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horizon981

OpenGL Getting FOGged :(

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I wrote a simple demo. A blue cube rotating in fog. Here's the code (SDL,Dev-C++,Windows):

#include <SDL/SDL.h>
#include <GL/gl.h>
#include <GL/glu.h>

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

GLfloat density = 0.35; //Fog Density
GLfloat fogColor[4] = {0.5, 0.5, 0.5, 1.0}; //Grey Color Fog
GLfloat xRot,yRot,zRot;

GLfloat LightAmbient[]=		{ 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f, 1.0f };
GLfloat LightDiffuse[]=		{ 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f };
GLfloat LightPosition[]=	{ 0.0f, 0.0f, 2.0f, 1.0f };

static void quit_tutorial( int code )
{
    /*
     * Quit SDL so we can release the fullscreen
     * mode and restore the previous video settings,
     * etc.
     */
    SDL_Quit( );

    /* Exit program. */
    exit( code );
}

static void handle_key_down( SDL_keysym* keysym )
{

   switch( keysym->sym ) {
    case SDLK_ESCAPE:
         quit_tutorial(1);
         break;
    default:
        break;
    }

}

static void process_events( void )
{
    /* Our SDL event placeholder. */
    SDL_Event event;

    /* Grab all the events off the queue. */
    while( SDL_PollEvent( &event ) ) {

        switch( event.type ) {
        case SDL_KEYDOWN:
            /* Handle key presses. */
            handle_key_down( &event.key.keysym );
            break;
        case SDL_QUIT:
            /* Handle quit requests (like Ctrl-c). */
            quit_tutorial( 0 );
            break;
        }

    }

}

static void draw_screen( void )
{
     
    xRot += 0.2;
    yRot += 0.3;
    zRot += 0.4;
      
    glClear( GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT );
    glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW);
    glLoadIdentity();
    
    glColor3f(0.0f,0.0f,1.0f);
    glTranslatef(0.0f,0.0f,-4.0f);
    glRotatef(xRot,1.0f,0.0f,0.0f);
    glRotatef(yRot,0.0f,1.0f,0.0f);
    glRotatef(zRot,0.0f,0.0f,1.0f);
    
    glBegin(GL_QUADS);
      // front
      glNormal3f(0, 0, 1);
      glVertex3f(-1, 1, 1);
      glVertex3f(-1, -1, 1);
      glVertex3f(1, -1, 1);
      glVertex3f(1, 1, 1);

      // back
      glNormal3f(0, 0, -1);
      glVertex3f(-1, 1, -1);
      glVertex3f(1, 1, -1);
      glVertex3f(1, -1, -1);
      glVertex3f(-1, -1, -1);

      // top
      glNormal3f(0, 1, 0);
      glVertex3f(-1, 1, -1);
      glVertex3f(-1, 1, 1);
      glVertex3f(1, 1, 1);
      glVertex3f(1, 1, -1);

      // bottom
      glNormal3f(0, -1, 0);
      glVertex3f(-1, -1, -1);
      glVertex3f(1, -1, -1);
      glVertex3f(1, -1, 1);
      glVertex3f(-1, -1, 1);

      // left
      glNormal3f(-1, 0, 0);
      glVertex3f(-1, 1, -1);
      glVertex3f(-1, -1, -1);
      glVertex3f(-1, -1, 1);
      glVertex3f(-1, 1, 1);

      // right
      glNormal3f(1, 0, 0);
      glVertex3f(1, 1, 1);
      glVertex3f(1, -1, 1);
      glVertex3f(1, -1, -1);
      glVertex3f(1, 1, -1);
   glEnd();  
   
   SDL_GL_SwapBuffers( );
}

static void setup_opengl( int width, int height )
{
    float ratio = (float) width / (float) height;

    /* Our shading model--Gouraud (smooth). */
    glShadeModel( GL_SMOOTH );

