# OpenGL *sigh* Matrix problems

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What I'm trying to do is create a matrix class which mimics OpenGL's matrix implementation. This is a real bugger, since every article I have found explains things differently and, for the most part, badly. What I want is to: 1. Be able to concatenate transformations like in OpenGL, ie. be able to multiply my one matrix by another 2. Implement rotations by creating a rotation matrix, then multiplying the currewnt matrix by that rotation matrix This is what I have so far:
// These functions are members of class Matrix4x4

void multiplyBy(const Matrix4x4 &mat) {
float newData[16];

newData[0]  = data[0] * mat.data[0]  +  data[1] * mat.data[4]  +  data[2] * mat.data[8]  +  data[3] * mat.data[12];
newData[1]  = data[0] * mat.data[1]  +  data[1] * mat.data[5]  +  data[2] * mat.data[6]  +  data[3] * mat.data[13];
newData[2]  = data[0] * mat.data[2]  +  data[1] * mat.data[6]  +  data[2] * mat.data[10]  +  data[3] * mat.data[14];
newData[3]  = data[0] * mat.data[3]  +  data[1] * mat.data[7]  +  data[2] * mat.data[11]  +  data[3] * mat.data[15];

newData[4]  = data[4] * mat.data[0]  +  data[5] * mat.data[4]  +  data[6] * mat.data[8]  +  data[7] * mat.data[12];
newData[5]  = data[4] * mat.data[1]  +  data[5] * mat.data[5]  +  data[6] * mat.data[6]  +  data[7] * mat.data[13];
newData[6]  = data[4] * mat.data[2]  +  data[5] * mat.data[6]  +  data[6] * mat.data[10]  +  data[7] * mat.data[14];
newData[7]  = data[4] * mat.data[3]  +  data[5] * mat.data[7]  +  data[6] * mat.data[11]  +  data[7] * mat.data[15];

newData[8]  = data[8] * mat.data[0]  +  data[9] * mat.data[4]  +  data[10] * mat.data[8]  +  data[11] * mat.data[12];
newData[9]  = data[8] * mat.data[1]  +  data[9] * mat.data[5]  +  data[10] * mat.data[6]  +  data[11] * mat.data[13];
newData[10] = data[8] * mat.data[2]  +  data[9] * mat.data[6]  +  data[10] * mat.data[10]  +  data[11] * mat.data[14];
newData[11] = data[8] * mat.data[3]  +  data[9] * mat.data[7]  +  data[10] * mat.data[11]  +  data[11] * mat.data[15];

newData[12] = data[12] * mat.data[0]  +  data[13] * mat.data[4]  +  data[14] * mat.data[8]  +  data[15] * mat.data[12];
newData[13] = data[12] * mat.data[1]  +  data[13] * mat.data[5]  +  data[14] * mat.data[6]  +  data[15] * mat.data[13];
newData[14] = data[12] * mat.data[2]  +  data[13] * mat.data[6]  +  data[14] * mat.data[10]  +  data[15] * mat.data[14];
newData[15] = data[12] * mat.data[3]  +  data[13] * mat.data[7]  +  data[14] * mat.data[11]  +  data[15] * mat.data[15];

// copy new information into current matrix
for(int count=0; count<16; ++count)
data[count] = newData[count];
}

void rotatef(float angle, float x, float y, float z) {
angle *= 0.0174532925;

Matrix4x4 temp;

// Rotate around X axis
if(x > 0.0) {
temp.data[5]  =  cos( angle );
temp.data[6]  = -sin( angle );
temp.data[9]  =  sin( angle );
temp.data[10] =  cos( angle );
}

// Rotate around Y axis
if(y > 0.0) {
temp.data[0]  =  cos( angle );
temp.data[2]  =  sin( angle );
temp.data[8]  = -sin( angle );
temp.data[10] =  cos( angle );
}

// Rotate around Z axis
if(z > 0.0) {
temp.data[0]  =  cos( angle );
temp.data[1]  = -sin( angle );
temp.data[4]  =  sin( angle );
temp.data[5]  =  cos( angle );
}

multiplyBy(temp);
}


This doesn't work properly, however. I basically create the matrix, load it to identity, and then call rotatef on that matrix. I then load the matrix with glLoadMatrixf. This seems to produce the opposite effect of calling glRotatef with the same values. Using glLoadTransposeMatrixf, however, seems to work. This tells me that my matrices aren't entirely broken, just muddled up- and I have no idea why. Big rates to anyone who can help me!

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based on what you said at the end (as i cant be bothered to check your maths, heh) you are performing a row major operation when you should be treating the matrix as column major to get the right effect.

Thus, glLoadTransposeMatrixf works as it transposes the matrix from row major to column major.

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potential insight:

remember that ogl uses column major whereas many tutorials present the row major form of matrix mulitplies in referene to rotations,scale and translates. so for instance the translation vector is in the fourth column, not the fourth row.

this would explain why the transpose resolves the issue, too.

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Well, I'm in a bit of a pickle now, since it turns out glLoadTransposeMatrixf only worked for the simplest of rotations. So I'm starting to think the problem is something else (orinigating somewhere between my keyboard and my chair, most likely...)

I hate to just ask for code, but I think its the only way I'm going to understand this. If anyone has any OpenGL matrix code for multiplying matrices, I'd love to see it.

Thanks a lot to the previous posters (Ali_B gets an A for effort [wink])

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for the operation:
ret = mat * v

	ret[0] = (mat[0]*v[0]) + (mat[4]*v[1]) + (mat[8]*v[2]) + (mat[12]*v[3]);	ret[4] = (mat[0]*v[4]) + (mat[4]*v[5]) + (mat[8]*v[6]) + (mat[12]*v[7]);	ret[8] = (mat[0]*v[8]) + (mat[4]*v[9]) + (mat[8]*v[10])+ (mat[12]*v[11]);	ret[12]= (mat[0]*v[12])+ (mat[4]*v[13])+ (mat[8]*v[14])+ (mat[12]*v[15]);	ret[1] = (mat[1]*v[0]) + (mat[5]*v[1]) + (mat[9]*v[2]) + (mat[13]*v[3]);	ret[5] = (mat[1]*v[4]) + (mat[5]*v[5]) + (mat[9]*v[6]) + (mat[13]*v[7]);	ret[9] = (mat[1]*v[8]) + (mat[5]*v[9]) + (mat[9]*v[10])+ (mat[13]*v[11]);	ret[13]= (mat[1]*v[12])+ (mat[5]*v[13])+ (mat[9]*v[14])+ (mat[13]*v[15]);	ret[2] = (mat[2]*v[0]) + (mat[6]*v[1]) + (mat[10]*v[2]) + (mat[14]*v[3]);	ret[6] = (mat[2]*v[4]) + (mat[6]*v[5]) + (mat[10]*v[6]) + (mat[14]*v[7]);	ret[10]= (mat[2]*v[8]) + (mat[6]*v[9]) + (mat[10]*v[10])+ (mat[14]*v[11]);	ret[14]= (mat[2]*v[12])+ (mat[6]*v[13])+ (mat[10]*v[14])+ (mat[14]*v[15]);	ret[3] = (mat[3]*v[0]) + (mat[7]*v[1]) + (mat[11]*v[2]) + (mat[15]*v[3]);	ret[7] = (mat[3]*v[4]) + (mat[7]*v[5]) + (mat[11]*v[6]) + (mat[15]*v[7]);	ret[11]= (mat[3]*v[8]) + (mat[7]*v[9]) + (mat[11]*v[10])+ (mat[15]*v[11]);	ret[15]= (mat[3]*v[12])+ (mat[7]*v[13])+ (mat[11]*v[14])+ (mat[15]*v[15]);

This is my operator * code and I use my matrix class with opengl (including glmultmatrixf). So if this doesnt work for you then your problem is elsewhere.

