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What are octal and hexadecimal numbers?

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They are numbers written in a different base sytem than decimal.

Octal numbers are base 8, so only contain the numerals 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7.

Hexadecimal numbers are base 16, so contain 0,1,2 ... 13,14,15. numbers 10 - 15 are commonly written A-F, so you get 0,1,2....,9,A,B,C,D,E,F.

These bases are used because they map to binary nicley, both being powers of two.

If you've never used binary before, I suggest you look it up.

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Binary (base 2): 101 = (1*2^3) + (0*2^2) + (1*2^1)

Octal (base 8): 101 = (1*8^3) + (0*8^2) + (1*8^1)

Decimal (base 10): 101 = (1*10^3) + (0*10^2) + (1*10^1)

Hex (base 16): 101 = (1*16^3) + (0*16^2) + (1*16^1)

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