHILDREN | WS_CLIPSIBLINGS,
CW_USEDEFAULT, CW_USEDEFAULT, 200, 200,
HWND_DESKTOP, NULL, hInstance, NULL);

hlist=Gen3DObjectList();

ShowWindow (hwnd, nCmdShow);
UpdateWindow (hwnd);

while (GetMessage (&msg, NULL, 0, 0)) {
TranslateMessage (&msg);
DispatchMessage (&msg);
}
return msg.wParam;
}

/*
* WndProc processes messages to the main window.
*/


LONG WINAPI WndProc (HWND hwnd, UINT msg, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)
{
static HDC hdc;
static HGLRC hrc;
PAINTSTRUCT ps;
static UINT nAngle = 0;
static UINT nAngle2 = 0;
static UINT nTimer;
int n;

switch (msg) {

case WM_CREATE:
//
// Create a rendering context and set a timer.
//
hdc = GetDC (hwnd);
SetDCPixelFormat (hwnd,hdc);
hrc = wglCreateContext (hdc);
wglMakeCurrent (hdc, hrc);
InitializeRC ();
nTimer = SetTimer (hwnd, 1, 1, NULL);
return 0;

case WM_SIZE:
//
// Redefine the viewing volume and viewport when the window size
// changes.
//
glnWidth = (GLsizei) LOWORD (lParam);
glnHeight = (GLsizei) HIWORD (lParam);

return 0;

case WM_PAINT:{
//
// Draw the scene.
//
BeginPaint (hwnd, &ps);
DrawScene (hdc, nAngle,nAngle2);
EndPaint (hwnd, &ps);

}return 0;

case WM_TIMER:
//
// Update the rotation angle and force a repaint.
//
nAngle += 2;
if (nAngle >= 360)
nAngle -= 360;
nAngle2 += 1;
if (nAngle2 >= 360)
nAngle2 -= 360;

if (bFlag == 1)
nSize += 0.05f;
nCol += 0.01f;
if (nSize >= nTop)
bFlag = 0;

if (bFlag == 0)
nSize -= 0.05f;
nCol -= 0.01f;
if (nSize <= nBottom)
bFlag = 1;

InvalidateRect (hwnd, NULL, FALSE);
return 0;

case WM_QUERYNEWPALETTE:
//
// If the program is using a color palette, realize the palette
// and update the client area when the window receives the input
// focus.
//
if (hPalette != NULL) {
if (n = RealizePalette (hdc))
InvalidateRect (hwnd, NULL, FALSE);
return n;
}
break;

case WM_PALETTECHANGED:
//
// If the program is using a color palette, realize the palette
// and update the colors in the client area when another program
// realizes its palette.
//
if ((hPalette != NULL) && ((HWND) wParam != hwnd)) {
if (RealizePalette (hdc))
UpdateColors (hdc);
return 0;
}
break;

case WM_DESTROY:
//
// Clean up and terminate.
//
wglMakeCurrent (NULL, NULL);
wglDeleteContext (hrc);
ReleaseDC (hwnd, hdc);
if (hPalette != NULL)
DeleteObject (hPalette);
KillTimer (hwnd, nTimer);
PostQuitMessage (0);
return 0;
}
return DefWindowProc (hwnd, msg, wParam, lParam);
}

/*
* SetDCPixelFormat sets the pixel format for a device context in
* preparation for creating a rendering context.
*
* Input parameters:
* hdc = Device context handle
*
* Returns:
* Nothing
*/


void SetDCPixelFormat (HWND hwnd,HDC hdc)
{
HANDLE hHeap;
int nColors, i;
LPLOGPALETTE lpPalette;
BYTE byRedMask, byGreenMask, byBlueMask;

static PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR pfd = {
sizeof (PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR), // Size of this structure
1, // Version number
PFD_DRAW_TO_WINDOW | // Flags
PFD_SUPPORT_OPENGL |
PFD_GENERIC_ACCELERATED|
PFD_DOUBLEBUFFER,
PFD_TYPE_RGBA, // RGBA pixel values
24, // 24-bit color
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, // Don't care about these
0, 0, // No alpha buffer
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, // No accumulation buffer
32, // 32-bit depth buffer
0, // No stencil buffer
0, // No auxiliary buffers
PFD_MAIN_PLANE, // Layer type
0, // Reserved (must be 0)
0, 0, 0 // No layer masks
};

int nPixelFormat;

nPixelFormat = ChoosePixelFormat (hdc, &pfd);
SetPixelFormat (hdc, nPixelFormat, &pfd);

if (pfd.dwFlags & PFD_NEED_PALETTE) {
nColors = 1 << pfd.cColorBits;
hHeap = GetProcessHeap ();

