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what is wrong with this code?

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this code is from the book Tricks of the Windows Game Programming Gurus by Andre Lamothe. It is supposed to load a 24 bit image, convert it to 16 bit, and display it on the screen. However, all it does is display a black screen. :( i have the bitmap it is supposed to load, one bitmap24.bmp in the correct folder. so i think it is something with this code.
// DEMO7_11.CPP 16-bit bitmap loading demo

// INCLUDES ///////////////////////////////////////////////

#define WIN32_LEAN_AND_MEAN  // just say no to MFC

#define INITGUID

#include <windows.h>   // include important windows stuff
#include <windowsx.h> 
#include <mmsystem.h>
#include <iostream.h> // include important C/C++ stuff
#include <conio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <malloc.h>
#include <memory.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <stdio.h> 
#include <math.h>
#include <io.h>
#include <fcntl.h>

#include <ddraw.h> // include directdraw

// DEFINES ////////////////////////////////////////////////

// defines for windows 

// default screen size
#define SCREEN_WIDTH    640  // size of screen
#define SCREEN_HEIGHT   480
#define SCREEN_BPP      16   // bits per pixel

#define BITMAP_ID            0x4D42 // universal id for a bitmap
#define MAX_COLORS_PALETTE   256

// TYPES //////////////////////////////////////////////////////

// basic unsigned types
typedef unsigned short USHORT;
typedef unsigned short WORD;
typedef unsigned char  UCHAR;
typedef unsigned char  BYTE;

// container structure for bitmaps .BMP file
typedef struct BITMAP_FILE_TAG
        BITMAPFILEHEADER bitmapfileheader;  // this contains the bitmapfile header
        BITMAPINFOHEADER bitmapinfoheader;  // this is all the info including the palette
        PALETTEENTRY     palette[256];      // we will store the palette here
        UCHAR            *buffer;           // this is a pointer to the data


// PROTOTYPES  //////////////////////////////////////////////

int Flip_Bitmap(UCHAR *image, int bytes_per_line, int height);

int Load_Bitmap_File(BITMAP_FILE_PTR bitmap, char *filename);

int Unload_Bitmap_File(BITMAP_FILE_PTR bitmap);

// MACROS /////////////////////////////////////////////////

// tests if a key is up or down
#define KEYDOWN(vk_code) ((GetAsyncKeyState(vk_code) & 0x8000) ? 1 : 0)
#define KEYUP(vk_code)   ((GetAsyncKeyState(vk_code) & 0x8000) ? 0 : 1)

// initializes a direct draw struct
#define DDRAW_INIT_STRUCT(ddstruct) { memset(&ddstruct,0,sizeof(ddstruct)); ddstruct.dwSize=sizeof(ddstruct); }

// this builds a 16 bit color value in 5.5.5 format (1-bit alpha mode)
#define _RGB16BIT555(r,g,b) ((b%32) + ((g%32) << 5) + ((r%32) << 10))

// this builds a 16 bit color value in 5.6.5 format (green dominate mode)
#define _RGB16BIT565(r,g,b) ((b%32) + ((g%64) << 6) + ((r%32) << 11))

// this builds a 32 bit color value in A.8.8.8 format (8-bit alpha mode)
#define _RGB32BIT(a,r,g,b) ((b) + ((g) << 8) + ((r) << 16) + ((a) << 24))

// GLOBALS ////////////////////////////////////////////////

HWND      main_window_handle = NULL; // globally track main window
int       window_closed      = 0;    // tracks if window is closed
HINSTANCE hinstance_app      = NULL; // globally track hinstance

// directdraw stuff

LPDIRECTDRAW          lpdd         = NULL;   // dd object
LPDIRECTDRAW4         lpdd4        = NULL;   // dd4 object
LPDIRECTDRAWSURFACE4  lpddsprimary = NULL;   // dd primary surface
LPDIRECTDRAWSURFACE4  lpddsback    = NULL;   // dd back surface
LPDIRECTDRAWPALETTE   lpddpal      = NULL;   // a pointer to the created dd palette
LPDIRECTDRAWCLIPPER   lpddclipper  = NULL;   // dd clipper
PALETTEENTRY          palette[256];          // color palette
PALETTEENTRY          save_palette[256];     // used to save palettes
DDSURFACEDESC2        ddsd;                  // a direct draw surface description struct
DDBLTFX               ddbltfx;               // used to fill
DDSCAPS2              ddscaps;               // a direct draw surface capabilities struct
HRESULT               ddrval;                // result back from dd calls
DWORD                 start_clock_count = 0; // used for timing