About rotation, when you create temp, does the constructor initialize it to the identity?

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Thankyou, that is awesome!

Yes, it was my numbers that were jiggered. Ah well, I should pay more attention. Just so you know the_phantom, I did rate you up again, but it made absolutely no difference [grin]

Ahhh, GameDev. Is there anything it can't do?

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float mtx[16];/*IN OpenGL:|Rx  0   0   Tx||0   Ry  0   Ty||0   0   Rz  Tz||0   0   0   1 |therefore:|0   1   2   3 ||4   5   6   7 ||8   9   10  11||12  13  14  15|and thusly:mtx[0]  == Rxmtx[5]  == Rymtx[10] == RztehTranslate3f = mtx[3], mtx[7], mtx[11]*/

Now when you do rotations with matrices you perform them in some developer defined order, right? let's pretend you multiply matrices A by B by C in Dx/row major/LHSsystems. Notice that the ANS matrix will be also be in Dx/Row Major/LHS form.

ANS = A * B * C

However to accomplish the same results when the matrices are in OGL/column major/RHS systems would be to multiply them in reverse order, which results in the ANS matrix to be in the OGL/Column Major/RHS form.

ANS = C * B * A

consider the following example:

let A and b be LHS matrices where
A =
|1 2|
|3 4|
B=
|5 6|
|7 8|
ANS = A * B =
|(1*5 + 2*7) (1*6 + 2*8)|
|(3*5 + 4*7) (3*6 + 4*8)|
=
|19 22|
|43 42|

now let's try it in RHS where A and B are
A =
|1 3|
|2 4|
B=
|5 7|
|6 8|
ANS = B * A =
|(5*1 + 7*2) (5*3 + 7*4)|
|(6*1 + 8*2) (6*3 + 8*4)|
=
|19 43|
|22 42|
= transpose of ANS in the LHS system

now why all this info .. perhaps you have the order matrix mulitplies backwards (for the rotations, translations and projections) in your code, and you mulitply method is actually a-ok? after all, in general matrix mulitplicaiton is not commutative. just another possibility for you to consider.

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Maybe I'm being an ass, but it seems that OpenGL can do these things for you and possibly be more efficent(not to insult anybody).

// R = M * V

float* multMatrix(const float M[16], const float V[16]) // you guys seem to like those letters
{
float R[16]; // result

glMatrixMode (GL_MODELVIEW); // you can use any matrix, but we need to choose one
glPushMatrix ();
glMultMatrixf(V); // GL_MATRIX = M * V
glGetFloatv (GL_MODELVIEW_MATRIX, R); // R = GL_MATRIX -> R = M * V
glPopMatrix();

return R;
}

// optional matrix:
// glMatrixMode can have GL_MODELVIEW, GL_PROJECTION or GL_TEXTURE
// thus glGetFloatv must have GL_MODELVIEW_MATRIX, GL_PROJECTION_MATRIX or GL_TEXTURE_MATRIX respectivly

this way you can also preform OpenGL operations and output the matrix to see the resulting matrix, just trying to help

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glLoadTransposeMatrixf is it extension or what i can't find it in the blue book??

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You might have noticed that my previous 2 posts in this thread were empty.. I don't know what happenned!! There was a lot of text in my posting... Or the connection was not that good.. And you know http is UDP!!

So.. In order to be able to submit the stuff, I'll post each file at a time (4 files)..

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matrix.h
//*************************************************************************////  File Name: Matrix.h //  Author   : Justin Legakis (Original Author)//			   Ali BaderEddin (Applied some changes + added useful comments)//  //  Description: A class that represents a matrix and supports many matrix//               operations.//  //       0 1 2 3 //    0 [1 0 0 5]//    1 [0 1 0 0]//    2 [0 0 1 0]  ==> matrix [0][3] is equal to 5 					//    3 [0 0 0 1]      (that's how matrix is represened)////*************************************************************************#ifndef _MATRIX_H_#define _MATRIX_H_#include <math.h>#include <assert.h>#include "vectors.h"class Matrix {	private:	  // REPRESENTATION	  float	data[4][4];	public:	  // CONSTRUCTORS & DESTRUCTOR	  Matrix() { Clear(); }	  Matrix(const Matrix& A) 	  {		for (int y = 0; y < 4; y++) 		  for (int x = 0; x < 4; x++) 			data[y][x] = A.data[y][x]; 	  }	  ~Matrix() {}  	  // ACCESSOR	  float Get (int x, int y) const 	  { 		assert (x >= 0 && x < 4);		assert (y >= 0 && y < 4);		return data[y][x]; 	  }  	  // MODIFIERS	  void Set(int x, int y, float v) 	  {		assert (x >= 0 && x < 4);		assert (y >= 0 && y < 4);		data[y][x] = v; 	  }	  void SetToIdentity() 	  {		for (int y = 0; y < 4; y++)		  for (int x = 0; x < 4; x++)			data[y][x] = (x == y); 	  }	  void Clear() 	  {		for (int y = 0; y < 4; y++)		  for (int x = 0; x < 4; x++)			data[y][x] = 0; 	  }  	  // OVERLOADED OPERATORS	  Matrix& operator=(const Matrix& A) 	  {		for (int y=0; y<4; y++) 		  for (int x=0; x<4; x++) 			data[y][x] = A.data[y][x]; 		return (*this); 	  }	  int operator==(const Matrix& A) const 	  {		for (int y=0; y<4; y++) 		  for (int x=0; x<4; x++) 			if (this->data[y][x] != A.data[y][x]) 				return 0; 		return 1; 	  }	  int operator!=(const Matrix &A) const { return !(*this==A); }  	  friend Matrix operator+(const Matrix &A, const Matrix &B);	  friend Matrix operator-(const Matrix &A, const Matrix &B);	  friend Matrix operator*(const Matrix &A, const Matrix &B);	  friend Matrix operator*(const Matrix &A, float f);	  friend Matrix operator*(float f, const Matrix &A) { return A * f; }  	  Matrix& operator+=(const Matrix& A) 	  {		*this = *this + A;		return *this; 	  }	  Matrix& operator-=(const Matrix& A) 	  {		*this = *this - A;		return *this; 	  }	  Matrix& operator*=(const float d) 	  {		*this = *this * d;		return *this; 	  }	  Matrix& operator*=(const Matrix& A) 	  {		*this = *this * A;		return *this; 	  }	  // TRANSFORMATIONS	  void Translate(float x, float y, float z);	  void Scale(float x, float y, float z);	  void Scale(float s) { Scale(s, s, s); }	  void XRotate(float theta);	  void YRotate(float theta);	  void ZRotate(float theta);	  void Transform(Vec4f &v);	  void Transform(Vec3f &v) 	  {		Vec4f v2 = Vec4f(v.x(),v.y(),v.z(),1);		Transform(v2);		v.Set(v2.x(),v2.y(),v2.z()); 	  }	  void Transform(Vec2f &v) 	  {		Vec4f v2 = Vec4f(v.x(),v.y(),1,1);		Transform(v2);		v.Set(v2.x(),v2.y()); 	  }	  // INPUT / OUTPUT (Edited by Ali BaderEddin)	  void Write(FILE *F = stdout) const 	  {		assert (F != NULL);		for (int y = 0; y < 4; y++) 		{		  for (int x = 0; x < 4; x++) 			fprintf (F, "%.2f ", data[y][x]); 		  fprintf (F,"\n"); 		} 		fprintf (F,"\n"); 	  }	  void Write3x3(FILE *F = stdout) const 	  {		assert (F != NULL);		for (int y = 0; y < 4; y++) 		{		  if (y == 2) continue;		  for (int x = 0; x < 4; x++) 		  {			if (x == 2) continue;			fprintf (F, "%.2f ", data[y][x]); 		  }		  fprintf (F,"\n"); 		} 		fprintf (F,"\n"); 	  }	  void Read(FILE *F) 	  {		assert (F != NULL);		for (int y = 0; y < 4; y++) 		  for (int x = 0; x < 4; x++) 		  {			int scanned = fscanf (F,"%f",&data[y][x]);			assert (scanned == 1); 		  } 	  }	  void Read3x3(FILE *F) 	  {		assert (F != NULL);		Clear();		for (int y = 0; y < 4; y++) 		{		  if (y == 2) continue;		  for (int x = 0; x < 4; x++) 		  {			if (x == 2) continue;			int scanned = fscanf (F,"%f",&data[y][x]);			assert (scanned == 1); 		  } 		} 	  }	  	  /***** Stuff Added By Ali BaderEddin *****/	  //  Loading OpenGL matrix into our Matrix	  void LoadOpenGLMatrix (float *mat)	  {		  for (int i = 0; i < 16; i++)			  this->data[i%4][i/4] = mat[i];	  }	  //  Saving our matrix into an OpenGL Matrix	  float * GetOpenGLMatrix ()	  {		  float * mat;		  		  mat = (float *) malloc (16 * sizeof (float));		  for (int i = 0; i < 16; i++)			  mat[i] = this->data[i%4][i/4];		  return mat;	  }};#endif

