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OpenGL First OpenGL Code W/ Big Compile Errorr!??!??!

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Ok I just got the book "OpenGL SupperBible third edition" and started to write the first "program" in Visual Studio 2005 in a .cpp file. The code is below.
#include "stdafx.h"
#include <windows.h>
#include <GL/gl.h>
#include <GL/glu.h>

void RenderScene(void)
{

glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

glFlush();
}

void SetupRC(void)
{
glClearColor(0.0f,0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);

}

void main(void)
{
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_SINGLE | GLUT_RGB);
glutCreateWindow("Simple");
glutDisplayFunc(RenderScene);

SetupRC();


glutMainLoop();

}


compile error:
OpenGl_testing.cpp
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(240) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(240) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(249) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(249) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(249) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition
        c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(239) : see declaration of 'WINBASEAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(264) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(264) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(264) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition
        c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(239) : see declaration of 'WINBASEAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(273) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(273) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(273) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition
        c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(239) : see declaration of 'WINBASEAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(288) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(288) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(288) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition
        c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(239) : see declaration of 'WINBASEAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(297) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(297) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(297) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition
        c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(239) : see declaration of 'WINBASEAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(312) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(312) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(312) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition
        c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(239) : see declaration of 'WINBASEAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(322) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(322) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(322) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition
        c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(239) : see declaration of 'WINBASEAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(338) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(338) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(338) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition
        c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(239) : see declaration of 'WINBASEAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(348) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(348) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(348) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition
        c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(239) : see declaration of 'WINBASEAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(364) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'BOOL'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(364) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(364) : error C2086: 'int WINBASEAPI' : redefinition ....



and it keeps doing this down to the last line of code

c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(790) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'UINT'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h(790) : fatal error C1003: error count exceeds 100; stopping compilation


I dont understand anything whats happening and Im completly confused on how to start compiling the openGL Code. Could anybody help?

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I'm sure that someone else will be better than me to help you but I can tell you this :

First of all, I'd be very surprised if your compile errors came from your code, it is correct. In fact, the errors come from files that I think you shouldn't even have included. What you can do is :

- remove "stdafx.h"
- if youre using MSVC, create a new project and make sure to select an EMPTY project, then add your files, i'm not sure but you might have started your app with managed c++ which would explain the errors.

Also, I think including windows.h is not necessary but you can still do it.

The problem lies in the way you created your project, I'm pretty sure of that

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You appear to have created a windows project. When using glut, you should create the project as a win32 console project (and make sure that you click on the Application Settings in the wizard and check "Create Empty Project"). Then, once you have the project created and open, right click on it in the solution explorer, go into properties, and under c/c++->general you need to add the include directories for glut in the Additoin INclude directories field, and under Linker->Input you need to add glut32.lib in the additional dependencies field.

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Ok good and bad. I got rid of

\vc\platformsdk\include\wincon.h

compile error. But now I got a new one

CODE:

//#include "stdafx.h"
//#include <windows.h>
#include <GL/gl.h>
#include <GL/glu.h>

void RenderScene(void)
{

glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

glFlush();
}

void SetupRC(void)
{
glClearColor(0.0f,0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);

}

void main(void)
{
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_SINGLE | GLUT_RGB);
glutCreateWindow("Simple");
glutDisplayFunc(RenderScene);

SetupRC();


glutMainLoop();

}




ERROR:

c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1152) : error C2144: syntax error : 'void' should be preceded by ';'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1152) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1152) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'glAccum'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1152) : error C2182: 'APIENTRY' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1152) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1153) : error C2144: syntax error : 'void' should be preceded by ';'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1153) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1153) : error C2086: 'int WINGDIAPI' : redefinition
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1152) : see declaration of 'WINGDIAPI'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1153) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'glAlphaFunc'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1153) : error C2182: 'APIENTRY' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1153) : error C2086: 'int APIENTRY' : redefinition
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\gl.h(1152) : see declaration of 'APIENTRY'






HOWEVER.... smitty1276 I tried doing what you said and created a win32 console app with empty project set but when I go to properties in the solution explorer I get

problemPick-1-th.JPGbanner7.png

i couldnt find

"and under c/c++->general you need to add the include directories for glut in the Additoin INclude directories field, and under Linker->Input you need to add glut32.lib in the additional dependencies field."(smitty1276)

Did I do something wrong? Thanks guys for all the help.

Also the book is really a good book... but for openGL. It doesnt really go into all the minor details for example setting up a compiler. Which I cant blame the book since there are alot(almost all probally) that can compile openGL.(if they have the glut3.7)

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Your pic shows a properties page for the solution... you need to right click on THE PROJECT, and you should see what I was talking about.

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You have to include windows.h (assuming you're using windows [smile]) before the openGL headers (due to API issues). Also, it may just be my sight, but are you including glut.h anywhere? If he had any problems with the .lib files, he'd be getting linking errors, not syntax.

