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OpenGL First OpenGL Code W/ Big Compile Errorr!??!??!

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Ok I just got the book "OpenGL SupperBible third edition" and started to write the first "program" in Visual Studio 2005 in a .cpp file. The code is below.
#include "stdafx.h"
#include <windows.h>
#include <GL/gl.h>
#include <GL/glu.h>

void RenderScene(void)
{

glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

glFlush();
}

void SetupRC(void)
{
glClearColor(0.0f,0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);

}

void main(void)
{
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_SINGLE | GLUT_RGB);
glutCreateWindow("Simple");
glutDisplayFunc(RenderScene);

SetupRC();


glutMainLoop();

}


compile error:
OpenGl_testing.cpp
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(240) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(240) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(249) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(249) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(249) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition
        c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(239) : see declaration of 'WINBASEAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(264) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(264) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(264) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition
        c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(239) : see declaration of 'WINBASEAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(273) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(273) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(273) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition
        c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(239) : see declaration of 'WINBASEAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(288) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(288) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(288) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition
        c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(239) : see declaration of 'WINBASEAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(297) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(297) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(297) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition
        c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(239) : see declaration of 'WINBASEAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(312) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(312) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(312) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition
        c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(239) : see declaration of 'WINBASEAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(322) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(322) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(322) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition
        c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(239) : see declaration of 'WINBASEAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(338) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(338) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(338) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition
        c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(239) : see declaration of 'WINBASEAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(348) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(348) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(348) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition
        c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(239) : see declaration of 'WINBASEAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(364) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(364) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(364) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition ....



and it keeps doing this down to the last line of code

c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(790) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'UINT'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(790) : fatal error C1003: error count exceeds 100; stopping compilation


I dont understand anything whats happening and Im completly confused on how to start compiling the openGL Code. Could anybody help?

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I'm sure that someone else will be better than me to help you but I can tell you this :

First of all, I'd be very surprised if your compile errors came from your code, it is correct. In fact, the errors come from files that I think you shouldn't even have included. What you can do is :

- remove "stdafx.h"
- if youre using MSVC, create a new project and make sure to select an EMPTY project, then add your files, i'm not sure but you might have started your app with managed c++ which would explain the errors.

Also, I think including windows.h is not necessary but you can still do it.

The problem lies in the way you created your project, I'm pretty sure of that

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You appear to have created a windows project. When using glut, you should create the project as a win32 console project (and make sure that you click on the Application Settings in the wizard and check "Create Empty Project"). Then, once you have the project created and open, right click on it in the solution explorer, go into properties, and under c/c++->general you need to add the include directories for glut in the Additoin INclude directories field, and under Linker->Input you need to add glut32.lib in the additional dependencies field.

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Ok good and bad. I got rid of

\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h

compile error. But now I got a new one

CODE:

//#include "stdafx.h"
//#include <windows.h>
#include <GL/gl.h>
#include <GL/glu.h>

void RenderScene(void)
{

glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

glFlush();
}

void SetupRC(void)
{
glClearColor(0.0f,0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);

}

void main(void)
{
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_SINGLE | GLUT_RGB);
glutCreateWindow("Simple");
glutDisplayFunc(RenderScene);

SetupRC();


glutMainLoop();

}




ERROR:

c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1152) : error C2144: syntax error : 'void' should be preceded by ';'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1152) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1152) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'glAccum'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1152) : error C2182: 'APIENTRY' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1152) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1153) : error C2144: syntax error : 'void' should be preceded by ';'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1153) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1153) : error C2086: 'int WINGDIAPI' : redefinition
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1152) : see declaration of 'WINGDIAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1153) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'glAlphaFunc'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1153) : error C2182: 'APIENTRY' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1153) : error C2086: 'int APIENTRY' : redefinition
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1152) : see declaration of 'APIENTRY'






HOWEVER.... smitty1276 I tried doing what you said and created a win32 console app with empty project set but when I go to properties in the solution explorer I get

problemPick-1-th.JPGbanner7.png

i couldnt find

"and under c/c++->general you need to add the include directories for glut in the Additoin INclude directories field, and under Linker->Input you need to add glut32.lib in the additional dependencies field."(smitty1276)

Did I do something wrong? Thanks guys for all the help.