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matrix.cpp
//*************************************************************************////  File Name: Matrix.cpp //  Author   : Justin Legakis (Original Author)//			   Ali BaderEddin (Applied some changes + added useful comments)//  //  Description: A class that represents a matrix and supports many matrix//               operations.//  //       0 1 2 3 //    0 [1 0 0 5]//    1 [0 1 0 0]//    2 [0 0 1 0]  ==> matrix [0][3] is equal to 5 					//    3 [0 0 0 1]      (that's how matrix is represened)////*************************************************************************/#include <stdlib.h>#include <stdio.h>#include <math.h>#include <string.h>#include "matrix.h"#include "vectors.h"// OVERLOADED OPERATORSMatrix operator+(const Matrix& A, const Matrix& B) {  Matrix answer;  for (int y=0; y<4; y++)     for (int x=0; x<4; x++)       answer.data[y][x] = A.data[y][x] + B.data[y][x];  return answer; }Matrix operator-(const Matrix& A, const Matrix& B) {  Matrix answer;  for (int y=0; y<4; y++)     for (int x=0; x<4; x++)       answer.data[y][x] = A.data[y][x] - B.data[y][x];  return answer; }Matrix operator*(const Matrix& A, const Matrix& B) {  Matrix answer;  for (int y=0; y<4; y++)     for (int x=0; x<4; x++)       for (int i=0; i<4; i++) 		answer.data[y][x] += A.data[y][i] * B.data[i][x];  return answer;}Matrix operator*(const Matrix& A, float f) {  Matrix answer;  for (int y=0; y<4; y++)     for (int x=0; x<4; x++)       answer.data[y][x] = A.data[y][x] * f;  return answer;}// TRANSFORMATIONS/*  Translation Matrix       0 1 2  3     0 [1 0 0 t_x]    1 [0 1 0 t_y]    2 [0 0 1 t_z]  					    3 [0 0 0   1]*/void Matrix::Translate(float t_x, float t_y, float t_z) {  Matrix t;  t.SetToIdentity();  t.data[0][3] = t_x;  t.data[1][3] = t_y;  t.data[2][3] = t_z;  t *= *this;  *this = t;}/*  Scaling Matrix       0   1   2   3     0 [s_z 0   0   0]    1 [0   s_y 0   0]    2 [0   0   s_z 0]  					    3 [0   0   0   1]*/void Matrix::Scale(float s_x, float s_y, float s_z) {  Matrix s;   s.SetToIdentity();  s.data[0][0] = s_x;  s.data[1][1] = s_y;  s.data[2][2] = s_z;  s.data[3][3] = 1;  s *= *this;  *this = s;}/*  X Rotation Matrix       0 1   2    3     0 [1 0   0    0]    1 [0 cos -sin 0]    2 [0 sin cos  0]  					    3 [0 0   0    1]*/void Matrix::XRotate(float theta) {  Matrix rx;  rx.SetToIdentity();  rx.data[1][1]= (float)cos((float)theta);  rx.data[1][2]=-(float)sin((float)theta);  rx.data[2][1]= (float)sin((float)theta);  rx.data[2][2]= (float)cos((float)theta);  rx *= *this;  *this = rx;}/*  Y Rotation Matrix       0    1   2    3     0 [cos  0   sin  0]    1 [0    1   0    0]    2 [-sin 0   cos  0]  					    3 [0    0   0    1]*/void Matrix::YRotate(float theta) {  Matrix ry;  ry.SetToIdentity();  ry.data[0][0]= (float)cos((float)theta);  ry.data[0][2]= (float)sin((float)theta);  ry.data[2][0]=-(float)sin((float)theta);  ry.data[2][2]= (float)cos((float)theta);  ry *= *this;  *this = ry;}/*  Z Rotation Matrix       0     1  2 3     0 [cos -sin 0 0]    1 [sin cos  0 0]    2 [0   0    1 0]  					    3 [0   0    0 1]*/void Matrix::ZRotate(float theta) {  Matrix rz;  rz.SetToIdentity();  rz.data[0][0]= (float)cos((float)theta);  rz.data[0][1]=-(float)sin((float)theta);  rz.data[1][0]= (float)sin((float)theta);  rz.data[1][1]= (float)cos((float)theta);  rz *= *this;  *this = rz;}void Matrix::Transform(Vec4f &v) {  Vec4f answer;  for (int y=0; y<4; y++)   {    answer.data[y] = 0;    for (int i=0; i<4; i++)       answer.data[y] += data[y][i] * v[i];  }  v = answer;}

