# Potential Function Chasing - Rotation

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Hi. I am attempting to use Lenard-Jones potential function to do chasing/obstacle avoidance AI for a space game. The potential functions give me a nice steering vector that makes my AI ships follow the player or avoid obstacles quite well. The problem I have is that I can't seem to make my rotation work with this steering vector. The ships fly sideways and don't ever seem to point the way they are moving. I've tried several methods to try and make my AI ships turn in the direction of the steering vector but I've had no luck so far. My potential function chase function:
//This potential function is based on the potential functions chapter in the
//AI for game developers O'Reilly book.
void SpaceObject::ChaseObject(SpaceObject *object)
{
D3DXVECTOR3 r = pos - (*object).pos;
D3DXVECTOR3 u = r;

D3DXVec3Normalize(&u,&u);

double U,n,m,d;

n = 2;
m = 3;
d = D3DXVec3Length(&r)/70;
U = -object->pAttraction/pow(d,n) + object->pRepulsion/pow(d,m);

u = U *u;
if(D3DXVec3Length(&u) > acceleration)
{
D3DXVec3Normalize(&u,&u);
u = u * acceleration;
}

//Turn towards the desired direction
TurnToPos(object->pos + u);

//This probably shouldn't be like this, since then the ship can
//fly sideways and other not good directions
velocity += u;
//Make sure the velocity isn't greater than the max speed
if(D3DXVec3Length(&velocity) > maxSpeed)
{
//Reduce the speed to the max
D3DXVec3Normalize(&velocity,&velocity);
velocity *= maxSpeed;
}
}


And here is the code for my turning function which doesn't work:
void SpaceObject::TurnToPos(const D3DXVECTOR3 &dPos)
{
D3DXVECTOR3 u,r;
int dir = 0; //direction to turn
int tolerance = 0.001; //turning tolerance

//Get the global difference coordinates
r = dPos - pos;

//Convert the global coordinates to local coordinates
u.x = r.x*cos(-rotation)+r.y*sin(-rotation);
u.y = -r.x*sin(-rotation)+r.y*cos(-rotation);
u.z = 0; //never a z-component

//Normalize the local coordinates
D3DXVec3Normalize(&u,&u);

//If x is negative move to the left
//If x is positive move to the right
if(u.x < -tolerance)
dir = -1;
else if(u.x > tolerance)
dir = 1;

//Turn the ship
Rotate(dir);
}


Any help is greatly appreciated! Thank you Gundark

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what does Rotate(dir) do?

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The Rotate(dir) function rotates the ship either left or right, depending on the dir parameter. -1 rotates the ship left, 1 rotates the ship right.

Here is the source code for the function:
void SpaceObject::Rotate(int dir){	if(dir != -1 && dir != 1) //only accept 1 and -1		return;	//Change the ships rotation	double tmp = turningspeed * dir;	rotation += tmp;	if(rotation > 2*D3DX_PI)		rotation -= 2*D3DX_PI;	if(rotation < 0)		rotation += 2*D3DX_PI;}

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Hey, I fixed my own problem! The problem was that what I considered to be 0 degrees was actually 90 degrees off of what the formulas I was using were expecting to be 0 degrees.

So the solution was to add 90 degrees to the rotation when calculating local coordinates.

Thanks for all the people that looked at this posts and my code, and uh... sorry to bother you!

Gundark

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int tolerance = 0.001; //turning tolerance

Shouldn't this be a double or float?

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Not to thread rip but I just wanted to pass along some ideas of how to refactor code for faster compile and run. I changed tolerance to const in the example but if you intend to adjust it during gameplay then it would be a non-const member var.
void SpaceObject::TurnToPos(const D3DXVECTOR3 &dPos){	const int tolerance = 0.001; //turning tolerance | const is initialized at compile time.	//Get the global difference coordinates	D3DXVECTOR3 r( dPos - pos ); // instanciate vs assign.	D3DXVECTOR3 u;		//Convert the global coordinates to local coordinates	u.x = r.x*cos(-rotation)+r.y*sin(-rotation);	u.y = -r.x*sin(-rotation)+r.y*cos(-rotation);	u.z = 0; //never a z-component	//Normalize the local coordinates	D3DXVec3Normalize(&u,&u);	//If x is negative move to the left	//If x is positive move to the right	int dir = (u.x < -tolerance) ? -1 : 1; // declare and assign in one line	//Turn the ship	Rotate(dir);}

Note variable declaration in the middle of a function is the same to the compiler and early declaration. It only affects scope as the stack space is reserved with the function and held until the function exits. These techniques also reduce optimization cycles by reducing the amount of instance tracking that the optmizer has to look at.

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