    /* Culling. */
    glCullFace( GL_BACK );
    glFrontFace( GL_CCW );
    glEnable( GL_CULL_FACE );
    glEnable( GL_DEPTH_TEST );
    
    glEnable(GL_FOG);
    glFogi(GL_FOG_MODE,GL_LINEAR);
    glFogfv(GL_FOG_COLOR,fogColor);
    glFogf(GL_FOG_DENSITY,density);
    glHint(GL_FOG_HINT,GL_NICEST);
    
    glFogf(GL_FOG_START,1);
    glFogf(GL_FOG_END,10);
    
    /* Set the clear color. */
    glClearColor( 0, 0, 0, 0 );

    /* Setup our viewport. */
    glViewport( 0, 0, width, height );
    
    glEnable(GL_LIGHTING);
    glLightfv(GL_LIGHT1, GL_AMBIENT, LightAmbient);		// Setup The Ambient Light
	glLightfv(GL_LIGHT1, GL_DIFFUSE, LightDiffuse);		// Setup The Diffuse Light
	glLightfv(GL_LIGHT1, GL_POSITION,LightPosition);	// Position The Light
	glEnable(GL_LIGHT1);
    /*
     * Change to the projection matrix and set
     * our viewing volume.
     */
    glMatrixMode( GL_PROJECTION );
    glLoadIdentity( );
    /*
     * EXERCISE:
     * Replace this with a call to glFrustum.
     */
    gluPerspective( 60.0, ratio, 1.0, 1024.0 );
}

int main( int argc, char* argv[] )
{
    /* Information about the current video settings. */
    const SDL_VideoInfo* info = NULL;
    /* Dimensions of our window. */
    int width = 0;
    int height = 0;
    /* Color depth in bits of our window. */
    int bpp = 0;
    /* Flags we will pass into SDL_SetVideoMode. */
    int flags = 0;

    /* First, initialize SDL's video subsystem. */
    if( SDL_Init( SDL_INIT_VIDEO ) < 0 ) {
        /* Failed, exit. */
        fprintf( stderr, "Video initialization failed: %s\n",
             SDL_GetError( ) );
        quit_tutorial( 1 );
    }

    /* Let's get some video information. */
    info = SDL_GetVideoInfo( );

    if( !info ) {
        /* This should probably never happen. */
        fprintf( stderr, "Video query failed: %s\n",
             SDL_GetError( ) );
        quit_tutorial( 1 );
    }

    /*
     * Set our width/height to 640/480 (you would
     * of course let the user decide this in a normal
     * app). We get the bpp we will request from
     * the display. On X11, VidMode can't change
     * resolution, so this is probably being overly
     * safe. Under Win32, ChangeDisplaySettings
     * can change the bpp.
     */
    width = 640;
    height = 480;
    bpp = info->vfmt->BitsPerPixel;

    /*
     * Now, we want to setup our requested
     * window attributes for our OpenGL window.
     * We want *at least* 5 bits of red, green
     * and blue. We also want at least a 16-bit
     * depth buffer.
     *
     * The last thing we do is request a double
     * buffered window. '1' turns on double
     * buffering, '0' turns it off.
     *
     * Note that we do not use SDL_DOUBLEBUF in
     * the flags to SDL_SetVideoMode. That does
     * not affect the GL attribute state, only
     * the standard 2D blitting setup.
     */
    SDL_GL_SetAttribute( SDL_GL_RED_SIZE, 5 );
    SDL_GL_SetAttribute( SDL_GL_GREEN_SIZE, 5 );
    SDL_GL_SetAttribute( SDL_GL_BLUE_SIZE, 5 );
    SDL_GL_SetAttribute( SDL_GL_DEPTH_SIZE, 16 );
    SDL_GL_SetAttribute( SDL_GL_DOUBLEBUFFER, 1 );

    /*
     * We want to request that SDL provide us
     * with an OpenGL window, in a fullscreen
     * video mode.
     *
     * EXERCISE:
     * Make starting windowed an option, and
     * handle the resize events properly with
     * glViewport.
     */
    flags = SDL_OPENGL | SDL_FULLSCREEN;

    /*
     * Set the video mode
     */
    if( SDL_SetVideoMode( width, height, bpp, flags ) == 0 ) {
        /* 
         * This could happen for a variety of reasons,
         * including DISPLAY not being set, the specified
         * resolution not being available, etc.
         */
        fprintf( stderr, "Video mode set failed: %s\n",
             SDL_GetError( ) );
        quit_tutorial( 1 );
    }