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vector.h
//*************************************************************************////  File Name: Vector.h //  Author   : Justin Legakis (Original Author)//			   Ali BaderEddin (Applied some changes)//  //  Description: A class that represents a 2d, 3d, and 4d vector //  			 and supports many vector operations.//  //*************************************************************************/#ifndef _VECTORS_H_#define _VECTORS_H_#include <stdlib.h>#include <stdio.h>#include <math.h>#include <assert.h>class Matrix;class Vec2f {	private:	  // REPRESENTATION	  float		data[2];	public:	  // CONSTRUCTORS & DESTRUCTOR	  Vec2f() { data[0] = data[1] = 0; }	  Vec2f(const Vec2f &V) 	  {		data[0] = V.data[0];		data[1] = V.data[1]; 	  }	  Vec2f(float d0, float d1) 	  {		data[0] = d0;		data[1] = d1; 	  }	  Vec2f(const Vec2f &V1, const Vec2f &V2) 	  {		data[0] = V1.data[0] - V2.data[0];		data[1] = V1.data[1] - V2.data[1]; 	  }	  ~Vec2f() { }	  // ACCESSORS	  void Get(float &d0, float &d1) const 	  {		d0 = data[0];		d1 = data[1]; 	  }	  float operator[](int i) const 	  { 		assert (i >= 0 && i < 2); 		return data[i]; 	  }	  float x() const { return data[0]; }	  float y() const { return data[1]; }	  float Length() const 	  {		float l = (float)sqrt( data[0] * data[0] + data[1] * data[1] );		return l; 	  }	  // MODIFIERS	  void Set(float d0, float d1) 	  {		data[0] = d0;		data[1] = d1; 	  }	  void Scale(float d0, float d1) 	  {		data[0] *= d0;		data[1] *= d1; 	  }	  void Divide(float d0, float d1) 	  {		data[0] /= d0;		data[1] /= d1; 	  }	  void Negate() 	  {		data[0] = -data[0];		data[1] = -data[1]; 	  }	  // OVERLOADED OPERATORS	  Vec2f& operator=(const Vec2f &V) 	  {		data[0] = V.data[0];		data[1] = V.data[1];		return *this; 	  }	  int operator==(const Vec2f &V) const 	  {		return ((data[0] == V.data[0]) &&			(data[1] == V.data[1])); 	  }	  int operator!=(const Vec2f &V) 	  {		return ((data[0] != V.data[0]) ||			(data[1] != V.data[1])); 	  }	  Vec2f& operator+=(const Vec2f &V) 	  {		data[0] += V.data[0];		data[1] += V.data[1];		return *this; 	  }	  Vec2f& operator-=(const Vec2f &V) 	  {		data[0] -= V.data[0];		data[1] -= V.data[1];		return *this; 	  }	  Vec2f& operator*=(float f) 	  {		data[0] *= f;		data[1] *= f;		return *this; 	  }	  Vec2f& operator/=(float f) 	  {		data[0] /= f;		data[1] /= f;		return *this; 	  }  	  // OPERATIONS	  float Dot2(const Vec2f &V) const 	  {		return data[0] * V.data[0] + data[1] * V.data[1] ;	  }	  // STATIC OPERATIONS	  static void Add(Vec2f &a, const Vec2f &b, const Vec2f &c ) 	  {		a.data[0] = b.data[0] + c.data[0];		a.data[1] = b.data[1] + c.data[1]; 	  }	  static void Sub(Vec2f &a, const Vec2f &b, const Vec2f &c ) 	  {		a.data[0] = b.data[0] - c.data[0];		a.data[1] = b.data[1] - c.data[1]; 	  }	  static void CopyScale(Vec2f &a, const Vec2f &b, float c ) 	  {		a.data[0] = b.data[0] * c;		a.data[1] = b.data[1] * c; 	  }	  static void AddScale(Vec2f &a, const Vec2f &b, const Vec2f &c, float d ) 	  {		a.data[0] = b.data[0] + c.data[0] * d;		a.data[1] = b.data[1] + c.data[1] * d; 	  }	  static void Average(Vec2f &a, const Vec2f &b, const Vec2f &c ) 	  {		a.data[0] = (b.data[0] + c.data[0]) * 0.5f;		a.data[1] = (b.data[1] + c.data[1]) * 0.5f; 	  }	  static void WeightedSum(Vec2f &a, const Vec2f &b, float c, const Vec2f &d, float e ) 	  {		a.data[0] = b.data[0] * c + d.data[0] * e;		a.data[1] = b.data[1] * c + d.data[1] * e; 	  }	  // INPUT / OUTPUT	  void Write(FILE *F = stdout) 	  {		fprintf (F, "%f %f\n",data[0],data[1]); 	  }};// ====================================================================// ====================================================================class Vec3f {	private:	  // REPRESENTATION	  float		data[3];	public:	  // CONSTRUCTORS & DESTRUCTOR	  Vec3f() { data[0] = data[1] = data[2] = 0; }	  Vec3f(const Vec3f &V) 	  {		data[0] = V.data[0];		data[1] = V.data[1];		data[2] = V.data[2]; 	  }	  Vec3f(float d0, float d1, float d2) 	  {		data[0] = d0;		data[1] = d1;		data[2] = d2; 	  }	  Vec3f(const Vec3f &V1, const Vec3f &V2) 	  {		data[0] = V1.data[0] - V2.data[0];		data[1] = V1.data[1] - V2.data[1];		data[2] = V1.data[2] - V2.data[2]; 	  }	  ~Vec3f() { }	  // ACCESSORS	  void Get(float &d0, float &d1, float &d2) const 	  {		d0 = data[0];		d1 = data[1];		d2 = data[2]; 	  }	  float operator[](int i) const 	  { 		assert (i >= 0 && i < 3); 		return data[i]; 	  }	  float x() const { return data[0]; }	  float y() const { return data[1]; }	  float z() const { return data[2]; }	  float r() const { return data[0]; }	  float g() const { return data[1]; }	  float b() const { return data[2]; }	  float Length() const 	  {		float l = (float)sqrt( data[0] * data[0] +				data[1] * data[1] +				data[2] * data[2] );		return l; 	  }	  // MODIFIERS	  void Set(float d0, float d1, float d2) 	  {		data[0] = d0;		data[1] = d1;		data[2] = d2; 	  }	  void Scale(float d0, float d1, float d2) 	  {		data[0] *= d0;		data[1] *= d1;		data[2] *= d2; 	  }	  void Divide(float d0, float d1, float d2) 	  {		data[0] /= d0;		data[1] /= d1;		data[2] /= d2; 	  }	  void Normalize() 	  {		float l = Length();		if (l > 0) 		{		  data[0] /= l;		  data[1] /= l;		  data[2] /= l; 		}	  }	  void Negate() 	  {		data[0] = -data[0];		data[1] = -data[1];		data[2] = -data[2]; 	  }	  // OVERLOADED OPERATORS	  Vec3f& operator=(const Vec3f &V) 	  {		data[0] = V.data[0];		data[1] = V.data[1];		data[2] = V.data[2];		return *this; 	  }	  int operator==(const Vec3f &V) 	  {		return ((data[0] == V.data[0]) &&			(data[1] == V.data[1]) &&			(data[2] == V.data[2])); 	  }	  int operator!=(const Vec3f &V) 	  {		return ((data[0] != V.data[0]) ||			(data[1] != V.data[1]) ||			(data[2] != V.data[2])); 	  }	  Vec3f& operator+=(const Vec3f &V) 	  {		data[0] += V.data[0];		data[1] += V.data[1];		data[2] += V.data[2];		return *this; 	  }	  Vec3f& operator-=(const Vec3f &V) 	  {		data[0] -= V.data[0];		data[1] -= V.data[1];		data[2] -= V.data[2];		return *this; 	  }	  Vec3f& operator*=(int i) 	  {		data[0] = float(data[0] * i);		data[1] = float(data[1] * i);		data[2] = float(data[2] * i);		return *this; 	  }	  Vec3f& operator*=(float f) 	  {		data[0] *= f;		data[1] *= f;		data[2] *= f;		return *this;	  }	  Vec3f& operator/=(int i) 	  {		data[0] = float(data[0] / i);		data[1] = float(data[1] / i);		data[2] = float(data[2] / i);		return *this; 	  }	  Vec3f& operator/=(float f) 	  {		data[0] /= f;		data[1] /= f;		data[2] /= f;		return *this; 	  }  	  // OPERATIONS	  float Dot3(const Vec3f &V) const 	  {		return data[0] * V.data[0] +		  data[1] * V.data[1] +		  data[2] * V.data[2] ; 	  }	  // STATIC OPERATIONS	  friend void Add(Vec3f &a, const Vec3f &b, const Vec3f &c ) 	  {		a.data[0] = b.data[0] + c.data[0];		a.data[1] = b.data[1] + c.data[1];		a.data[2] = b.data[2] + c.data[2]; 	  }	  friend void Sub(Vec3f &a, const Vec3f &b, const Vec3f &c ) 	  {		a.data[0] = b.data[0] - c.data[0];		a.data[1] = b.data[1] - c.data[1];		a.data[2] = b.data[2] - c.data[2]; 	  }	  friend void CopyScale(Vec3f &a, const Vec3f &b, float c ) 	  {		a.data[0] = b.data[0] * c;		a.data[1] = b.data[1] * c;		a.data[2] = b.data[2] * c; 	  }	  friend void AddScale(Vec3f &a, const Vec3f &b, const Vec3f &c, float d ) 	  {		a.data[0] = b.data[0] + c.data[0] * d;		a.data[1] = b.data[1] + c.data[1] * d;		a.data[2] = b.data[2] + c.data[2] * d; 	  }	  friend void Average(Vec3f &a, const Vec3f &b, const Vec3f &c ) 	  {		a.data[0] = (b.data[0] + c.data[0]) * 0.5f;		a.data[1] = (b.data[1] + c.data[1]) * 0.5f;		a.data[2] = (b.data[2] + c.data[2]) * 0.5f; 	  }	  friend void WeightedSum(Vec3f &a, const Vec3f &b, float c, const Vec3f &d, float e ) 	  {		a.data[0] = b.data[0] * c + d.data[0] * e;		a.data[1] = b.data[1] * c + d.data[1] * e;		a.data[2] = b.data[2] * c + d.data[2] * e; 	  }	  static void Cross3(Vec3f &c, const Vec3f &v1, const Vec3f &v2) 	  {		float x = v1.data[1]*v2.data[2] - v1.data[2]*v2.data[1];		float y = v1.data[2]*v2.data[0] - v1.data[0]*v2.data[2];		float z = v1.data[0]*v2.data[1] - v1.data[1]*v2.data[0];		c.data[0] = x; c.data[1] = y; c.data[2] = z; 	  }  	  // INPUT / OUTPUT	  void Write(FILE *F = stdout) 	  {		fprintf (F, "%f %f %f\n",data[0],data[1],data[2]); 	  }  };// ====================================================================// ====================================================================class Vec4f {private:  friend class Matrix;  // REPRESENTATION  float		data[4];public:  // CONSTRUCTORS & DESTRUCTOR  Vec4f() { data[0] = data[1] = data[2] = data[3] = 0; }  Vec4f(const Vec4f &V)   {    data[0] = V.data[0];    data[1] = V.data[1];    data[2] = V.data[2];    data[3] = V.data[3];   }  Vec4f(float d0, float d1, float d2, float d3)   {    data[0] = d0;    data[1] = d1;    data[2] = d2;    data[3] = d3;   }  Vec4f(const Vec3f &V, float w)   {    data[0] = V.x();    data[1] = V.y();    data[2] = V.z();    data[3] = w;   }  Vec4f(const Vec4f &V1, const Vec4f &V2)   {    data[0] = V1.data[0] - V2.data[0];    data[1] = V1.data[1] - V2.data[1];    data[2] = V1.data[2] - V2.data[2];    data[3] = V1.data[3] - V2.data[3];   }  ~Vec4f() { }  // ACCESSORS  void Get(float &d0, float &d1, float &d2, float &d3) const   {    d0 = data[0];    d1 = data[1];    d2 = data[2];    d3 = data[3];   }  float operator[](int i) const   {     assert (i >= 0 && i < 4);     return data[i];   }  float x() const { return data[0]; }  float y() const { return data[1]; }  float z() const { return data[2]; }  float w() const { return data[3]; }  float r() const { return data[0]; }  float g() const { return data[1]; }  float b() const { return data[2]; }  float a() const { return data[3]; }  float Length() const   {    float l = (float)sqrt( data[0] * data[0] +		     data[1] * data[1] +		     data[2] * data[2] +		     data[3] * data[3] );    return l;   }  // MODIFIERS  void Set(float d0, float d1, float d2, float d3)  {    data[0] = d0;    data[1] = d1;    data[2] = d2;    data[3] = d3;   }  void Scale(float d0, float d1, float d2, float d3)   {    data[0] *= d0;    data[1] *= d1;    data[2] *= d2;    data[3] *= d3;   }  void Divide(float d0, float d1, float d2, float d3)   {    data[0] /= d0;    data[1] /= d1;    data[2] /= d2;    data[3] /= d3;   }  void Negate()   {    data[0] = -data[0];    data[1] = -data[1];    data[2] = -data[2];    data[3] = -data[3];   }  void Normalize()   {    float l = Length();    if (l > 0) 	{      data[0] /= l;      data[1] /= l;      data[2] /= l; 	}  }  void DivideByW()   {    if (data[3] != 0) 	{      data[0] /= data[3];      data[1] /= data[3];      data[2] /= data[3];    } 	else 	{      data[0] = data[1] = data[2] = 0; 	}    data[3] = 1;  }  // OVERLOADED OPERATORS  Vec4f& operator=(const Vec4f &V)   {    data[0] = V.data[0];    data[1] = V.data[1];    data[2] = V.data[2];    data[3] = V.data[3];    return *this;   }  int operator==(const Vec4f &V) const   {    return ((data[0] == V.data[0]) &&	    (data[1] == V.data[1]) &&	    (data[2] == V.data[2]) &&	    (data[3] == V.data[3]));   }  int operator!=(const Vec4f &V) const   {    return ((data[0] != V.data[0]) ||	    (data[1] != V.data[1]) ||	    (data[2] != V.data[2]) ||	    (data[3] != V.data[3]));   }  Vec4f& operator+=(const Vec4f &V)   {    data[0] += V.data[0];    data[1] += V.data[1];    data[2] += V.data[2];    data[3] += V.data[3];    return *this;   }  Vec4f& operator-=(const Vec4f &V)   {    data[0] -= V.data[0];    data[1] -= V.data[1];    data[2] -= V.data[2];    data[3] -= V.data[3];    return *this;   }  Vec4f& operator*=(float f)   {    data[0] *= f;    data[1] *= f;    data[2] *= f;    data[3] *= f;    return *this;   }  Vec4f& operator/=(float f)   {    data[0] /= f;    data[1] /= f;    data[2] /= f;    data[3] /= f;    return *this;  }  // OPERATIONS  float Dot2(const Vec4f &V) const   {    return data[0] * V.data[0] +      data[1] * V.data[1];   }  float Dot3(const Vec4f &V) const   {    return data[0] * V.data[0] +      data[1] * V.data[1] +      data[2] * V.data[2];   }  float Dot4(const Vec4f &V) const   {    return data[0] * V.data[0] +      data[1] * V.data[1] +      data[2] * V.data[2] +      data[3] * V.data[3];   }    // STATIC OPERATIONS  static void Add(Vec4f &a, const Vec4f &b, const Vec4f &c )   {    a.data[0] = b.data[0] + c.data[0];    a.data[1] = b.data[1] + c.data[1];    a.data[2] = b.data[2] + c.data[2];    a.data[3] = b.data[3] + c.data[3];   }  static void Sub(Vec4f &a, const Vec4f &b, const Vec4f &c )   {    a.data[0] = b.data[0] - c.data[0];    a.data[1] = b.data[1] - c.data[1];    a.data[2] = b.data[2] - c.data[2];    a.data[3] = b.data[3] - c.data[3];   }  static void CopyScale(Vec4f &a, const Vec4f &b, float c )   {    a.data[0] = b.data[0] * c;    a.data[1] = b.data[1] * c;    a.data[2] = b.data[2] * c;    a.data[3] = b.data[3] * c;   }  static void AddScale(Vec4f &a, const Vec4f &b, const Vec4f &c, float d )   {    a.data[0] = b.data[0] + c.data[0] * d;    a.data[1] = b.data[1] + c.data[1] * d;    a.data[2] = b.data[2] + c.data[2] * d;    a.data[3] = b.data[3] + c.data[3] * d;   }  static void Average(Vec4f &a, const Vec4f &b, const Vec4f &c )   {    a.data[0] = (b.data[0] + c.data[0]) * 0.5f;    a.data[1] = (b.data[1] + c.data[1]) * 0.5f;    a.data[2] = (b.data[2] + c.data[2]) * 0.5f;    a.data[3] = (b.data[3] + c.data[3]) * 0.5f;   }  static void WeightedSum(Vec4f &a, const Vec4f &b, float c, const Vec4f &d, float e )   {    a.data[0] = b.data[0] * c + d.data[0] * e;    a.data[1] = b.data[1] * c + d.data[1] * e;    a.data[2] = b.data[2] * c + d.data[2] * e;    a.data[3] = b.data[3] * c + d.data[3] * e;   }  static void Cross3(Vec4f &c, const Vec4f &v1, const Vec4f &v2)   {    float x = v1.data[1]*v2.data[2] - v1.data[2]*v2.data[1];    float y = v1.data[2]*v2.data[0] - v1.data[0]*v2.data[2];    float z = v1.data[0]*v2.data[1] - v1.data[1]*v2.data[0];    c.data[0] = x; c.data[1] = y; c.data[2] = z;   }  // INPUT / OUTPUT  void Write(FILE *F = stdout)   {    fprintf (F, "%f %f %f %f\n",data[0],data[1],data[2],data[3]);   }};#endif