Also the book is really a good book... but for openGL. It doesnt really go into all the minor details for example setting up a compiler. Which I cant blame the book since there are alot(almost all probally) that can compile openGL.(if they have the glut3.7)

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Your pic shows a properties page for the solution... you need to right click on THE PROJECT, and you should see what I was talking about.

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You have to include windows.h (assuming you're using windows [smile]) before the openGL headers (due to API issues). Also, it may just be my sight, but are you including glut.h anywhere? If he had any problems with the .lib files, he'd be getting linking errors, not syntax.

Hope that helps
~zix

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//#include "stdafx.h"
//#include <windows.h>
//#include <GL/gl.h>
//#include <GL/glu.h>
#include <GL/glut.h>

void RenderScene()
{
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

glFlush();
}

void SetupRC()
{
glClearColor(0.0f,0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);

}

int main()
{
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_SINGLE | GLUT_RGB);
glutCreateWindow("Simple");
glutDisplayFunc(RenderScene);

SetupRC();


glutMainLoop();

}



There, fixed.
If glut.h is not located in the GL-directory, fix that manually.

HTH,
Pat.

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Quote:
Original post by zix99
If he had any problems with the .lib files, he'd be getting linking errors, not syntax.


Well, I told him to add the glut include directories in project settings... The next post would have been complaining about the linker errors, so I told him to add the lib directory as well. [wink]

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OMG this is insane. Ok I have glut.h in the following path.

C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\include\GL\glut.h


I ran the code again and it gave me the following error.


c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'GLUT'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'version'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'of'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : error C2143: syntax error : missing ';' before 'string'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(5) : error C2143: syntax error : missing ';' before 'constant'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(5) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(5) : error C2086: 'int C' : redefinition
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : see declaration of 'C'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(5) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(6) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(5) : error C2143: syntax error : missing ';' before 'constant'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(5) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(5) : error C2086: 'int C' : redefinition
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : see declaration of 'C'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(5) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(6) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\glu.h(25) : error C2143: syntax error : missing ';' before '{'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\glu.h(25) : error C2447: '{' : missing function header (old-style formal list?)
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(432) : error C2065: 'GLenum' : undeclared identifier
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(432) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'layer'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(432) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(432) : error C2182: 'glutUseLayer' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(432) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(490) : error C2061: syntax error : identifier 'GLfloat'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(491) : error C2143: syntax error : missing ';' before '__stdcall'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(491) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(491) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(495) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'type'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(495) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(495) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(496) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'type'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(496) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(496) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(503) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'type'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(503) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(503) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(517) : error C2065: 'GLdouble' : undeclared identifier
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(517) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'radius'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(517) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(517) : error C2182: 'glutWireSphere' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(517) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(518) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'radius'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(518) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(518) : error C2182: 'glutSolidSphere' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(518) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(519) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'base'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(519) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(519) : error C2182: 'glutWireCone' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(519) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(520) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'base'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(520) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(520) : error C2182: 'glutSolidCone' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(520) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(521) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'size'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(521) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(521) : error C2182: 'glutWireCube' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(521) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(522) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'size'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(522) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(522) : error C2182: 'glutSolidCube' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(522) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(523) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'innerRadius'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(523) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(523) : error C2182: 'glutWireTorus' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(523) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'



CODE:



#include <GL/glut.h>


void RenderScene(void)
{
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);
glFlush();
}

void SetupRC(void)
{
glClearColor(0.0f,0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);

}

void main(void)
{
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_SINGLE | GLUT_RGB);
glutCreateWindow("Simple");
glutDisplayFunc(RenderScene);

SetupRC();

glutMainLoop();

}




This makes no sense to me. I went to the solution explorer added the needed directories. I put all the headers files that came with glut3.7 in the path at the top of the page. the glut32.lib file is in

C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\lib\glut32.lib

If anyone can help Again Thanks.