(LPLOGPALETTE) lpPalette = (LPLOGPALETTE)HeapAlloc (hHeap, 0,
sizeof (LOGPALETTE) + (nColors * sizeof (PALETTEENTRY)));

lpPalette->palVersion = 0x300;
lpPalette->palNumEntries = nColors;

byRedMask = (1 << pfd.cRedBits) - 1;
byGreenMask = (1 << pfd.cGreenBits) - 1;
byBlueMask = (1 << pfd.cBlueBits) - 1;

for (i=0; i<nColors; i++) {
lpPalette->palPalEntry.peRed =
(((i >> pfd.cRedShift) & byRedMask) * 255) / byRedMask;
lpPalette->palPalEntry.peGreen =
(((i >> pfd.cGreenShift) & byGreenMask) * 255) / byGreenMask;
lpPalette->palPalEntry.peBlue =
(((i >> pfd.cBlueShift) & byBlueMask) * 255) / byBlueMask;
lpPalette->palPalEntry.peFlags = 0;
}

hPalette = CreatePalette (lpPalette);
HeapFree (hHeap, 0, lpPalette);

if (hPalette != NULL) {
SelectPalette (hdc, hPalette, FALSE);
RealizePalette (hdc);
}
}
}

/*
* InitializeRC initializes the current rendering context.
*
* Input parameters:
* None
*
* Returns:
* Nothing
*/



void InitializeRC (void)
{
GLfloat glfLightAmbient[] = { 0.1f, 0.1f, 0.1f, 1.0f };
GLfloat glfLightDiffuse[] = { 1.2f, 1.2f, 1.2f, 1.0f };
GLfloat glfLightSpecular[] = { 0.9f, 0.9f, 0.9f, 1.0f };

//
// Add a light to the scene.
//

glLightfv (GL_LIGHT0, GL_AMBIENT, glfLightAmbient);
glLightfv (GL_LIGHT0, GL_DIFFUSE, glfLightDiffuse);
glLightfv (GL_LIGHT0, GL_SPECULAR, glfLightSpecular);
glEnable (GL_LIGHTING);
glEnable (GL_LIGHT0);

//
// Enable depth testing and backface culling.
//

glEnable (GL_DEPTH_TEST);
glDisable (GL_CULL_FACE);
glLightModeli(GL_LIGHT_MODEL_TWO_SIDE ,1);

}

/*
* DrawScene uses OpenGL Display list to draw a object.
*
* Input parameters:
* hdc = Device context handle
* nAngle = Angle of rotation for object
*
* Returns:
* Nothing
*/


void DrawScene (HDC hdc, UINT nAngle,UINT nAngle2)
{
sizex=glnWidth;
sizey=glnHeight;

gldAspect = (GLdouble) glnWidth / (GLdouble) glnHeight;

glMatrixMode (GL_PROJECTION);
glLoadIdentity ();
gluPerspective (30.0, // Field-of-view angle
gldAspect, // Aspect ratio of viewing volume
1.0, // Distance to near clipping plane
10.0); // Distance to far clipping plane

glViewport (0, 0, glnWidth, glnHeight);
//
// Clear the color and depth buffers.
//
glClear (GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);

//
// Define the modelview transformation.
//
glMatrixMode (GL_MODELVIEW);
glLoadIdentity ();
glTranslatef (0.0f, 0.0f, -8.0f);
glRotatef (30.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f);
glRotatef ((GLfloat) nAngle, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f);
glRotatef ((GLfloat) nAngle2, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f);
glScalef (nSize+2.5f,nSize+2.5f,nSize+2.5f);

int mcount=0;
int mindex=0;

glCallList(hlist);
//
// Swap the buffers.
//
glFlush();
SwapBuffers (hdc);
};

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Hi,

#include <stdio.h>
#include <windows.h>
#include <gl\gl.h>
#include <gl\glu.h>
#include <gl\glaux.h>

struct sample_MATERIAL{
GLfloat ambient[3];
GLfloat diffuse[3];
GLfloat specular[3];
GLfloat emission[3];
GLfloat alpha;
GLfloat phExp;
int texture;
};
GLuint texture[1];
int LoadGLTextures();
static sample_MATERIAL materials [1] = {
{{0.117647f,0.117647f,0.117647f}, {0.752941f,0.752941f,0.752941f}, {0.752941f,0.752941f,0.752941f}, {0.0f,0.0f,0.0f}, 1.0f,8.0f,-1} //Explorer Default
};

// 8 Verticies
// 4 Texture Coordinates
// 6 Normals
// 12 Triangles
AUX_RGBImageRec *LoadBMP(char *Filename)
{
FILE *File=NULL;

if (!Filename)
{
return NULL;
}

File=fopen(Filename,"r");