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test.cpp
#include "vectors.h"#include "matrix.h"void main (){	Matrix A, B, C;	A.SetToIdentity ();	A.Scale (2);	B.SetToIdentity ();	B.Translate (1, 1, 1);		C = A + B;	A.Write ();	B.Write ();	C.Write ();}

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• By alex1997
I'm looking to render multiple objects (rectangles) with different shaders. So far I've managed to render one rectangle made out of 2 triangles and apply shader to it, but when it comes to render another I get stucked. Searched for documentations or stuffs that could help me, but everything shows how to render only 1 object. Any tips or help is highly appreciated, thanks!
Here's my code for rendering one object with shader!

• By Vortez
Hi guys, im having a little problem fixing a bug in my program since i multi-threaded it. The app is a little video converter i wrote for fun. To help you understand the problem, ill first explain how the program is made. Im using Delphi to do the GUI/Windows part of the code, then im loading a c++ dll for the video conversion. The problem is not related to the video conversion, but with OpenGL only. The code work like this:

DWORD WINAPI JobThread(void *params) { for each files { ... _ConvertVideo(input_name, output_name); } } void EXP_FUNC _ConvertVideo(char *input_fname, char *output_fname) { // Note that im re-initializing and cleaning up OpenGL each time this function is called... CGLEngine GLEngine; ... // Initialize OpenGL GLEngine.Initialize(render_wnd); GLEngine.CreateTexture(dst_width, dst_height, 4); // decode the video and render the frames... for each frames { ... GLEngine.UpdateTexture(pY, pU, pV); GLEngine.Render(); } cleanup: GLEngine.DeleteTexture(); GLEngine.Shutdown(); // video cleanup code... }
With a single thread, everything work fine. The problem arise when im starting the thread for a second time, nothing get rendered, but the encoding work fine. For example, if i start the thread with 3 files to process, all of them render fine, but if i start the thread again (with the same batch of files or not...), OpenGL fail to render anything.
Im pretty sure it has something to do with the rendering context (or maybe the window DC?). Here a snippet of my OpenGL class:
bool CGLEngine::Initialize(HWND hWnd) { hDC = GetDC(hWnd); if(!SetupPixelFormatDescriptor(hDC)){ ReleaseDC(hWnd, hDC); return false; } hRC = wglCreateContext(hDC); wglMakeCurrent(hDC, hRC); // more code ... return true; } void CGLEngine::Shutdown() { // some code... if(hRC){wglDeleteContext(hRC);} if(hDC){ReleaseDC(hWnd, hDC);} hDC = hRC = NULL; }
The full source code is available here. The most relevant files are:

Thx in advance if anyone can help me.

