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OpenGL Breaking waves on shorelines

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Hi, The other post on here about shorelines reminded me of a feature I would like to implement for my game but am not sure about. I was inspired by this image and would like to replicate the surf, except in realtime. Bit of background about my program screenshot here and here.. be nice, it's nowhere near finished The landscape uses a standard heightmap, and I currently have a single quad covering the visible terrain acting as water. I see no reason to increase the polycount of this to produce a wave effect as it will not add much to the overall visuals & will just be wasting polygons I could put to better use elsewhere (and there is a lot of stuff to put into this yet) The helicopter is constantly moving across the terrain, in a similar fashion to Virus or Zeewolf, the game I am trying to do a remake of. I have thought that one such way of doing this would be to have a particle system periodically shoot a few polys out from the shore with a textured image of some surf according to where the water plane intersects with the shoreline, and if all else fails this is the method I will choose to use, although I can't think of a good way to make the individual particles look more like one big piece of water instead of just a load of particles. I would like to pick your brains on whether there is a better way to achieve this effect? How would you do it? I'm not looking to model water movement accurately, just good enough. It would be nice to see the surf gradually move into deeper water & blend together in the same way as shown in the deviantart image although this may be more trouble than it's worth, and it's a feature I'm willing to scrap. I am using OpenGL if it matters, and would like to avoid using shaders if at all possible. Reading back over this I suspect I've answered my own questions (at least the ones in my head) but I'm clicking submit anyway, if anyone's got any tips/suggestions or has done something similar I'd really like to hear from you. Many thanks, Drew

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Hi,

This old forum post might be of interest for creating surf/foam
Foam

Sadly the pictures are no longer available, but I have an offline copy I can send you if you like. PM me with an email address.

BTW. You'll want to tessalate your water quad at some point as a single big quad over a terrain of smaller quads/traingles is likely to exhibit zbuffer precision issues.

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Modelling water at the shore is an extremely difficult task and I am not aware of any work actually succeeding in this (at least in realtime on common hardware). The work by noisecrime gives brilliant results and I suggest you to implement that technique for its simplicity. I think FarCry uses a similar approach.

Personally, I am investigating a novel technique to model the behaviour of water at the shoreline, where a different physical model (other than the FFT-based one) applies. My idea is that of modelling the shoreline with a spline. The spline control points are estimated in the neighbourood of the intersection between the water plane and the terrain.

Water is usually drawn (at least in my engine) as axis aligned quads but, ideally, it should be oriented point by point in the direction of the spline (that is, the shoreline). This alignment affects both the geometry (waves roll towards the shore) and all texturing effects (foam included). This requires a parametrization that remaps every (x,y) point of the quad to two parameters (u,v), where u is the distance from the spline, and v is the distance along the spline. These (u,v) parameters are used in place of the (x,y) for texturing. The required remapping is explained in <url>http://wscg.zcu.cz/wscg2005/Papers_2005/Full/C61-full.pdf</url>
We can store these parameters (u,v) in a texture. Additionally, we can store in this texture the depth of water, useful to distinguish shallow and deep water in the shaders.

For a foam effect, this texture is then accessed and the u,v parameters are used to align an animated foam texture to the shoreline in a pixel shader. On shader model 3.0 we can also access this texture in the vertex shader and use the water depth to change the appearance of the waves (i.e. waves become steeper and steeper until the break). Trochoids are quite handy for this.

Hopefully in the future I will find the time to try this approach in my engine.

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Just like to point out the foam tutorial was not written by myself, or anything to do with me at all. I just posted the link to the thread since it was something I had remembered and thought would be of interest.

