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    • By fleissi
      Hey guys!

      I'm new here and I recently started developing my own rendering engine. It's open source, based on OpenGL/DirectX and C++.
      The full source code is hosted on github:

      I would appreciate if people with experience in game development / engine desgin could take a look at my source code. I'm looking for honest, constructive criticism on how to improve the engine.
      I'm currently writing my master's thesis in computer science and in the recent year I've gone through all the basics about graphics programming, learned DirectX and OpenGL, read some articles on Nvidia GPU Gems, read books and integrated some of this stuff step by step into the engine.

      I know about the basics, but I feel like there is some missing link that I didn't get yet to merge all those little pieces together.

      Features I have so far:
      - Dynamic shader generation based on material properties
      - Dynamic sorting of meshes to be renderd based on shader and material
      - Rendering large amounts of static meshes
      - Hierarchical culling (detail + view frustum)
      - Limited support for dynamic (i.e. moving) meshes
      - Normal, Parallax and Relief Mapping implementations
      - Wind animations based on vertex displacement
      - A very basic integration of the Bullet physics engine
      - Procedural Grass generation
      - Some post processing effects (Depth of Field, Light Volumes, Screen Space Reflections, God Rays)
      - Caching mechanisms for textures, shaders, materials and meshes

      Features I would like to have:
      - Global illumination methods
      - Scalable physics
      - Occlusion culling
      - A nice procedural terrain generator
      - Scripting
      - Level Editing
      - Sound system
      - Optimization techniques

      Books I have so far:
      - Real-Time Rendering Third Edition
      - 3D Game Programming with DirectX 11
      - Vulkan Cookbook (not started yet)

      I hope you guys can take a look at my source code and if you're really motivated, feel free to contribute :-)
      There are some videos on youtube that demonstrate some of the features:
      Procedural grass on the GPU
      Procedural Terrain Engine
      Quadtree detail and view frustum culling

      The long term goal is to turn this into a commercial game engine. I'm aware that this is a very ambitious goal, but I'm sure it's possible if you work hard for it.


    • By tj8146
      I have attached my project in a .zip file if you wish to run it for yourself.
      I am making a simple 2d top-down game and I am trying to run my code to see if my window creation is working and to see if my timer is also working with it. Every time I run it though I get errors. And when I fix those errors, more come, then the same errors keep appearing. I end up just going round in circles.  Is there anyone who could help with this? 
      Errors when I build my code:
      1>Renderer.cpp 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2039: 'string': is not a member of 'std' 1>c:\program files (x86)\windows kits\10\include\10.0.16299.0\ucrt\stddef.h(18): note: see declaration of 'std' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2061: syntax error: identifier 'string' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(28): error C2511: 'bool Game::Rendering::initialize(int,int,bool,std::string)': overloaded member function not found in 'Game::Rendering' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(9): note: see declaration of 'Game::Rendering' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(35): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(36): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(43): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>Done building project "Game.vcxproj" -- FAILED. ========== Build: 0 succeeded, 1 failed, 0 up-to-date, 0 skipped ==========  
      #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include "Renderer.h" #include "Timer.h" #include <iostream> namespace Game { GLFWwindow* window; /* Initialize the library */ Rendering::Rendering() { mClock = new Clock; } Rendering::~Rendering() { shutdown(); } bool Rendering::initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title) { if (!glfwInit()) { return -1; } /* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */ window = glfwCreateWindow(640, 480, "Hello World", NULL, NULL); if (!window) { glfwTerminate(); return -1; } /* Make the window's context current */ glfwMakeContextCurrent(window); glViewport(0, 0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height); glOrtho(0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height, 0, 1, -1); glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); glLoadIdentity(); glfwSwapInterval(1); glEnable(GL_SMOOTH); glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); glEnable(GL_BLEND); glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL); glHint(GL_PERSPECTIVE_CORRECTION_HINT, GL_NICEST); glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D); glLoadIdentity(); return true; } bool Rendering::render() { /* Loop until the user closes the window */ if (!glfwWindowShouldClose(window)) return false; /* Render here */ mClock->reset(); glfwPollEvents(); if (mClock->step()) { glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); glfwSwapBuffers(window); mClock->update(); } return true; } void Rendering::shutdown() { glfwDestroyWindow(window); glfwTerminate(); } GLFWwindow* Rendering::getCurrentWindow() { return window; } } Renderer.h
      #pragma once namespace Game { class Clock; class Rendering { public: Rendering(); ~Rendering(); bool initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title = "Rendering window"); void shutdown(); bool render(); GLFWwindow* getCurrentWindow(); private: GLFWwindow * window; Clock* mClock; }; } Timer.cpp
      #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include <time.h> #include "Timer.h" namespace Game { Clock::Clock() : mTicksPerSecond(50), mSkipTics(1000 / mTicksPerSecond), mMaxFrameSkip(10), mLoops(0) { mLastTick = tick(); } Clock::~Clock() { } bool Clock::step() { if (tick() > mLastTick && mLoops < mMaxFrameSkip) return true; return false; } void Clock::reset() { mLoops = 0; } void Clock::update() { mLastTick += mSkipTics; mLoops++; } clock_t Clock::tick() { return clock(); } } TImer.h
      #pragma once #include "Common.h" namespace Game { class Clock { public: Clock(); ~Clock(); void update(); bool step(); void reset(); clock_t tick(); private: uint mTicksPerSecond; ufloat mSkipTics; uint mMaxFrameSkip; uint mLoops; uint mLastTick; }; } Common.h
      #pragma once #include <cstdio> #include <cstdlib> #include <ctime> #include <cstring> #include <cmath> #include <iostream> namespace Game { typedef unsigned char uchar; typedef unsigned short ushort; typedef unsigned int uint; typedef unsigned long ulong; typedef float ufloat; }  
    • By lxjk
      Hi guys,
      There are many ways to do light culling in tile-based shading. I've been playing with this idea for a while, and just want to throw it out there.
      Because tile frustums are general small compared to light radius, I tried using cone test to reduce false positives introduced by commonly used sphere-frustum test.
      On top of that, I use distance to camera rather than depth for near/far test (aka. sliced by spheres).
      This method can be naturally extended to clustered light culling as well.
      The following image shows the general ideas