• This article uses material originally posted on Diligent Graphics web site.
Introduction
Graphics APIs have come a long way from small set of basic commands allowing limited control of configurable stages of early 3D accelerators to very low-level programming interfaces exposing almost every aspect of the underlying graphics hardware. Next-generation APIs, Direct3D12 by Microsoft and Vulkan by Khronos are relatively new and have only started getting widespread adoption and support from hardware vendors, while Direct3D11 and OpenGL are still considered industry standard. New APIs can provide substantial performance and functional improvements, but may not be supported by older hardware. An application targeting wide range of platforms needs to support Direct3D11 and OpenGL. New APIs will not give any advantage when used with old paradigms. It is totally possible to add Direct3D12 support to an existing renderer by implementing Direct3D11 interface through Direct3D12, but this will give zero benefits. Instead, new approaches and rendering architectures that leverage flexibility provided by the next-generation APIs are expected to be developed.
There are at least four APIs (Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES, Vulkan, plus Apple's Metal for iOS and osX platforms) that a cross-platform 3D application may need to support. Writing separate code paths for all APIs is clearly not an option for any real-world application and the need for a cross-platform graphics abstraction layer is evident. The following is the list of requirements that I believe such layer needs to satisfy:
Lightweight abstractions: the API should be as close to the underlying native APIs as possible to allow an application leverage all available low-level functionality. In many cases this requirement is difficult to achieve because specific features exposed by different APIs may vary considerably. Low performance overhead: the abstraction layer needs to be efficient from performance point of view. If it introduces considerable amount of overhead, there is no point in using it. Convenience: the API needs to be convenient to use. It needs to assist developers in achieving their goals not limiting their control of the graphics hardware. Multithreading: ability to efficiently parallelize work is in the core of Direct3D12 and Vulkan and one of the main selling points of the new APIs. Support for multithreading in a cross-platform layer is a must. Extensibility: no matter how well the API is designed, it still introduces some level of abstraction. In some cases the most efficient way to implement certain functionality is to directly use native API. The abstraction layer needs to provide seamless interoperability with the underlying native APIs to provide a way for the app to add features that may be missing. Diligent Engine is designed to solve these problems. Its main goal is to take advantages of the next-generation APIs such as Direct3D12 and Vulkan, but at the same time provide support for older platforms via Direct3D11, OpenGL and OpenGLES. Diligent Engine exposes common C++ front-end for all supported platforms and provides interoperability with underlying native APIs. It also supports integration with Unity and is designed to be used as graphics subsystem in a standalone game engine, Unity native plugin or any other 3D application. Full source code is available for download at GitHub and is free to use.
Overview
Diligent Engine API takes some features from Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 as well as introduces new concepts to hide certain platform-specific details and make the system easy to use. It contains the following main components:
Render device (IRenderDevice  interface) is responsible for creating all other objects (textures, buffers, shaders, pipeline states, etc.).
Device context (IDeviceContext interface) is the main interface for recording rendering commands. Similar to Direct3D11, there are immediate context and deferred contexts (which in Direct3D11 implementation map directly to the corresponding context types). Immediate context combines command queue and command list recording functionality. It records commands and submits the command list for execution when it contains sufficient number of commands. Deferred contexts are designed to only record command lists that can be submitted for execution through the immediate context.
An alternative way to design the API would be to expose command queue and command lists directly. This approach however does not map well to Direct3D11 and OpenGL. Besides, some functionality (such as dynamic descriptor allocation) can be much more efficiently implemented when it is known that a command list is recorded by a certain deferred context from some thread.
The approach taken in the engine does not limit scalability as the application is expected to create one deferred context per thread, and internally every deferred context records a command list in lock-free fashion. At the same time this approach maps well to older APIs.
In current implementation, only one immediate context that uses default graphics command queue is created. To support multiple GPUs or multiple command queue types (compute, copy, etc.), it is natural to have one immediate contexts per queue. Cross-context synchronization utilities will be necessary.
Swap Chain (ISwapChain interface). Swap chain interface represents a chain of back buffers and is responsible for showing the final rendered image on the screen.
Render device, device contexts and swap chain are created during the engine initialization.
Resources (ITexture and IBuffer interfaces). There are two types of resources - textures and buffers. There are many different texture types (2D textures, 3D textures, texture array, cubmepas, etc.) that can all be represented by ITexture interface.
Resources Views (ITextureView and IBufferView interfaces). While textures and buffers are mere data containers, texture views and buffer views describe how the data should be interpreted. For instance, a 2D texture can be used as a render target for rendering commands or as a shader resource.
Pipeline State (IPipelineState interface). GPU pipeline contains many configurable stages (depth-stencil, rasterizer and blend states, different shader stage, etc.). Direct3D11 uses coarse-grain objects to set all stage parameters at once (for instance, a rasterizer object encompasses all rasterizer attributes), while OpenGL contains myriad functions to fine-grain control every individual attribute of every stage. Both methods do not map very well to modern graphics hardware that combines all states into one monolithic state under the hood. Direct3D12 directly exposes pipeline state object in the API, and Diligent Engine uses the same approach.
Shader Resource Binding (IShaderResourceBinding interface). Shaders are programs that run on the GPU. Shaders may access various resources (textures and buffers), and setting correspondence between shader variables and actual resources is called resource binding. Resource binding implementation varies considerably between different API. Diligent Engine introduces a new object called shader resource binding that encompasses all resources needed by all shaders in a certain pipeline state.
API Basics
Creating Resources
Device resources are created by the render device. The two main resource types are buffers, which represent linear memory, and textures, which use memory layouts optimized for fast filtering. Graphics APIs usually have a native object that represents linear buffer. Diligent Engine uses IBuffer interface as an abstraction for a native buffer. To create a buffer, one needs to populate BufferDesc structure and call IRenderDevice::CreateBuffer() method as in the following example:
BufferDesc BuffDesc; BufferDesc.Name = "Uniform buffer"; BuffDesc.BindFlags = BIND_UNIFORM_BUFFER; BuffDesc.Usage = USAGE_DYNAMIC; BuffDesc.uiSizeInBytes = sizeof(ShaderConstants); BuffDesc.CPUAccessFlags = CPU_ACCESS_WRITE; m_pDevice->CreateBuffer( BuffDesc, BufferData(), &m_pConstantBuffer ); While there is usually just one buffer object, different APIs use very different approaches to represent textures. For instance, in Direct3D11, there are ID3D11Texture1D, ID3D11Texture2D, and ID3D11Texture3D objects. In OpenGL, there is individual object for every texture dimension (1D, 2D, 3D, Cube), which may be a texture array, which may also be multisampled (i.e. GL_TEXTURE_2D_MULTISAMPLE_ARRAY). As a result there are nine different GL texture types that Diligent Engine may create under the hood. In Direct3D12, there is only one resource interface. Diligent Engine hides all these details in ITexture interface. There is only one  IRenderDevice::CreateTexture() method that is capable of creating all texture types. Dimension, format, array size and all other parameters are specified by the members of the TextureDesc structure:
TextureDesc TexDesc; TexDesc.Name = "My texture 2D"; TexDesc.Type = TEXTURE_TYPE_2D; TexDesc.Width = 1024; TexDesc.Height = 1024; TexDesc.Format = TEX_FORMAT_RGBA8_UNORM; TexDesc.Usage = USAGE_DEFAULT; TexDesc.BindFlags = BIND_SHADER_RESOURCE | BIND_RENDER_TARGET | BIND_UNORDERED_ACCESS; TexDesc.Name = "Sample 2D Texture"; m_pRenderDevice->CreateTexture( TexDesc, TextureData(), &m_pTestTex ); If native API supports multithreaded resource creation, textures and buffers can be created by multiple threads simultaneously.
Interoperability with native API provides access to the native buffer/texture objects and also allows creating Diligent Engine objects from native handles. It allows applications seamlessly integrate native API-specific code with Diligent Engine.
Next-generation APIs allow fine level-control over how resources are allocated. Diligent Engine does not currently expose this functionality, but it can be added by implementing IResourceAllocator interface that encapsulates specifics of resource allocation and providing this interface to CreateBuffer() or CreateTexture() methods. If null is provided, default allocator should be used.
Initializing the Pipeline State
As it was mentioned earlier, Diligent Engine follows next-gen APIs to configure the graphics/compute pipeline. One big Pipelines State Object (PSO) encompasses all required states (all shader stages, input layout description, depth stencil, rasterizer and blend state descriptions etc.). This approach maps directly to Direct3D12/Vulkan, but is also beneficial for older APIs as it eliminates pipeline misconfiguration errors. With many individual calls tweaking various GPU pipeline settings it is very easy to forget to set one of the states or assume the stage is already properly configured when in fact it is not. Using pipeline state object helps avoid these problems as all stages are configured at once.
While in earlier APIs shaders were bound separately, in the next-generation APIs as well as in Diligent Engine shaders are part of the pipeline state object. The biggest challenge when authoring shaders is that Direct3D and OpenGL/Vulkan use different shader languages (while Apple uses yet another language in their Metal API). Maintaining two versions of every shader is not an option for real applications and Diligent Engine implements shader source code converter that allows shaders authored in HLSL to be translated to GLSL. To create a shader, one needs to populate ShaderCreationAttribs structure. SourceLanguage member of this structure tells the system which language the shader is authored in:
When sampling a texture in a shader, the texture sampler was traditionally specified as separate object that was bound to the pipeline at run time or set as part of the texture object itself. However, in most cases it is known beforehand what kind of sampler will be used in the shader. Next-generation APIs expose new type of sampler called static sampler that can be initialized directly in the pipeline state. Diligent Engine exposes this functionality: when creating a shader, textures can be assigned static samplers. If static sampler is assigned, it will always be used instead of the one initialized in the texture shader resource view. To initialize static samplers, prepare an array of StaticSamplerDesc structures and initialize StaticSamplers and NumStaticSamplers members. Static samplers are more efficient and it is highly recommended to use them whenever possible. On older APIs, static samplers are emulated via generic sampler objects.