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      #include "Brain.h" #include <glm/gtc/matrix_transform.hpp> #include <vector> struct Sprite::Implementation { //Position. struct pos pos; //Tag. std::string tag; //Texture. Texture *texture; //Model matrix. glm::mat4 model; //Vertex Array Object. VertexArray *vao; //Vertex Buffer Object. VertexBuffer *vbo; //Layout. VertexBufferLayout *layout; //Index Buffer Object. IndexBuffer *ibo; //Shader. Shader *program; //Brains. std::vector<Brain *> brains; //Deconstructor. ~Implementation(); }; Sprite::Sprite(std::string image_path, std::string tag, float x, float y) { //Create Pointer To Implementaion. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Set the Position of the Sprite object. m_Impl->pos.x = x; m_Impl->pos.y = y; //Set the tag. m_Impl->tag = tag; //Create The Texture. m_Impl->texture = new Texture(image_path); //Initialize the model Matrix. m_Impl->model = glm::mat4(1.0f); //Get the Width and the Height of the Texture. int width = m_Impl->texture->GetWidth(); int height = m_Impl->texture->GetHeight(); //Create the Verticies. float verticies[] = { //Positions //Texture Coordinates. x, y, 0.0f, 0.0f, x + width, y, 1.0f, 0.0f, x + width, y + height, 1.0f, 1.0f, x, y + height, 0.0f, 1.0f }; //Create the Indicies. unsigned int indicies[] = { 0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 0 }; //Create Vertex Array. m_Impl->vao = new VertexArray(); //Create the Vertex Buffer. m_Impl->vbo = new VertexBuffer((void *)verticies, sizeof(verticies)); //Create The Layout. m_Impl->layout = new VertexBufferLayout(); m_Impl->layout->PushFloat(2); m_Impl->layout->PushFloat(2); m_Impl->vao->AddBuffer(m_Impl->vbo, m_Impl->layout); //Create the Index Buffer. m_Impl->ibo = new IndexBuffer(indicies, 6); //Create the new shader. m_Impl->program = new Shader("Shaders/SpriteShader.shader"); } //Render. void Sprite::Render(Window * window) { //Create the projection Matrix based on the current window width and height. glm::mat4 proj = glm::ortho(0.0f, (float)window->GetWidth(), 0.0f, (float)window->GetHeight(), -1.0f, 1.0f); //Set the MVP Uniform. m_Impl->program->setUniformMat4f("u_MVP", proj * m_Impl->model); //Run All The Brains (Scripts) of this game object (sprite). for (unsigned int i = 0; i < m_Impl->brains.size(); i++) { //Get Current Brain. Brain *brain = m_Impl->brains[i]; //Call the start function only once! if (brain->GetStart()) { brain->SetStart(false); brain->Start(); } //Call the update function every frame. brain->Update(); } //Render. window->GetRenderer()->Draw(m_Impl->vao, m_Impl->ibo, m_Impl->texture, m_Impl->program); } void Sprite::Move(float speed, bool left, bool right, bool up, bool down) { if (left) { m_Impl->pos.x -= speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(-speed, 0, 0)); } if (right) { m_Impl->pos.x += speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(speed, 0, 0)); } if (up) { m_Impl->pos.y += speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(0, speed, 0)); } if (down) { m_Impl->pos.y -= speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(0, -speed, 0)); } } void Sprite::AddBrain(Brain * brain) { //Push back the brain object. m_Impl->brains.push_back(brain); } pos *Sprite::GetPos() { return &m_Impl->pos; } std::string Sprite::GetTag() { return m_Impl->tag; } int Sprite::GetWidth() { return m_Impl->texture->GetWidth(); } int Sprite::GetHeight() { return m_Impl->texture->GetHeight(); } Sprite::~Sprite() { delete m_Impl; } //Implementation Deconstructor. Sprite::Implementation::~Implementation() { delete texture; delete vao; delete vbo; delete layout; delete ibo; delete program; }  
      Renderer Class
      #include "Renderer.h" #include "Error.h" Renderer::Renderer() { } Renderer::~Renderer() { } void Renderer::Draw(VertexArray * vao, IndexBuffer * ibo, Texture *texture, Shader * program) { vao->Bind(); ibo->Bind(); program->Bind(); if (texture != NULL) texture->Bind(); GLCall(glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, ibo->GetCount(), GL_UNSIGNED_INT, NULL)); } void Renderer::Clear(float r, float g, float b) { GLCall(glClearColor(r, g, b, 1.0)); GLCall(glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT)); } void Renderer::Update(GLFWwindow *window) { /* Swap front and back buffers */ glfwSwapBuffers(window); /* Poll for and process events */ glfwPollEvents(); }  
      Shader Code
      #shader vertex #version 330 core layout(location = 0) in vec4 aPos; layout(location = 1) in vec2 aTexCoord; out vec2 t_TexCoord; uniform mat4 u_MVP; void main() { gl_Position = u_MVP * aPos; t_TexCoord = aTexCoord; } #shader fragment #version 330 core out vec4 aColor; in vec2 t_TexCoord; uniform sampler2D u_Texture; void main() { aColor = texture(u_Texture, t_TexCoord); } Also i'm pretty sure that every time i'm hitting the up, down, left and right arrows on the keyboard, i'm changing the model Matrix of the Player and not the others.
       