BITMAP_FILE           bitmap;                // holds the bitmap

char buffer[80];                             // general printing buffer

// FUNCTIONS ////////////////////////////////////////////////

int Load_Bitmap_File(BITMAP_FILE_PTR bitmap, char *filename)
// this function opens a bitmap file and loads the data into bitmap

int file_handle,  // the file handle
    index;        // looping index

UCHAR   *temp_buffer = NULL; // used to convert 24 bit images to 16 bit
OFSTRUCT file_data;          // the file data information

// open the file if it exists
if ((file_handle = OpenFile(filename,&file_data,OF_READ))==-1)

// now load the bitmap file header
_lread(file_handle, &bitmap->bitmapfileheader,sizeof(BITMAPFILEHEADER));

// test if this is a bitmap file
if (bitmap->bitmapfileheader.bfType!=BITMAP_ID)
   // close the file

   // return error
   } // end if

// now we know this is a bitmap, so read in all the sections

// first the bitmap infoheader

// now load the bitmap file header
_lread(file_handle, &bitmap->bitmapinfoheader,sizeof(BITMAPINFOHEADER));

// now load the color palette if there is one
if (bitmap->bitmapinfoheader.biBitCount == 8)
   _lread(file_handle, &bitmap->palette,MAX_COLORS_PALETTE*sizeof(PALETTEENTRY));

   // now set all the flags in the palette correctly and fix the reversed 
   // BGR RGBQUAD data format
   for (index=0; index < MAX_COLORS_PALETTE; index++)
       // reverse the red and green fields
       int temp_color                = bitmap->palette[index].peRed;
       bitmap->palette[index].peRed  = bitmap->palette[index].peBlue;
       bitmap->palette[index].peBlue = temp_color;
       // always set the flags word to this
       bitmap->palette[index].peFlags = PC_NOCOLLAPSE;
       } // end for index

    } // end if

// finally the image data itself

// now read in the image, if the image is 8 or 16 bit then simply read it
// but if its 24 bit then read it into a temporary area and then convert
// it to a 16 bit image

if (bitmap->bitmapinfoheader.biBitCount==8 || bitmap->bitmapinfoheader.biBitCount==16 || 
   // delete the last image if there was one
   if (bitmap->buffer)

   // allocate the memory for the image
   if (!(bitmap->buffer = (UCHAR *)malloc(bitmap->bitmapinfoheader.biSizeImage)))
      // close the file

      // return error
      } // end if

   // now read it in

   } // end if
   // serious problem

   } // end else

#if 0
// write the file info out 
printf("\nfilename:%s \nsize=%d \nwidth=%d \nheight=%d \nbitsperpixel=%d \ncolors=%d \nimpcolors=%d",

// close the file

// flip the bitmap

// return success

} // end Load_Bitmap_File


int Unload_Bitmap_File(BITMAP_FILE_PTR bitmap)
// this function releases all memory associated with "bitmap"
if (bitmap->buffer)
   // release memory

   // reset pointer
   bitmap->buffer = NULL;

   } // end if

// return success

} // end Unload_Bitmap_File


int Flip_Bitmap(UCHAR *image, int bytes_per_line, int height)
// this function is used to flip bottom-up .BMP images

UCHAR *buffer; // used to perform the image processing
int index;     // looping index

// allocate the temporary buffer
if (!(buffer = (UCHAR *)malloc(bytes_per_line*height)))

// copy image to work area

// flip vertically
for (index=0; index < height; index++)
    memcpy(&image[((height-1) - index)*bytes_per_line],
           &buffer[index*bytes_per_line], bytes_per_line);