The following is an example of shader initialization:
Creating the Pipeline State Object
After all required shaders are created, the rest of the fields of the PipelineStateDesc structure provide depth-stencil, rasterizer, and blend state descriptions, the number and format of render targets, input layout format, etc. For instance, rasterizer state can be described as follows:
PipelineStateDesc PSODesc; RasterizerStateDesc &RasterizerDesc = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.RasterizerDesc; RasterizerDesc.FillMode = FILL_MODE_SOLID; RasterizerDesc.CullMode = CULL_MODE_NONE; RasterizerDesc.FrontCounterClockwise = True; RasterizerDesc.ScissorEnable = True; RasterizerDesc.AntialiasedLineEnable = False; Depth-stencil and blend states are defined in a similar fashion.
Another important thing that pipeline state object encompasses is the input layout description that defines how inputs to the vertex shader, which is the very first shader stage, should be read from the memory. Input layout may define several vertex streams that contain values of different formats and sizes:
// Define input layout InputLayoutDesc &Layout = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.InputLayout; LayoutElement TextLayoutElems[] = {     LayoutElement( 0, 0, 3, VT_FLOAT32, False ),     LayoutElement( 1, 0, 4, VT_UINT8, True ),     LayoutElement( 2, 0, 2, VT_FLOAT32, False ), }; Layout.LayoutElements = TextLayoutElems; Layout.NumElements = _countof( TextLayoutElems ); Finally, pipeline state defines primitive topology type. When all required members are initialized, a pipeline state object can be created by IRenderDevice::CreatePipelineState() method:
// Define shader and primitive topology PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.PrimitiveTopologyType = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TYPE_TRIANGLE; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pVS = pVertexShader; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pPS = pPixelShader; PSODesc.Name = "My pipeline state"; m_pDev->CreatePipelineState(PSODesc, &m_pPSO); When PSO object is bound to the pipeline, the engine invokes all API-specific commands to set all states specified by the object. In case of Direct3D12 this maps directly to setting the D3D12 PSO object. In case of Direct3D11, this involves setting individual state objects (such as rasterizer and blend states), shaders, input layout etc. In case of OpenGL, this requires a number of fine-grain state tweaking calls. Diligent Engine keeps track of currently bound states and only calls functions to update these states that have actually changed.
Direct3D11 and OpenGL utilize fine-grain resource binding models, where an application binds individual buffers and textures to certain shader or program resource binding slots. Direct3D12 uses a very different approach, where resource descriptors are grouped into tables, and an application can bind all resources in the table at once by setting the table in the command list. Resource binding model in Diligent Engine is designed to leverage this new method. It introduces a new object called shader resource binding that encapsulates all resource bindings required for all shaders in a certain pipeline state. It also introduces the classification of shader variables based on the frequency of expected change that helps the engine group them into tables under the hood:
Static variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC) are variables that are expected to be set only once. They may not be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. Such variables are intended to hold global constants such as camera attributes or global light attributes constant buffers. Mutable variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE) define resources that are expected to change on a per-material frequency. Examples may include diffuse textures, normal maps etc. Dynamic variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC) are expected to change frequently and randomly. Shader variable type must be specified during shader creation by populating an array of ShaderVariableDesc structures and initializing ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::VariableDesc and ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::NumVariables members (see example of shader creation above).
Static variables cannot be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. They are bound directly to the shader object. For instance, a shadow map texture is not expected to change after it is created, so it can be bound directly to the shader:
m_pPSO->CreateShaderResourceBinding(&m_pSRB); Note that an SRB is only compatible with the pipeline state it was created from. SRB object inherits all static bindings from shaders in the pipeline, but is not allowed to change them.
Mutable resources can only be set once for every instance of a shader resource binding. Such resources are intended to define specific material properties. For instance, a diffuse texture for a specific material is not expected to change once the material is defined and can be set right after the SRB object has been created:
m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL, "tex2DDiffuse")->Set(pDiffuseTexSRV); In some cases it is necessary to bind a new resource to a variable every time a draw command is invoked. Such variables should be labeled as dynamic, which will allow setting them multiple times through the same SRB object:
m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_VERTEX, "cbRandomAttribs")->Set(pRandomAttrsCB); Under the hood, the engine pre-allocates descriptor tables for static and mutable resources when an SRB objcet is created. Space for dynamic resources is dynamically allocated at run time. Static and mutable resources are thus more efficient and should be used whenever possible.
As you can see, Diligent Engine does not expose low-level details of how resources are bound to shader variables. One reason for this is that these details are very different for various APIs. The other reason is that using low-level binding methods is extremely error-prone: it is very easy to forget to bind some resource, or bind incorrect resource such as bind a buffer to the variable that is in fact a texture, especially during shader development when everything changes fast. Diligent Engine instead relies on shader reflection system to automatically query the list of all shader variables. Grouping variables based on three types mentioned above allows the engine to create optimized layout and take heavy lifting of matching resources to API-specific resource location, register or descriptor in the table.
This post gives more details about the resource binding model in Diligent Engine.
Setting the Pipeline State and Committing Shader Resources
Before any draw or compute command can be invoked, the pipeline state needs to be bound to the context:
m_pContext->SetPipelineState(m_pPSO); Under the hood, the engine sets the internal PSO object in the command list or calls all the required native API functions to properly configure all pipeline stages.
The next step is to bind all required shader resources to the GPU pipeline, which is accomplished by IDeviceContext::CommitShaderResources() method:
m_pContext->CommitShaderResources(m_pSRB, COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES); The method takes a pointer to the shader resource binding object and makes all resources the object holds available for the shaders. In the case of D3D12, this only requires setting appropriate descriptor tables in the command list. For older APIs, this typically requires setting all resources individually.
Next-generation APIs require the application to track the state of every resource and explicitly inform the system about all state transitions. For instance, if a texture was used as render target before, while the next draw command is going to use it as shader resource, a transition barrier needs to be executed. Diligent Engine does the heavy lifting of state tracking.  When CommitShaderResources() method is called with COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES flag, the engine commits and transitions resources to correct states at the same time. Note that transitioning resources does introduce some overhead. The engine tracks state of every resource and it will not issue the barrier if the state is already correct. But checking resource state is an overhead that can sometimes be avoided. The engine provides IDeviceContext::TransitionShaderResources() method that only transitions resources:
m_pContext->TransitionShaderResources(m_pPSO, m_pSRB); In some scenarios it is more efficient to transition resources once and then only commit them.
Invoking Draw Command
The final step is to set states that are not part of the PSO, such as render targets, vertex and index buffers. Diligent Engine uses Direct3D11-syle API that is translated to other native API calls under the hood:
ITextureView *pRTVs[] = {m_pRTV}; m_pContext->SetRenderTargets(_countof( pRTVs ), pRTVs, m_pDSV); // Clear render target and depth buffer const float zero[4] = {0, 0, 0, 0}; m_pContext->ClearRenderTarget(nullptr, zero); m_pContext->ClearDepthStencil(nullptr, CLEAR_DEPTH_FLAG, 1.f); // Set vertex and index buffers IBuffer *buffer[] = {m_pVertexBuffer}; Uint32 offsets[] = {0}; Uint32 strides[] = {sizeof(MyVertex)}; m_pContext->SetVertexBuffers(0, 1, buffer, strides, offsets, SET_VERTEX_BUFFERS_FLAG_RESET); m_pContext->SetIndexBuffer(m_pIndexBuffer, 0); Different native APIs use various set of function to execute draw commands depending on command details (if the command is indexed, instanced or both, what offsets in the source buffers are used etc.). For instance, there are 5 draw commands in Direct3D11 and more than 9 commands in OpenGL with something like glDrawElementsInstancedBaseVertexBaseInstance not uncommon. Diligent Engine hides all details with single IDeviceContext::Draw() method that takes takes DrawAttribs structure as an argument. The structure members define all attributes required to perform the command (primitive topology, number of vertices or indices, if draw call is indexed or not, if draw call is instanced or not, if draw call is indirect or not, etc.). For example:
DrawAttribs attrs; attrs.IsIndexed = true; attrs.IndexType = VT_UINT16; attrs.NumIndices = 36; attrs.Topology = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLE_LIST; pContext->Draw(attrs); For compute commands, there is IDeviceContext::DispatchCompute() method that takes DispatchComputeAttribs structure that defines compute grid dimension.
Source Code
Full engine source code is available on GitHub and is free to use. The repository contains two samples, asteroids performance benchmark and example Unity project that uses Diligent Engine in native plugin.
AntTweakBar sample is Diligent Engine’s “Hello World” example.

Atmospheric scattering sample is a more advanced example. It demonstrates how Diligent Engine can be used to implement various rendering tasks: loading textures from files, using complex shaders, rendering to multiple render targets, using compute shaders and unordered access views, etc.

Asteroids performance benchmark is based on this demo developed by Intel. It renders 50,000 unique textured asteroids and allows comparing performance of Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 implementations. Every asteroid is a combination of one of 1000 unique meshes and one of 10 unique textures.

Finally, there is an example project that shows how Diligent Engine can be integrated with Unity.

Future Work
The engine is under active development. It currently supports Windows desktop, Universal Windows and Android platforms. Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES backends are now feature complete. Vulkan backend is coming next, and support for more platforms is planned.

• I've started building a small library, that can render pie menu GUI in legacy opengl, planning to add some traditional elements of course.
It's interface is similar to something you'd see in IMGUI. It's written in C.
Early version of the library
I'd really love to hear anyone's thoughts on this, any suggestions on what features you'd want to see in a library like this?