    /*
     * At this point, we should have a properly setup
     * double-buffered window for use with OpenGL.
     */
    setup_opengl( width, height );

    /*
     * Now we want to begin our normal app process--
     * an event loop with a lot of redrawing.
     */
    while( 1 ) {
        /* Process incoming events. */
        process_events( );
        /* Draw the screen. */
        draw_screen( );
    }

    /*
     * EXERCISE:
     * Record timings using SDL_GetTicks() and
     * and print out frames per second at program
     * end.
     */

    /* Never reached. */
    return 0;
}

Im having a couple of problems: -I have only a white colored cube, nicely lit, but no fog. -If I disable lighting, nothing happens, no fog.Only a blue cube rotating in balck sapce. Please help me.

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I can't really help with the fog, but when you have lighting enabled, in order to colour your cube, you probably want to set the material colour. So instead of using

glColor3f(0.0, 0.0, 1.0);

You want to have something like

static float blue[] = { 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0 }; // RGBA
glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, GL_AMBIENT_AND_DIFFUSE, blue);

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Okay, a little mistake on my side.
That project utilizes a simple trick:
glClearColor(0.5,0.5,0.5,1.0);
giving the illusion of volumetric fog!! And I thought I had mastered fog!

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      creates a special rotation-translation matrix that moves and rotates the grid away from the origin so that when i finally
      normalize all the vertices on my vertex shader i can get a perfect sphere.
      T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, 1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(180.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[0] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, T * R, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_FRONT)); T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, -1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(0.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[1] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, R * T, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_BACK)); // So on and so forth for the rest of the sides As you can see, for the front side grid, i rotate it 180 degrees to make it face the camera and push it towards the eye;
      the back side is handled almost the same way only that i don't need to rotate it but simply push it away from the eye.
      The same technique is applied for the rest of the faces (obviously, with the proper rotations / translations).
      The matrix that result from the multiplication of R and T (in that particular order) is send to my vertex shader as `r_Grid'.
      // spherify vec3 V = normalize((r_Grid * vec4(r_Vertex, 1.0)).xyz); gl_Position = r_ModelViewProjection * vec4(V, 1.0); The `r_ModelViewProjection' matrix is generated on the CPU in this manner.
      // No the most efficient way, but it works. glm::dmat4 Camera::getMatrix() { // Create the view matrix // Roll, Yaw and Pitch are all quaternions. glm::dmat4 View = glm::toMat4(Roll) * glm::toMat4(Pitch) * glm::toMat4(Yaw); // The model matrix is generated by translating in the oposite direction of the camera. glm::dmat4 Model = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), -Position); // Projection = glm::perspective(fovY, aspect, zNear, zFar); // zNear = 0.1, zFar = 1.0995116e12 return Projection * View * Model; } I managed to get rid of z-fighting by using a technique called Logarithmic Depth Buffer described in this article; it works amazingly well, no z-fighting at all, at least not visible.
      Each frame i'm rendering each node by sending the generated matrices this way.
      // set the r_ModelViewProjection uniform // Sneak in the mRadiusMatrix which is a matrix that contains the radius of my planet. Shader::setUniform(0, Camera::getInstance()->getMatrix() * mRadiusMatrix); // set the r_Grid matrix uniform i created earlier. Shader::setUniform(1, r_Grid); grid->render(); My planet's radius is around 6400000.0 units, absurdly large, but that's what i really want to achieve;
      Everything works well, the node's split and merge as you'd expect, however whenever i get close to the surface
      of the planet the rounding errors start to kick in giving me that lovely stairs effect.
      I've read that if i could render each grid relative to the camera i could get better precision on the surface, effectively
      getting rid of those rounding errors.
       
      My question is how can i achieve this relative to camera rendering in my scenario here?
      I know that i have to do most of the work on the CPU with double, and that's exactly what i'm doing.
      I only use double on the CPU side where i also do most of the matrix multiplications.
      As you can see from my vertex shader i only do the usual r_ModelViewProjection * (some vertex coords).
       
      Thank you for your suggestions!
       
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