Hope that helps
~zix

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//#include "stdafx.h"
//#include <windows.h>
//#include <GL/gl.h>
//#include <GL/glu.h>
#include <GL/glut.h>

void RenderScene()
{
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

glFlush();
}

void SetupRC()
{
glClearColor(0.0f,0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);

}

int main()
{
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_SINGLE | GLUT_RGB);
glutCreateWindow("Simple");
glutDisplayFunc(RenderScene);

SetupRC();


glutMainLoop();

}



There, fixed.
If glut.h is not located in the GL-directory, fix that manually.

HTH,
Pat.

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Quote:
Original post by zix99
If he had any problems with the .lib files, he'd be getting linking errors, not syntax.


Well, I told him to add the glut include directories in project settings... The next post would have been complaining about the linker errors, so I told him to add the lib directory as well. [wink]

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OMG this is insane. Ok I have glut.h in the following path.

C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\include\GL\glut.h


I ran the code again and it gave me the following error.


c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'GLUT'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'version'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ';' before identifier 'of'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : error C2143: syntax error : missing ';' before 'string'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(5) : error C2143: syntax error : missing ';' before 'constant'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(5) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(5) : error C2086: 'int C' : redefinition
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : see declaration of 'C'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(5) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(6) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(5) : error C2143: syntax error : missing ';' before 'constant'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(5) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(5) : error C2086: 'int C' : redefinition
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(2) : see declaration of 'C'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(5) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\gl.h(6) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\glu.h(25) : error C2143: syntax error : missing ';' before '{'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\platformsdk\include\gl\glu.h(25) : error C2447: '{' : missing function header (old-style formal list?)
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(432) : error C2065: 'GLenum' : undeclared identifier
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(432) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'layer'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(432) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(432) : error C2182: 'glutUseLayer' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(432) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(490) : error C2061: syntax error : identifier 'GLfloat'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(491) : error C2143: syntax error : missing ';' before '__stdcall'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(491) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(491) : error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(495) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'type'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(495) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(495) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(496) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'type'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(496) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(496) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(503) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'type'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(503) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(503) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(517) : error C2065: 'GLdouble' : undeclared identifier
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(517) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'radius'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(517) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(517) : error C2182: 'glutWireSphere' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(517) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(518) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'radius'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(518) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(518) : error C2182: 'glutSolidSphere' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(518) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(519) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'base'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(519) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(519) : error C2182: 'glutWireCone' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(519) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(520) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'base'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(520) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(520) : error C2182: 'glutSolidCone' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(520) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(521) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'size'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(521) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(521) : error C2182: 'glutWireCube' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(521) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(522) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'size'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(522) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(522) : error C2182: 'glutSolidCube' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(522) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(523) : error C2146: syntax error : missing ')' before identifier 'innerRadius'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(523) : warning C4229: anachronism used : modifiers on data are ignored
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(523) : error C2182: 'glutWireTorus' : illegal use of type 'void'
c:\program files\microsoft visual studio 8\vc\include\gl\glut.h(523) : error C2059: syntax error : ')'



CODE:



#include <GL/glut.h>


void RenderScene(void)
{
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);
glFlush();
}

void SetupRC(void)
{
glClearColor(0.0f,0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);

}

void main(void)
{
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_SINGLE | GLUT_RGB);
glutCreateWindow("Simple");
glutDisplayFunc(RenderScene);

SetupRC();

glutMainLoop();

}




This makes no sense to me. I went to the solution explorer added the needed directories. I put all the headers files that came with glut3.7 in the path at the top of the page. the glut32.lib file is in

C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\lib\glut32.lib

If anyone can help Again Thanks.

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Hm. I really don't know what could possibly be wrong. I just compiled the program without any problems (from the command line, though). Try this, too. Open the "Visual Studio Command Prompt" (from the "Tools"-menu in start menu entry for VS2k5), navigate to your source code file and type "cl your-file.cpp" to compile it to an executable. No linker- or compiler settings are required.

If this succeeds with no errors occuring, there's a problemwith your project file.

HTH,
Pat.

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Hey guys thanks again for the replies.darookie I did what you said and compiled it but sadly still got the same errors. If anyone else can help or point me to another forum that could help I would really appreciate it.

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IT IS A GLORIOUS DAY. OPENGL WORKS!!!!! I ACTUALLY CREATED WINDOW! I know its not much but after spending 2 days installing and trying to get a new compiler working Im overjoyed. Thanks to everyone for helping! :)

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Quote:
Original post by PB Baller27
Hey guys thanks again for the replies.darookie I did what you said and compiled it but sadly still got the same errors. If anyone else can help or point me to another forum that could help I would really appreciate it.


I made a new project, pasted the latest code that you posted and it compiled without a glitch. Did you try Rebuilt All? That usually helps. If that doesn't work, make a new project, make sure it's an empty project and disable precompiled headers.

EDIT: never mind, it loooks like you already solved the issue before I finished typing.