// release the memory

// return success

} // end Flip_Bitmap


						    UINT msg, 
                            WPARAM wparam, 
                            LPARAM lparam)
// this is the main message handler of the system
PAINTSTRUCT		ps;		// used in WM_PAINT
HDC				hdc;	// handle to a device context
char buffer[80];        // used to print strings

// what is the message 
	case WM_CREATE: 
		// do initialization stuff here
        // return success
		} break;
	case WM_PAINT: 
		// simply validate the window 
   	    hdc = BeginPaint(hwnd,&ps);	 
        // end painting

        // return success
   		} break;

	case WM_DESTROY: 

		// kill the application, this sends a WM_QUIT message 

        // return success
		} break;


    } // end switch

// process any messages that we didn't take care of 
return (DefWindowProc(hwnd, msg, wparam, lparam));

} // end WinProc


int Game_Main(void *parms = NULL, int num_parms = 0)
// this is the main loop of the game, do all your processing
// here

// make sure this isn't executed again
if (window_closed)

// for now test if user is hitting ESC and send WM_CLOSE
   window_closed = 1;
   } // end if

// do nothing -- look at pretty picture

// return success or failure or your own return code here

} // end Game_Main


int Game_Init(void *parms = NULL, int num_parms = 0)
// this is called once after the initial window is created and
// before the main event loop is entered, do all your initialization
// here

// first create base IDirectDraw interface
if (FAILED(DirectDrawCreate(NULL, &lpdd, NULL)))

// now query for IDirectDraw4
if (FAILED(lpdd->QueryInterface(IID_IDirectDraw4,
                               (LPVOID *)&lpdd4)))

// set cooperation to full screen
if (FAILED(lpdd4->SetCooperativeLevel(main_window_handle, 
                                      DDSCL_FULLSCREEN | DDSCL_ALLOWMODEX | 
                                      DDSCL_EXCLUSIVE | DDSCL_ALLOWREBOOT)))

// set display mode to 640x480x8

// clear ddsd and set size

// enable valid fields
ddsd.dwFlags = DDSD_CAPS;

// request primary surface

// create the primary surface
if (FAILED(lpdd4->CreateSurface(&ddsd, &lpddsprimary, NULL)))

// load the 24-bit image
if (!Load_Bitmap_File(&bitmap,"bitmap24.bmp"))

// copy the bitmap image to the primary buffer line by line
// notice the 24 to 16 bit conversion pixel by pixel

// lock the primary surface

// get video pointer to primary surfce
USHORT *primary_buffer = (USHORT *)ddsd.lpSurface;       

// process each line and copy it into the primary buffer
for (int index_y = 0; index_y < SCREEN_HEIGHT; index_y++)
    for (int index_x = 0; index_x < SCREEN_WIDTH; index_x++)
        // get BGR values, note the scaling down of the channels, so that they
        // fit into the 5.6.5 format
        UCHAR blue  = (bitmap.buffer[index_y*SCREEN_WIDTH*3 + index_x*3 + 0]) >> 3,
              green = (bitmap.buffer[index_y*SCREEN_WIDTH*3 + index_x*3 + 1]) >> 3,
              red   = (bitmap.buffer[index_y*SCREEN_WIDTH*3 + index_x*3 + 2]) >> 3;

        // this builds a 16 bit color value in 5.6.5 format (green dominant mode)
        USHORT pixel = _RGB16BIT565(red,green,blue);

        // write the pixel
        primary_buffer[index_x + (index_y*ddsd.lPitch >> 1)] = pixel;

        } // end for index_x

    } // end for index_y

// now unlock the primary surface
if (FAILED(lpddsprimary->Unlock(NULL)))

// unload the bitmap file, we no longer need it

// return success or failure or your own return code here

} // end Game_Init


int Game_Shutdown(void *parms = NULL, int num_parms = 0)
// this is called after the game is exited and the main event
// loop while is exited, do all you cleanup and shutdown here

// first the palette
if (lpddpal)
   lpddpal = NULL;
   } // end if

// now the primary surface
if (lpddsprimary)
   lpddsprimary = NULL;
   } // end if

// now blow away the IDirectDraw4 interface
if (lpdd4)
   lpdd4 = NULL;
   } // end if