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Thanks for the replies, I'll definitely look into those two. I checked out Cg & got a couple of free shader designer programs but as I suspected, my card doesn't support very many modes unfortunately.
As for the z-fighting, I fixed that by modifying the view frustum before drawing the water. It's not perfect but it works for my needs.

explanation here - http://www.codemonkeysoftware.net/content.php?article.1

I have just been playing the age of empires 3 demo & got some ideas from that as well. From what I can tell just by looking, the foam is a static image, and a plane moulded to the shoreline shape moves across the water. As it does so the texture coordinates are shifted in the opposite direction to the movement (so the foam appears not to move), and fades out on the trailing edge. It does look quite good but you can sometimes see hard edges which give the technique away. (useful for me!)


edit: also I went looking for that paradise island demo & it's now at http://indago.gamez.lv/i2004/?incl=sala.html .. I'm jealous :D

[Edited by - DrewGreen on September 8, 2005 9:30:41 PM]

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Moving waves along the beach would be very difficult to make without additional geometry. Or really shader intensive.
You could tesselate your grid, and store texture coordinates for the wave texture - one coordinate is the distance to the shore, but the other is not so trivial to compute.
On second thought - you can tesselate the water into regular grid, evaluate distance to the nearest shore for every vertex (those that are beneath the terrain are 0).
Then, get the vertices that are 0 (beneath the terrain), but have non-0 neighbours - and make a contours from them.
Then collect their neighbours, with 0 < x <= 1 values - create contours from them too.
And so on - extract as many contours, as you want. Like onion.
Then, walk each contour, compute length from the start and assign U-texture coordinate. V texture coordinate will be the number of the onion-contour.. :)
This can be made to look good, especially if contours are smoothed (their u,v-s) by spline.

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Quote:
Original post by DrewGreen
As for the z-fighting, I fixed that by modifying the view frustum before drawing the water. It's not perfect but it works for my needs.

explanation here - http://www.codemonkeysoftware.net/content.php?article.1
Actually, pushing out the near plane is the preferred method of combating depth buffer issues. You should try to have the near plane as far away as possible and the far plane as close as possible, but the far plane distance doesn't have as much of an effect on depth precision as the near plane distance. Read here for more info. It's OpenGL-centric, but it applies equally to Direct3D.

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Breaking waves curl on top of other water; therefore, a heightfield is incapable of representing the geometry. There are all kinds of research to check out going back decades. It's not easy. Good luck.

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A lot of people way overuse shaders nowadays: In my opinion there are a lot of things that can be done with the old fashoned way just as fast or faster with a little clever engineering. (Before there is a flame war, I do think there are also many things shaders do a lot better, but I think it gets just a little silly to bust out a pixel shader just to do really easy things. I once saw someone require pixel shader 2.0 for a serious demo just so that they would have the ability to multiply two colored quads. Why this was supposedly better then multitexturing or glBlendFunction(GL_MULTIPLY) I will never know.)

With that being said, I immediatly thought to myself, What would I do to achieve that effect after I saw the picture. Here is what I came up with:

Create a spline around your island. This spline will make up the inner edge of a triangle strip wrapping all the way around the island, moving up and down with the surface of the ocean. The outer edge will be about 5-6 feet out, creating a strip around the island. (Picture an island with a tutu and you will understand what I mean) Then, texture map this strip with an alpha white texture. This texture should consist of several alpha lines snaking across it with a thick line at the bottom(for the shore foam). Slowly transform the texture matrix to make all of the coordinates pulsate back and forth as the water rises and falls, in addition to slowly rotating the entire splines texture one direction around the island. Add 1-3 more of these tutues rotating in slightly different directions to make a really neat compound blending effect as the alphamaps layer on top of each other. Finally, throw in a neat small shimmering particle effect for the foam spraying around the edges where the water meets the shore. (It might help if you make your edge definition spline also serve as an emitter for your particles)

Boom. Done. Ok, maybe tricker than you expected to be, but in my head this looks good.

OH! BTW, check out the source for my demo Ocean for a really cool texure coordinate generation effect that simulates reflections on moving water. you can get it under the creative contest listing for NeHe Creative 2004

Tell me what you think if you like it!