if (File)
{
fclose(File);
return auxDIBImageLoad(Filename);
}

return NULL;
}
static BYTE face_indicies[12][9] = {
// Object #-1
{0,2,3 ,0,0,0 ,0,1,2 }, {3,1,0 ,0,0,0 ,2,3,0 }, {4,5,7 ,1,1,1 ,3,0,1 },
{7,6,4 ,1,1,1 ,1,2,3 }, {0,1,5 ,2,2,2 ,3,0,1 }, {5,4,0 ,2,2,2 ,1,2,3 },
{1,3,7 ,3,3,3 ,3,0,1 }, {7,5,1 ,3,3,3 ,1,2,3 }, {3,2,6 ,4,4,4 ,3,0,1 },
{6,7,3 ,4,4,4 ,1,2,3 }, {2,0,4 ,5,5,5 ,3,0,1 }, {4,6,2 ,5,5,5 ,1,2,3 }
};
static GLfloat vertices [8][3] = {
{-0.5f,0.256356f,-0.430085f},{0.5f,0.256356f,-0.430085f},{-0.5f,0.256356f,0.430085f},
{0.5f,0.256356f,0.430085f},{-0.5f,-0.256356f,-0.430085f},{0.5f,-0.256356f,-0.430085f},
{-0.5f,-0.256356f,0.430085f},{0.5f,-0.256356f,0.430085f}
};
static GLfloat normals [6][3] = {
{0.0f,1.0f,4.37114e-008f},{0.0f,-1.0f,-4.94219e-008f},{0.0f,8.29145e-008f,-1.0f},
{1.0f,0.0f,0.0f},{0.0f,-8.29145e-008f,1.0f},{-1.0f,0.0f,0.0f}
};
static GLfloat textures [4][2] = {
{1.0f,0.0f},{1.0f,1.0f},{0.0f,1.0f},
{0.0f,0.0f}
};
/*Material indicies*/
/*{material index,face count}*/
static int material_ref [1][2] = {
{0,12}
};
void MyMaterial(GLenum mode,GLfloat *f,GLfloat alpha)
{
GLfloat d[4];
d[0]=f[0];
d[1]=f[1];
d[2]=f[2];
d[3]=alpha;
glMaterialfv (GL_FRONT_AND_BACK,mode,d);
}
/*
* SelectMaterial uses OpenGL commands to define facet colors.
*
* Returns:
* Nothing
*/


void SelectMaterial(int i)
{
//
// Define the reflective properties of the 3D Object faces.
//
glEnd();
GLfloat alpha=materials.alpha;
MyMaterial (GL_AMBIENT, materials.ambient,alpha);
MyMaterial (GL_DIFFUSE, materials.diffuse,alpha);
MyMaterial (GL_SPECULAR, materials.specular,alpha);
MyMaterial (GL_EMISSION, materials.emission,alpha);
glMaterialf (GL_FRONT_AND_BACK,GL_SHININESS,materials.phExp);
glBegin(GL_TRIANGLES);

};

GLint Gen3DObjectList()
{
int i;
int j;

GLint lid=glGenLists(1);
int mcount=0;
int mindex=0;
glNewList(lid, GL_COMPILE);

glBegin (GL_TRIANGLES);
for(i=0;i<sizeof(face_indicies)/sizeof(face_indicies[0]);i++)
{
if(!mcount)
{
SelectMaterial(material_ref[mindex][0]);
mcount=material_ref[mindex][1];
mindex++;
}
mcount--;
for(j=0;j<3;j++)
{
int vi=face_indicies[j];
int ni=face_indicies[j+3];//Normal index
int ti=face_indicies[j+6];//Texture index
glNormal3f (normals[ni][0],normals[ni][1],normals[ni][2]);
glTexCoord2f(textures[ti][0],textures[ti][1]);
glVertex3f (vertices[vi][0],vertices[vi][1],vertices[vi][2]);
}
}
glEnd ();

glEndList();
return lid;
};

float sizex,sizey;
LONG WINAPI WndProc (HWND, UINT, WPARAM, LPARAM);
GLsizei glnWidth, glnHeight;
GLdouble gldAspect;
void SetDCPixelFormat (HWND,HDC);
void InitializeRC (void);
void DrawScene (HDC, UINT,UINT);

HPALETTE hPalette = NULL;
GLfloat nSize = 0.0f;
GLfloat nCol = 0.0f;
GLfloat nTop = 1.0f;
GLfloat nBottom = 0.0f;
int bFlag = 1;
char wndname[256]="";

GLint hlist=0;

int WINAPI WinMain (HINSTANCE hInstance, HINSTANCE hPrevInstance,
LPSTR lpszCmdLine, int nCmdShow)
{
static char szAppName[] = "3D Exploration Open GL test application";
WNDCLASS wc;
HWND hwnd;
MSG msg;


wc.style = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW;
wc.lpfnWndProc = (WNDPROC) WndProc;
wc.cbClsExtra = 0;
wc.cbWndExtra = 0;
wc.hInstance = hInstance;
wc.hIcon = LoadIcon (NULL, IDI_APPLICATION);
wc.hCursor = LoadCursor (NULL, IDC_ARROW);
wc.hbrBackground = (HBRUSH) (COLOR_WINDOW + 1);
wc.lpszMenuName = NULL;
wc.lpszClassName = szAppName;

RegisterClass (&wc);

hwnd = CreateWindow (szAppName, szAppName,
WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW | WS_CLIPCHILDREN | WS_CLIPSIBLINGS,
CW_USEDEFAULT, CW_USEDEFAULT, 200, 200,
HWND_DESKTOP, NULL, hInstance, NULL);

hlist=Gen3DObjectList();