      Window Class:
      #include "Window.h" #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include "Error.h" #include "Renderer.h" #include "Scene.h" #include "Input.h" //Global Variables. int screen_width, screen_height; //On Window Resize. void OnWindowResize(GLFWwindow *window, int width, int height); //Implementation Structure. struct Window::Implementation { //GLFW Window. GLFWwindow *GLFW_window; //Renderer. Renderer *renderer; //Delta Time. double delta_time; //Frames Per Second. int fps; //Scene. Scene *scnene; //Input. Input *input; //Deconstructor. ~Implementation(); }; //Window Constructor. Window::Window(std::string title, int width, int height) { //Initializing width and height. screen_width = width; screen_height = height; //Create Pointer To Implementation. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Try initializing GLFW. if (!glfwInit()) { std::cout << "GLFW could not be initialized!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); exit(-1); } //Setting up OpenGL Version 3.3 Core Profile. glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MAJOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MINOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_PROFILE, GLFW_OPENGL_CORE_PROFILE); /* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */ m_Impl->GLFW_window = glfwCreateWindow(width, height, title.c_str(), NULL, NULL); if (!m_Impl->GLFW_window) { std::cout << "GLFW could not create a window!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); glfwTerminate(); exit(-1); } /* Make the window's context current */ glfwMakeContextCurrent(m_Impl->GLFW_window); //Initialize GLEW. if(glewInit() != GLEW_OK) { std::cout << "GLEW could not be initialized!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); glfwTerminate(); exit(-1); } //Enabling Blending. GLCall(glEnable(GL_BLEND)); GLCall(glBlendFunc(GL_SRC_ALPHA, GL_ONE_MINUS_SRC_ALPHA)); //Setting the ViewPort. GLCall(glViewport(0, 0, width, height)); //**********Initializing Implementation**********// m_Impl->renderer = new Renderer(); m_Impl->delta_time = 0.0; m_Impl->fps = 0; m_Impl->input = new Input(this); //**********Initializing Implementation**********// //Set Frame Buffer Size Callback. glfwSetFramebufferSizeCallback(m_Impl->GLFW_window, OnWindowResize); } //Window Deconstructor. Window::~Window() { delete m_Impl; } //Window Main Loop. void Window::MainLoop() { //Time Variables. double start_time = 0, end_time = 0, old_time = 0, total_time = 0; //Frames Counter. int frames = 0; /* Loop until the user closes the window */ while (!glfwWindowShouldClose(m_Impl->GLFW_window)) { old_time = start_time; //Total time of previous frame. start_time = glfwGetTime(); //Current frame start time. //Calculate the Delta Time. m_Impl->delta_time = start_time - old_time; //Get Frames Per Second. if (total_time >= 1) { m_Impl->fps = frames; total_time = 0; frames = 0; } //Clearing The Screen. m_Impl->renderer->Clear(0, 0, 0); //Render The Scene. if (m_Impl->scnene != NULL) m_Impl->scnene->Render(this); //Updating the Screen. m_Impl->renderer->Update(m_Impl->GLFW_window); //Increasing