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heh yea. By the way basically all I did was take out the windows.h since it was screwing up. Then took out the gl.h since that was making compile errors and the glu.h. I went on the net and downloaded glut.h from

http://www.xmission.com/~nate/glut.html

put that in and everything worked.

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      Hello. I am coding a small thingy in my spare time. All i want to achieve is to load a heightmap (as the lowest possible walking terrain), some static meshes (elements of the environment) and a dynamic character (meaning i can move, collide with heightmap/static meshes and hold a varying item in a hand ). Got a bunch of questions, or rather problems i can't find solution to myself. Nearly all are deal with graphics/gpu, not the coding part. My c++ is on high enough level.
      Let's go:
      Heightmap - i obviously want it to be textured, size is hardcoded to 256x256 squares. I can't have one huge texture stretched over entire terrain cause every pixel would be enormous. Thats why i decided to use 2 specified textures. First will be a tileset consisting of 16 square tiles (u v range from 0 to 0.25 for first tile and so on) and second a 256x256 buffer with 0-15 value representing index of the tile from tileset for every heigtmap square. Problem is, how do i blend the edges nicely and make some computationally cheap changes so its not obvious there are only 16 tiles? Is it possible to generate such terrain with some existing program?
      Collisions - i want to use bounding sphere and aabb. But should i store them for a model or entity instance? Meaning i have 20 same trees spawned using the same tree model, but every entity got its own transformation (position, scale etc). Storing collision component per instance grats faster access + is precalculated and transformed (takes additional memory, but who cares?), so i stick with this, right? What should i do if object is dynamically rotated? The aabb is no longer aligned and calculating per vertex min/max everytime object rotates/scales is pretty expensive, right?
      Drawing aabb - problem similar to above (storing aabb data per instance or model). This time in my opinion per model is enough since every instance also does not have own vertex buffer but uses the shared one (so 20 trees share reference to one tree model). So rendering aabb is about taking the model's aabb, transforming with instance matrix and voila. What about aabb vertex buffer (this is more of a cosmetic question, just curious, bumped onto it in time of writing this). Is it better to make it as 8 points and index buffer (12 lines), or only 2 vertices with min/max x/y/z and having the shaders dynamically generate 6 other vertices and draw the box? Or maybe there should be just ONE 1x1x1 cube box template moved/scaled per entity?
      What if one model got a diffuse texture and a normal map, and other has only diffuse? Should i pass some bool flag to shader with that info, or just assume that my game supports only diffuse maps without fancy stuff?
      There were several more but i forgot/solved them at time of writing
      Thanks in advance
    • By RenanRR
      Hi All,
      I'm reading the tutorials from learnOpengl site (nice site) and I'm having a question on the camera (https://learnopengl.com/Getting-started/Camera).
      I always saw the camera being manipulated with the lookat, but in tutorial I saw the camera being changed through the MVP arrays, which do not seem to be camera, but rather the scene that changes:
      Vertex Shader:
      #version 330 core layout (location = 0) in vec3 aPos; layout (location = 1) in vec2 aTexCoord; out vec2 TexCoord; uniform mat4 model; uniform mat4 view; uniform mat4 projection; void main() { gl_Position = projection * view * model * vec4(aPos, 1.0f); TexCoord = vec2(aTexCoord.x, aTexCoord.y); } then, the matrix manipulated:
      ..... glm::mat4 projection = glm::perspective(glm::radians(fov), (float)SCR_WIDTH / (float)SCR_HEIGHT, 0.1f, 100.0f); ourShader.setMat4("projection", projection); .... glm::mat4 view = glm::lookAt(cameraPos, cameraPos + cameraFront, cameraUp); ourShader.setMat4("view", view); .... model = glm::rotate(model, glm::radians(angle), glm::vec3(1.0f, 0.3f, 0.5f)); ourShader.setMat4("model", model);  
      So, some doubts:
      - Why use it like that?
      - Is it okay to manipulate the camera that way?
      -in this way, are not the vertex's positions that changes instead of the camera?
      - I need to pass MVP to all shaders of object in my scenes ?
       
      What it seems, is that the camera stands still and the scenery that changes...
      it's right?
       
       
      Thank you
       
    • By dpadam450
      Sampling a floating point texture where the alpha channel holds 4-bytes of packed data into the float. I don't know how to cast the raw memory to treat it as an integer so I can perform bit-shifting operations.

      int rgbValue = int(textureSample.w);//4 bytes of data packed as color
      // algorithm might not be correct and endianness might need switching.
      vec3 extractedData = vec3(  rgbValue & 0xFF000000,  (rgbValue << 8) & 0xFF000000, (rgbValue << 16) & 0xFF000000);
      extractedData /= 255.0f;
    • By Devashish Khandelwal
      While writing a simple renderer using OpenGL, I faced an issue with the glGetUniformLocation function. For some reason, the location is coming to be -1.
      Anyone has any idea .. what should I do?
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