ShowWindow (hwnd, nCmdShow);
UpdateWindow (hwnd);

while (GetMessage (&msg, NULL, 0, 0)) {
TranslateMessage (&msg);
DispatchMessage (&msg);
}
return msg.wParam;
}

/*
* WndProc processes messages to the main window.
*/


LONG WINAPI WndProc (HWND hwnd, UINT msg, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)
{
static HDC hdc;
static HGLRC hrc;
PAINTSTRUCT ps;
static UINT nAngle = 0;
static UINT nAngle2 = 0;
static UINT nTimer;
int n;

switch (msg) {

case WM_CREATE:
//
// Create a rendering context and set a timer.
//
hdc = GetDC (hwnd);
SetDCPixelFormat (hwnd,hdc);
hrc = wglCreateContext (hdc);
wglMakeCurrent (hdc, hrc);
InitializeRC ();
nTimer = SetTimer (hwnd, 1, 1, NULL);
return 0;

case WM_SIZE:
//
// Redefine the viewing volume and viewport when the window size
// changes.
//
glnWidth = (GLsizei) LOWORD (lParam);
glnHeight = (GLsizei) HIWORD (lParam);

return 0;

case WM_PAINT:{
//
// Draw the scene.
//
BeginPaint (hwnd, &ps);
DrawScene (hdc, nAngle,nAngle2);
EndPaint (hwnd, &ps);

}return 0;

case WM_TIMER:
//
// Update the rotation angle and force a repaint.
//
nAngle += 2;
if (nAngle >= 360)
nAngle -= 360;
nAngle2 += 1;
if (nAngle2 >= 360)
nAngle2 -= 360;

if (bFlag == 1)
nSize += 0.05f;
nCol += 0.01f;
if (nSize >= nTop)
bFlag = 0;

if (bFlag == 0)
nSize -= 0.05f;
nCol -= 0.01f;
if (nSize <= nBottom)
bFlag = 1;

InvalidateRect (hwnd, NULL, FALSE);
return 0;

case WM_QUERYNEWPALETTE:
//
// If the program is using a color palette, realize the palette
// and update the client area when the window receives the input
// focus.
//
if (hPalette != NULL) {
if (n = RealizePalette (hdc))
InvalidateRect (hwnd, NULL, FALSE);
return n;
}
break;

case WM_PALETTECHANGED:
//
// If the program is using a color palette, realize the palette
// and update the colors in the client area when another program
// realizes its palette.
//
if ((hPalette != NULL) && ((HWND) wParam != hwnd)) {
if (RealizePalette (hdc))
UpdateColors (hdc);
return 0;
}
break;

case WM_DESTROY:
//
// Clean up and terminate.
//
wglMakeCurrent (NULL, NULL);
wglDeleteContext (hrc);
ReleaseDC (hwnd, hdc);
if (hPalette != NULL)
DeleteObject (hPalette);
KillTimer (hwnd, nTimer);
PostQuitMessage (0);
return 0;
}
return DefWindowProc (hwnd, msg, wParam, lParam);
}

/*
* SetDCPixelFormat sets the pixel format for a device context in
* preparation for creating a rendering context.
*
* Input parameters:
* hdc = Device context handle
*
* Returns:
* Nothing
*/


void SetDCPixelFormat (HWND hwnd,HDC hdc)
{
HANDLE hHeap;
int nColors, i;
LPLOGPALETTE lpPalette;
BYTE byRedMask, byGreenMask, byBlueMask;

static PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR pfd = {
sizeof (PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR), // Size of this structure
1, // Version number
PFD_DRAW_TO_WINDOW | // Flags
PFD_SUPPORT_OPENGL |
PFD_GENERIC_ACCELERATED|
PFD_DOUBLEBUFFER,
PFD_TYPE_RGBA, // RGBA pixel values
24, // 24-bit color
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, // Don't care about these
0, 0, // No alpha buffer
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, // No accumulation buffer
32, // 32-bit depth buffer
0, // No stencil buffer
0, // No auxiliary buffers
PFD_MAIN_PLANE, // Layer type
0, // Reserved (must be 0)
0, 0, 0 // No layer masks
};

int nPixelFormat;

nPixelFormat = ChoosePixelFormat (hdc, &pfd);
SetPixelFormat (hdc, nPixelFormat, &pfd);

if (pfd.dwFlags & PFD_NEED_PALETTE) {
nColors = 1 << pfd.cColorBits;
hHeap = GetProcessHeap ();