frames counter. frames++; //End Time. end_time = glfwGetTime(); //Total time after the frame completed. total_time += end_time - start_time; } //Terminate GLFW. glfwTerminate(); } //Load Scene. void Window::LoadScene(Scene * scene) { //Set the scene. m_Impl->scnene = scene; } //Get Delta Time. double Window::GetDeltaTime() { return m_Impl->delta_time; } //Get FPS. int Window::GetFPS() { return m_Impl->fps; } //Get Width. int Window::GetWidth() { return screen_width; } //Get Height. int Window::GetHeight() { return screen_height; } //Get Input. Input * Window::GetInput() { return m_Impl->input; } Renderer * Window::GetRenderer() { return m_Impl->renderer; } GLFWwindow * Window::GetGLFWindow() { return m_Impl->GLFW_window; } //Implementation Deconstructor. Window::Implementation::~Implementation() { delete renderer; delete input; } //OnWindowResize void OnWindowResize(GLFWwindow *window, int width, int height) { screen_width = width; screen_height = height; //Updating the ViewPort. GLCall(glViewport(0, 0, width, height)); }  
      Brain Class
      #include "Brain.h" #include "Sprite.h" #include "Window.h" struct Brain::Implementation { //Just A Flag. bool started; //Window Pointer. Window *window; //Sprite Pointer. Sprite *sprite; }; Brain::Brain(Window *window, Sprite *sprite) { //Create Pointer To Implementation. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Initialize Implementation. m_Impl->started = true; m_Impl->window = window; m_Impl->sprite = sprite; } Brain::~Brain() { //Delete Pointer To Implementation. delete m_Impl; } void Brain::Start() { } void Brain::Update() { } Window * Brain::GetWindow() { return m_Impl->window; } Sprite * Brain::GetSprite() { return m_Impl->sprite; } bool Brain::GetStart() { return m_Impl->started; } void Brain::SetStart(bool value) { m_Impl->started = value; } Script Class (Its a Brain Subclass!!!)
      #include "Script.h" Script::Script(Window *window, Sprite *sprite) : Brain(window, sprite) { } Script::~Script() { } void Script::Start() { std::cout << "Game Started!" << std::endl; } void Script::Update() { Input *input = this->GetWindow()->GetInput(); Sprite *sp = this->GetSprite(); //Move this sprite. this->GetSprite()->Move(200 * this->GetWindow()->GetDeltaTime(), input->GetKeyDown("left"), input->GetKeyDown("right"), input->GetKeyDown("up"), input->GetKeyDown("down")); std::cout << sp->GetTag().c_str() << ".x = " << sp->GetPos()->x << ", " << sp->GetTag().c_str() << ".y = " << sp->GetPos()->y << std::endl; }  
      Main:
      #include "SpaceShooterEngine.h" #include "Script.h" int main() { Window w("title", 600,600); Scene *scene = new Scene(); Sprite *player = new Sprite("Resources/Images/player.png", "Player", 100,100); Sprite *other = new Sprite("Resources/Images/cherno.png", "Other", 400, 100); Sprite *other2 = new Sprite("Resources/Images/cherno.png", "Other", 300, 400); Brain *brain = new Script(&w, player); player->AddBrain(brain); scene->AddSprite(player); scene->AddSprite(other); scene->AddSprite(other2); w.LoadScene(scene); w.MainLoop(); return 0; }  
       