// return success or failure or your own return code here

} // end Game_Shutdown

// WINMAIN ////////////////////////////////////////////////

int WINAPI WinMain(	HINSTANCE hinstance,
					HINSTANCE hprevinstance,
					LPSTR lpcmdline,
					int ncmdshow)

WNDCLASSEX winclass; // this will hold the class we create
HWND	   hwnd;	 // generic window handle
MSG		   msg;		 // generic message
HDC        hdc;      // graphics device context

// first fill in the window class stucture
winclass.cbSize         = sizeof(WNDCLASSEX);
winclass.style			= CS_DBLCLKS | CS_OWNDC | 
                          CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW;
winclass.lpfnWndProc	= WindowProc;
winclass.cbClsExtra		= 0;
winclass.cbWndExtra		= 0;
winclass.hInstance		= hinstance;
winclass.hIcon			= LoadIcon(NULL, IDI_APPLICATION);
winclass.hCursor		= LoadCursor(NULL, IDC_ARROW); 
winclass.hbrBackground	= (HBRUSH)GetStockObject(BLACK_BRUSH);
winclass.lpszMenuName	= NULL;
winclass.lpszClassName	= WINDOW_CLASS_NAME;
winclass.hIconSm        = LoadIcon(NULL, IDI_APPLICATION);

// save hinstance in global
hinstance_app = hinstance;

// register the window class
if (!RegisterClassEx(&winclass))

// create the window
if (!(hwnd = CreateWindowEx(NULL,                  // extended style
                            WINDOW_CLASS_NAME,     // class
						    "DirectDraw 16-Bit Bitmap Loading", // title
						    WS_POPUP | WS_VISIBLE,
					 	    0,0,	  // initial x,y
						    SCREEN_WIDTH,SCREEN_HEIGHT,  // initial width, height
						    NULL,	  // handle to parent 
						    NULL,	  // handle to menu
						    hinstance,// instance of this application
						    NULL)))	// extra creation parms

// save main window handle
main_window_handle = hwnd;

// initialize game here

// enter main event loop
    // test if there is a message in queue, if so get it
	if (PeekMessage(&msg,NULL,0,0,PM_REMOVE))
	   // test if this is a quit
       if (msg.message == WM_QUIT)
	   // translate any accelerator keys

	   // send the message to the window proc
	   } // end if
       // main game processing goes here
	} // end while

// closedown game here

// return to Windows like this

} // end WinMain


if anyone knows what is wrong with it, i'd be very greatful.

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Just by looking I can tell that there are a fair few things wrong with that code (lying comments for one thing).

Add checks to the function calls and find out which part of the program is failing.

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I just wrote a bitmap loader here. Now, I could be wrong, but it looks like you're loading the bitmap pallette. The pallette is only used for 8-bit bitmaps, and so you'd be misusing a lot of the file data. I could totally be wrong though because I only briefly skimmed over your code.

Edit: oops, I'm wrong. Stupid me. It only loads the pallette if necessary.

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Well, if you want to take the easy way out you could get a graphics editor that writes 16-bit bitmaps :)

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Original post by Drakkcon
Well, if you want to take the easy way out you could get a graphics editor that writes 16-bit bitmaps :)

i still don't know how to load them. 8 bit i sort of understand, but 16bit has me stumped :(

but what graphic editers can create 16 bit bitmaps? i've yet to find one.

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I don't know if this has anything to do with it but I remember when I used the code from this book to load 8 bit bitmaps there were 2 things that had me stumped.

1. make sure the dimensions of the bitmap are powers of 2 and possible must be square eg 256 x 256 etc.

2. This loader doesn't like images saved as bmp from photoshop - probably a dodgy setting but I couldn't figure it out. If you are using photoshop then copy the image into Paint and then save it.

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1: i've never had any problems using his code to load images even if they weren't square, at least for 8bit ones.

2: i thought it might be something of that sort and resaved it using paint. heck, i even created my own 640 by 480 24bit image to make sure that wasn't the problem.

i tried using this code to load an 8bit image, it did load a little while and displayed on the screen 3 images of it side by side before crashing. if that helps anyone trying to help me with what the problem may be.

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