(LPLOGPALETTE) lpPalette = (LPLOGPALETTE)HeapAlloc (hHeap, 0,
sizeof (LOGPALETTE) + (nColors * sizeof (PALETTEENTRY)));

lpPalette->palVersion = 0x300;
lpPalette->palNumEntries = nColors;

byRedMask = (1 << pfd.cRedBits) - 1;
byGreenMask = (1 << pfd.cGreenBits) - 1;
byBlueMask = (1 << pfd.cBlueBits) - 1;

for (i=0; i<nColors; i++) {
lpPalette->palPalEntry.peRed =
(((i >> pfd.cRedShift) & byRedMask) * 255) / byRedMask;
lpPalette->palPalEntry.peGreen =
(((i >> pfd.cGreenShift) & byGreenMask) * 255) / byGreenMask;
lpPalette->palPalEntry.peBlue =
(((i >> pfd.cBlueShift) & byBlueMask) * 255) / byBlueMask;
lpPalette->palPalEntry.peFlags = 0;
}

hPalette = CreatePalette (lpPalette);
HeapFree (hHeap, 0, lpPalette);

if (hPalette != NULL) {
SelectPalette (hdc, hPalette, FALSE);
RealizePalette (hdc);
}
}
}

/*
* InitializeRC initializes the current rendering context.
*
* Input parameters:
* None
*
* Returns:
* Nothing
*/



void InitializeRC (void)
{
GLfloat glfLightAmbient[] = { 0.1f, 0.1f, 0.1f, 1.0f };
GLfloat glfLightDiffuse[] = { 1.2f, 1.2f, 1.2f, 1.0f };
GLfloat glfLightSpecular[] = { 0.9f, 0.9f, 0.9f, 1.0f };
glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D);
LoadGLTextures();
//
// Add a light to the scene.
//

glLightfv (GL_LIGHT0, GL_AMBIENT, glfLightAmbient);
glLightfv (GL_LIGHT0, GL_DIFFUSE, glfLightDiffuse);
glLightfv (GL_LIGHT0, GL_SPECULAR, glfLightSpecular);
glEnable (GL_LIGHTING);
glEnable (GL_LIGHT0);

//
// Enable depth testing and backface culling.
//

glEnable (GL_DEPTH_TEST);
glDisable (GL_CULL_FACE);
glLightModeli(GL_LIGHT_MODEL_TWO_SIDE ,1);

}

/*
* DrawScene uses OpenGL Display list to draw a object.
*
* Input parameters:
* hdc = Device context handle
* nAngle = Angle of rotation for object
*
* Returns:
* Nothing
*/

int LoadGLTextures()
{
int Status=FALSE;

AUX_RGBImageRec *TextureImage[1];

memset(TextureImage,0,sizeof(void *)*1);


if (TextureImage[0]=LoadBMP("Limesto1.bmp"))
{
Status=TRUE;

glGenTextures(1, &texture[0]);


glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]);
glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, 3, TextureImage[0]->sizeX, TextureImage[0]->sizeY, 0, GL_RGB, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, TextureImage[0]->data);
glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D,GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER,GL_LINEAR);
glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D,GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER,GL_LINEAR);
}

if (TextureImage[0])
{
if (TextureImage[0]->data)
{
free(TextureImage[0]->data);
}

free(TextureImage[0]);
}

return Status;
}


void DrawScene (HDC hdc, UINT nAngle,UINT nAngle2)
{
sizex=glnWidth;
sizey=glnHeight;

gldAspect = (GLdouble) glnWidth / (GLdouble) glnHeight;

glMatrixMode (GL_PROJECTION);
glLoadIdentity ();
gluPerspective (30.0, // Field-of-view angle
gldAspect, // Aspect ratio of viewing volume
1.0, // Distance to near clipping plane
10.0); // Distance to far clipping plane

glViewport (0, 0, glnWidth, glnHeight);
//
// Clear the color and depth buffers.
//
glClear (GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);

//
// Define the modelview transformation.
//
glMatrixMode (GL_MODELVIEW);
glLoadIdentity ();
glTranslatef (0.0f, 0.0f, -8.0f);
glRotatef (30.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f);
glRotatef ((GLfloat) nAngle, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f);
glRotatef ((GLfloat) nAngle2, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f);
glScalef (nSize+2.5f,nSize+2.5f,nSize+2.5f);

int mcount=0;
int mindex=0;

glCallList(hlist);
//
// Swap the buffers.
//
glFlush();
SwapBuffers (hdc);
};



Have a fun! :)
Rate me if you don't mind :P

[Edited by - ff8 on June 3, 2005 4:32:08 PM]