      I literally can't find what is wrong. If you need more code, ask me to post it. I will also attach all the source files.
      Brain.cpp
      Error.cpp
      IndexBuffer.cpp
      Input.cpp
      Renderer.cpp
      Scene.cpp
      Shader.cpp
      Sprite.cpp
      Texture.cpp
      VertexArray.cpp
      VertexBuffer.cpp
      VertexBufferLayout.cpp
      Window.cpp
      Brain.h
      Error.h
      IndexBuffer.h
      Input.h
      Renderer.h
      Scene.h
      Shader.h
      SpaceShooterEngine.h
      Sprite.h
      Texture.h
      VertexArray.h
      VertexBuffer.h
      VertexBufferLayout.h
      Window.h
    • By Cristian Decu
      Hello fellow programmers,
      For a couple of days now i've decided to build my own planet renderer just to see how floating point precision issues
      can be tackled. As you probably imagine, i've quickly faced FPP issues when trying to render absurdly large planets.
       
      I have used the classical quadtree LOD approach;
      I've generated my grids with 33 vertices, (x: -1 to 1, y: -1 to 1, z = 0).
      Each grid is managed by a TerrainNode class that, depending on the side it represents (top, bottom, left right, front, back),
      creates a special rotation-translation matrix that moves and rotates the grid away from the origin so that when i finally
      normalize all the vertices on my vertex shader i can get a perfect sphere.
      T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, 1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(180.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[0] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, T * R, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_FRONT)); T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, -1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(0.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[1] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, R * T, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_BACK)); // So on and so forth for the rest of the sides As you can see, for the front side grid, i rotate it 180 degrees to make it face the camera and push it towards the eye;
      the back side is handled almost the same way only that i don't need to rotate it but simply push it away from the eye.
      The same technique is applied for the rest of the faces (obviously, with the proper rotations / translations).
      The matrix that result from the multiplication of R and T (in that particular order) is send to my vertex shader as `r_Grid'.
      // spherify vec3 V = normalize((r_Grid * vec4(r_Vertex, 1.0)).xyz); gl_Position = r_ModelViewProjection * vec4(V, 1.0); The `r_ModelViewProjection' matrix is generated on the CPU in this manner.
      // No the most efficient way, but it works. glm::dmat4 Camera::getMatrix() { // Create the view matrix // Roll, Yaw and Pitch are all quaternions. glm::dmat4 View = glm::toMat4(Roll) * glm::toMat4(Pitch) * glm::toMat4(Yaw); // The model matrix is generated by translating in the oposite direction of the camera. glm::dmat4 Model = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), -Position); // Projection = glm::perspective(fovY, aspect, zNear, zFar); // zNear = 0.1, zFar = 1.0995116e12 return Projection * View * Model; } I managed to get rid of z-fighting by using a technique called Logarithmic Depth Buffer described in this article; it works amazingly well, no z-fighting at all, at least not visible.
      Each frame i'm rendering each node by sending the generated matrices this way.
      // set the r_ModelViewProjection uniform // Sneak in the mRadiusMatrix which is a matrix that contains the radius of my planet. Shader::setUniform(0, Camera::getInstance()->getMatrix() * mRadiusMatrix); // set the r_Grid matrix uniform i created earlier. Shader::setUniform(1, r_Grid); grid->render(); My planet's radius is around 6400000.0 units, absurdly large, but that's what i really want to achieve;
      Everything works well, the node's split and merge as you'd expect, however whenever i get close to the surface
      of the planet the rounding errors start to kick in giving me that lovely stairs effect.
      I've read that if i could render each grid relative to the camera i could get better precision on the surface, effectively
      getting rid of those rounding errors.
       
      My question is how can i achieve this relative to camera rendering in my scenario here?
      I know that i have to do most of the work on the CPU with double, and that's exactly what i'm doing.
      I only use double on the CPU side where i also do most of the matrix multiplications.
      As you can see from my vertex shader i only do the usual r_ModelViewProjection * (some vertex coords).
       
      Thank you for your suggestions!
       
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