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      This post gives more details about the resource binding model in Diligent Engine.
      Setting the Pipeline State and Committing Shader Resources
      Before any draw or compute command can be invoked, the pipeline state needs to be bound to the context:
      m_pContext->SetPipelineState(m_pPSO); Under the hood, the engine sets the internal PSO object in the command list or calls all the required native API functions to properly configure all pipeline stages.
      The next step is to bind all required shader resources to the GPU pipeline, which is accomplished by IDeviceContext::CommitShaderResources() method:
      m_pContext->CommitShaderResources(m_pSRB, COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES); The method takes a pointer to the shader resource binding object and makes all resources the object holds available for the shaders. In the case of D3D12, this only requires setting appropriate descriptor tables in the command list. For older APIs, this typically requires setting all resources individually.
      Next-generation APIs require the application to track the state of every resource and explicitly inform the system about all state transitions. For instance, if a texture was used as render target before, while the next draw command is going to use it as shader resource, a transition barrier needs to be executed. Diligent Engine does the heavy lifting of state tracking.  When CommitShaderResources() method is called with COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES flag, the engine commits and transitions resources to correct states at the same time. Note that transitioning resources does introduce some overhead. The engine tracks state of every resource and it will not issue the barrier if the state is already correct. But checking resource state is an overhead that can sometimes be avoided. The engine provides IDeviceContext::TransitionShaderResources() method that only transitions resources:
      m_pContext->TransitionShaderResources(m_pPSO, m_pSRB); In some scenarios it is more efficient to transition resources once and then only commit them.
      Invoking Draw Command
      The final step is to set states that are not part of the PSO, such as render targets, vertex and index buffers. Diligent Engine uses Direct3D11-syle API that is translated to other native API calls under the hood:
      ITextureView *pRTVs[] = {m_pRTV}; m_pContext->SetRenderTargets(_countof( pRTVs ), pRTVs, m_pDSV); // Clear render target and depth buffer const float zero[4] = {0, 0, 0, 0}; m_pContext->ClearRenderTarget(nullptr, zero); m_pContext->ClearDepthStencil(nullptr, CLEAR_DEPTH_FLAG, 1.f); // Set vertex and index buffers IBuffer *buffer[] = {m_pVertexBuffer}; Uint32 offsets[] = {0}; Uint32 strides[] = {sizeof(MyVertex)}; m_pContext->SetVertexBuffers(0, 1, buffer, strides, offsets, SET_VERTEX_BUFFERS_FLAG_RESET); m_pContext->SetIndexBuffer(m_pIndexBuffer, 0); Different native APIs use various set of function to execute draw commands depending on command details (if the command is indexed, instanced or both, what offsets in the source buffers are used etc.). For instance, there are 5 draw commands in Direct3D11 and more than 9 commands in OpenGL with something like glDrawElementsInstancedBaseVertexBaseInstance not uncommon. Diligent Engine hides all details with single IDeviceContext::Draw() method that takes takes DrawAttribs structure as an argument. The structure members define all attributes required to perform the command (primitive topology, number of vertices or indices, if draw call is indexed or not, if draw call is instanced or not, if draw call is indirect or not, etc.). For example:
      DrawAttribs attrs; attrs.IsIndexed = true; attrs.IndexType = VT_UINT16; attrs.NumIndices = 36; attrs.Topology = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLE_LIST; pContext->Draw(attrs); For compute commands, there is IDeviceContext::DispatchCompute() method that takes DispatchComputeAttribs structure that defines compute grid dimension.
      Source Code
      Full engine source code is available on GitHub and is free to use. The repository contains two samples, asteroids performance benchmark and example Unity project that uses Diligent Engine in native plugin.
      AntTweakBar sample is Diligent Engine’s “Hello World” example.

       
      Atmospheric scattering sample is a more advanced example. It demonstrates how Diligent Engine can be used to implement various rendering tasks: loading textures from files, using complex shaders, rendering to multiple render targets, using compute shaders and unordered access views, etc.

      Asteroids performance benchmark is based on this demo developed by Intel. It renders 50,000 unique textured asteroids and allows comparing performance of Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 implementations. Every asteroid is a combination of one of 1000 unique meshes and one of 10 unique textures.

      Finally, there is an example project that shows how Diligent Engine can be integrated with Unity.

      Future Work
      The engine is under active development. It currently supports Windows desktop, Universal Windows and Android platforms. Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES backends are now feature complete. Vulkan backend is coming next, and support for more platforms is planned.
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