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      Sprite Class
      (You mostly need to see the Constructor, the Render Method and the Move Method)
      #include "Brain.h" #include <glm/gtc/matrix_transform.hpp> #include <vector> struct Sprite::Implementation { //Position. struct pos pos; //Tag. std::string tag; //Texture. Texture *texture; //Model matrix. glm::mat4 model; //Vertex Array Object. VertexArray *vao; //Vertex Buffer Object. VertexBuffer *vbo; //Layout. VertexBufferLayout *layout; //Index Buffer Object. IndexBuffer *ibo; //Shader. Shader *program; //Brains. std::vector<Brain *> brains; //Deconstructor. ~Implementation(); }; Sprite::Sprite(std::string image_path, std::string tag, float x, float y) { //Create Pointer To Implementaion. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Set the Position of the Sprite object. m_Impl->pos.x = x; m_Impl->pos.y = y; //Set the tag. m_Impl->tag = tag; //Create The Texture. m_Impl->texture = new Texture(image_path); //Initialize the model Matrix. m_Impl->model = glm::mat4(1.0f); //Get the Width and the Height of the Texture. int width = m_Impl->texture->GetWidth(); int height = m_Impl->texture->GetHeight(); //Create the Verticies. float verticies[] = { //Positions //Texture Coordinates. x, y, 0.0f, 0.0f, x + width, y, 1.0f, 0.0f, x + width, y + height, 1.0f, 1.0f, x, y + height, 0.0f, 1.0f }; //Create the Indicies. unsigned int indicies[] = { 0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 0 }; //Create Vertex Array. m_Impl->vao = new VertexArray(); //Create the Vertex Buffer. m_Impl->vbo = new VertexBuffer((void *)verticies, sizeof(verticies)); //Create The Layout. m_Impl->layout = new VertexBufferLayout(); m_Impl->layout->PushFloat(2); m_Impl->layout->PushFloat(2); m_Impl->vao->AddBuffer(m_Impl->vbo, m_Impl->layout); //Create the Index Buffer. m_Impl->ibo = new IndexBuffer(indicies, 6); //Create the new shader. m_Impl->program = new Shader("Shaders/SpriteShader.shader"); } //Render. void Sprite::Render(Window * window) { //Create the projection Matrix based on the current window width and height. glm::mat4 proj = glm::ortho(0.0f, (float)window->GetWidth(), 0.0f, (float)window->GetHeight(), -1.0f, 1.0f); //Set the MVP Uniform. m_Impl->program->setUniformMat4f("u_MVP", proj * m_Impl->model); //Run All The Brains (Scripts) of this game object (sprite). for (unsigned int i = 0; i < m_Impl->brains.size(); i++) { //Get Current Brain. Brain *brain = m_Impl->brains[i]; //Call the start function only once! if (brain->GetStart()) { brain->SetStart(false); brain->Start(); } //Call the update function every frame. brain->Update(); } //Render. window->GetRenderer()->Draw(m_Impl->vao, m_Impl->ibo, m_Impl->texture, m_Impl->program); } void Sprite::Move(float speed, bool left, bool right, bool up, bool down) { if (left) { m_Impl->pos.x -= speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(-speed, 0, 0)); } if (right) { m_Impl->pos.x += speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(speed, 0, 0)); } if (up) { m_Impl->pos.y += speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(0, speed, 0)); } if (down) { m_Impl->pos.y -= speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(0, -speed, 0)); } } void Sprite::AddBrain(Brain * brain) { //Push back the brain object. m_Impl->brains.push_back(brain); } pos *Sprite::GetPos() { return &m_Impl->pos; } std::string Sprite::GetTag() { return m_Impl->tag; } int Sprite::GetWidth() { return m_Impl->texture->GetWidth(); } int Sprite::GetHeight() { return m_Impl->texture->GetHeight(); } Sprite::~Sprite() { delete m_Impl; } //Implementation Deconstructor. Sprite::Implementation::~Implementation() { delete texture; delete vao; delete vbo; delete layout; delete ibo; delete program; }  
      Renderer Class
      #include "Renderer.h" #include "Error.h" Renderer::Renderer() { } Renderer::~Renderer() { } void Renderer::Draw(VertexArray * vao, IndexBuffer * ibo, Texture *texture, Shader * program) { vao->Bind(); ibo->Bind(); program->Bind(); if (texture != NULL) texture->Bind(); GLCall(glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, ibo->GetCount(), GL_UNSIGNED_INT, NULL)); } void Renderer::Clear(float r, float g, float b) { GLCall(glClearColor(r, g, b, 1.0)); GLCall(glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT)); } void Renderer::Update(GLFWwindow *window) { /* Swap front and back buffers */ glfwSwapBuffers(window); /* Poll for and process events */ glfwPollEvents(); }  
      Shader Code
      #shader vertex #version 330 core layout(location = 0) in vec4 aPos; layout(location = 1) in vec2 aTexCoord; out vec2 t_TexCoord; uniform mat4 u_MVP; void main() { gl_Position = u_MVP * aPos; t_TexCoord = aTexCoord; } #shader fragment #version 330 core out vec4 aColor; in vec2 t_TexCoord; uniform sampler2D u_Texture; void main() { aColor = texture(u_Texture, t_TexCoord); } Also i'm pretty sure that every time i'm hitting the up, down, left and right arrows on the keyboard, i'm changing the model Matrix of the Player and not the others.
       
      Window Class:
      #include "Window.h" #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include "Error.h" #include "Renderer.h" #include "Scene.h" #include "Input.h" //Global Variables. int screen_width, screen_height; //On Window Resize. void OnWindowResize(GLFWwindow *window, int width, int height); //Implementation Structure. struct Window::Implementation { //GLFW Window. GLFWwindow *GLFW_window; //Renderer. Renderer *renderer; //Delta Time. double delta_time; //Frames Per Second. int fps; //Scene. Scene *scnene; //Input. Input *input; //Deconstructor. ~Implementation(); }; //Window Constructor. Window::Window(std::string title, int width, int height) { //Initializing width and height. screen_width = width; screen_height = height; //Create Pointer To Implementation. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Try initializing GLFW. if (!glfwInit()) { std::cout << "GLFW could not be initialized!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); exit(-1); } //Setting up OpenGL Version 3.3 Core Profile. glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MAJOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MINOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_PROFILE, GLFW_OPENGL_CORE_PROFILE); /* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */ m_Impl->GLFW_window = glfwCreateWindow(width, height, title.c_str(), NULL, NULL); if (!m_Impl->GLFW_window) { std::cout << "GLFW could not create a window!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); glfwTerminate(); exit(-1); } /* Make the window's context current */ glfwMakeContextCurrent(m_Impl->GLFW_window); //Initialize GLEW. if(glewInit() != GLEW_OK) { std::cout << "GLEW could not be initialized!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); glfwTerminate(); exit(-1); } //Enabling Blending. GLCall(glEnable(GL_BLEND)); GLCall(glBlendFunc(GL_SRC_ALPHA, GL_ONE_MINUS_SRC_ALPHA)); //Setting the ViewPort. GLCall(glViewport(0, 0, width, height)); //**********Initializing Implementation**********// m_Impl->renderer = new Renderer(); m_Impl->delta_time = 0.0; m_Impl->fps = 0; m_Impl->input = new Input(this); //**********Initializing Implementation**********// //Set Frame Buffer Size Callback. glfwSetFramebufferSizeCallback(m_Impl->GLFW_window, OnWindowResize); } //Window Deconstructor. Window::~Window() { delete m_Impl; } //Window Main Loop. void Window::MainLoop() { //Time Variables. double start_time = 0, end_time = 0, old_time = 0, total_time = 0; //Frames Counter. int frames = 0; /* Loop until the user closes the window */ while (!glfwWindowShouldClose(m_Impl->GLFW_window)) { old_time = start_time; //Total time of previous frame. start_time = glfwGetTime(); //Current frame start time. //Calculate the Delta Time. m_Impl->delta_time = start_time - old_time; //Get Frames Per Second. if (total_time >= 1) { m_Impl->fps = frames; total_time = 0; frames = 0; } //Clearing The Screen. m_Impl->renderer->Clear(0, 0, 0); //Render The Scene. if (m_Impl->scnene != NULL) m_Impl->scnene->Render(this); //Updating the Screen. m_Impl->renderer->Update(m_Impl->GLFW_window); //Increasing frames counter. frames++; //End Time. end_time = glfwGetTime(); //Total time after the frame completed. total_time += end_time - start_time; } //Terminate GLFW. glfwTerminate(); } //Load Scene. void Window::LoadScene(Scene * scene) { //Set the scene. m_Impl->scnene = scene; } //Get Delta Time. double Window::GetDeltaTime() { return m_Impl->delta_time; } //Get FPS. int Window::GetFPS() { return m_Impl->fps; } //Get Width. int Window::GetWidth() { return screen_width; } //Get Height. int Window::GetHeight() { return screen_height; } //Get Input. Input * Window::GetInput() { return m_Impl->input; } Renderer * Window::GetRenderer() { return m_Impl->renderer; } GLFWwindow * Window::GetGLFWindow() { return m_Impl->GLFW_window; } //Implementation Deconstructor. Window::Implementation::~Implementation() { delete renderer; delete input; } //OnWindowResize void OnWindowResize(GLFWwindow *window, int width, int height) { screen_width = width; screen_height = height; //Updating the ViewPort. GLCall(glViewport(0, 0, width, height)); }  
      Brain Class
      #include "Brain.h" #include "Sprite.h" #include "Window.h" struct Brain::Implementation { //Just A Flag. bool started; //Window Pointer. Window *window; //Sprite Pointer. Sprite *sprite; }; Brain::Brain(Window *window, Sprite *sprite) { //Create Pointer To Implementation. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Initialize Implementation. m_Impl->started = true; m_Impl->window = window; m_Impl->sprite = sprite; } Brain::~Brain() { //Delete Pointer To Implementation. delete m_Impl; } void Brain::Start() { } void Brain::Update() { } Window * Brain::GetWindow() { return m_Impl->window; } Sprite * Brain::GetSprite() { return m_Impl->sprite; } bool Brain::GetStart() { return m_Impl->started; } void Brain::SetStart(bool value) { m_Impl->started = value; } Script Class (Its a Brain Subclass!!!)
      #include "Script.h" Script::Script(Window *window, Sprite *sprite) : Brain(window, sprite) { } Script::~Script() { } void Script::Start() { std::cout << "Game Started!" << std::endl; } void Script::Update() { Input *input = this->GetWindow()->GetInput(); Sprite *sp = this->GetSprite(); //Move this sprite. this->GetSprite()->Move(200 * this->GetWindow()->GetDeltaTime(), input->GetKeyDown("left"), input->GetKeyDown("right"), input->GetKeyDown("up"), input->GetKeyDown("down")); std::cout << sp->GetTag().c_str() << ".x = " << sp->GetPos()->x << ", " << sp->GetTag().c_str() << ".y = " << sp->GetPos()->y << std::endl; }  
      Main:
      #include "SpaceShooterEngine.h" #include "Script.h" int main() { Window w("title", 600,600); Scene *scene = new Scene(); Sprite *player = new Sprite("Resources/Images/player.png", "Player", 100,100); Sprite *other = new Sprite("Resources/Images/cherno.png", "Other", 400, 100); Sprite *other2 = new Sprite("Resources/Images/cherno.png", "Other", 300, 400); Brain *brain = new Script(&w, player); player->AddBrain(brain); scene->AddSprite(player); scene->AddSprite(other); scene->AddSprite(other2); w.LoadScene(scene); w.MainLoop(); return 0; }  
       
      I literally can't find what is wrong. If you need more code, ask me to post it. I will also attach all the source files.
      Brain.cpp
      Error.cpp
      IndexBuffer.cpp
      Input.cpp
      Renderer.cpp
      Scene.cpp
      Shader.cpp
      Sprite.cpp
      Texture.cpp
      VertexArray.cpp
      VertexBuffer.cpp
      VertexBufferLayout.cpp
      Window.cpp
      Brain.h
      Error.h
      IndexBuffer.h
      Input.h
      Renderer.h
      Scene.h
      Shader.h
      SpaceShooterEngine.h
      Sprite.h
      Texture.h
      VertexArray.h
      VertexBuffer.h
      VertexBufferLayout.h
      Window.h
    • By Cristian Decu
      Hello fellow programmers,
      For a couple of days now i've decided to build my own planet renderer just to see how floating point precision issues
      can be tackled. As you probably imagine, i've quickly faced FPP issues when trying to render absurdly large planets.
       
      I have used the classical quadtree LOD approach;
      I've generated my grids with 33 vertices, (x: -1 to 1, y: -1 to 1, z = 0).
      Each grid is managed by a TerrainNode class that, depending on the side it represents (top, bottom, left right, front, back),
      creates a special rotation-translation matrix that moves and rotates the grid away from the origin so that when i finally
      normalize all the vertices on my vertex shader i can get a perfect sphere.
      T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, 1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(180.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[0] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, T * R, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_FRONT)); T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, -1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(0.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[1] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, R * T, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_BACK)); // So on and so forth for the rest of the sides As you can see, for the front side grid, i rotate it 180 degrees to make it face the camera and push it towards the eye;
      the back side is handled almost the same way only that i don't need to rotate it but simply push it away from the eye.
      The same technique is applied for the rest of the faces (obviously, with the proper rotations / translations).
      The matrix that result from the multiplication of R and T (in that particular order) is send to my vertex shader as `r_Grid'.
      // spherify vec3 V = normalize((r_Grid * vec4(r_Vertex, 1.0)).xyz); gl_Position = r_ModelViewProjection * vec4(V, 1.0); The `r_ModelViewProjection' matrix is generated on the CPU in this manner.
      // No the most efficient way, but it works. glm::dmat4 Camera::getMatrix() { // Create the view matrix // Roll, Yaw and Pitch are all quaternions. glm::dmat4 View = glm::toMat4(Roll) * glm::toMat4(Pitch) * glm::toMat4(Yaw); // The model matrix is generated by translating in the oposite direction of the camera. glm::dmat4 Model = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), -Position); // Projection = glm::perspective(fovY, aspect, zNear, zFar); // zNear = 0.1, zFar = 1.0995116e12 return Projection * View * Model; } I managed to get rid of z-fighting by using a technique called Logarithmic Depth Buffer described in this article; it works amazingly well, no z-fighting at all, at least not visible.
      Each frame i'm rendering each node by sending the generated matrices this way.
      // set the r_ModelViewProjection uniform // Sneak in the mRadiusMatrix which is a matrix that contains the radius of my planet. Shader::setUniform(0, Camera::getInstance()->getMatrix() * mRadiusMatrix); // set the r_Grid matrix uniform i created earlier. Shader::setUniform(1, r_Grid); grid->render(); My planet's radius is around 6400000.0 units, absurdly large, but that's what i really want to achieve;
      Everything works well, the node's split and merge as you'd expect, however whenever i get close to the surface
      of the planet the rounding errors start to kick in giving me that lovely stairs effect.
      I've read that if i could render each grid relative to the camera i could get better precision on the surface, effectively
      getting rid of those rounding errors.
       
      My question is how can i achieve this relative to camera rendering in my scenario here?
      I know that i have to do most of the work on the CPU with double, and that's exactly what i'm doing.
      I only use double on the CPU side where i also do most of the matrix multiplications.
      As you can see from my vertex shader i only do the usual r_ModelViewProjection * (some vertex coords).
       
      Thank you for your suggestions!
       
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