      Performance-wise I get around 15% improvement over sphere-frustum test. You can also see how a single light performs as the following: from left to right (1) standard rendering of a point light; then tiles passed the test of (2) sphere-frustum test; (3) cone test; (4) spherical-sliced cone test

      I put the details in my blog post (https://lxjk.github.io/2018/03/25/Improve-Tile-based-Light-Culling-with-Spherical-sliced-Cone.html), GLSL source code included!
    • By Fadey Duh
      Good evening everyone!

      I was wondering if there is something equivalent of  GL_NV_blend_equation_advanced for AMD?
      Basically I'm trying to find more compatible version of it.

      Thank you!
    • By Jens Eckervogt
      Hello guys, 
      Please tell me! 
      How do I know? Why does wavefront not show for me?
      I already checked I have non errors yet.
      using OpenTK; using System.Collections.Generic; using System.IO; using System.Text; namespace Tutorial_08.net.sourceskyboxer { public class WaveFrontLoader { private static List<Vector3> inPositions; private static List<Vector2> inTexcoords; private static List<Vector3> inNormals; private static List<float> positions; private static List<float> texcoords; private static List<int> indices; public static RawModel LoadObjModel(string filename, Loader loader) { inPositions = new List<Vector3>(); inTexcoords = new List<Vector2>(); inNormals = new List<Vector3>(); positions = new List<float>(); texcoords = new List<float>(); indices = new List<int>(); int nextIdx = 0; using (var reader = new StreamReader(File.Open("Contents/" + filename + ".obj", FileMode.Open), Encoding.UTF8)) { string line = reader.ReadLine(); int i = reader.Read(); while (true) { string[] currentLine = line.Split(); if (currentLine[0] == "v") { Vector3 pos = new Vector3(float.Parse(currentLine[1]), float.Parse(currentLine[2]), float.Parse(currentLine[3])); inPositions.Add(pos); if (currentLine[1] == "t") { Vector2 tex = new Vector2(float.Parse(currentLine[1]), float.Parse(currentLine[2])); inTexcoords.Add(tex); } if (currentLine[1] == "n") { Vector3 nom = new Vector3(float.Parse(currentLine[1]), float.Parse(currentLine[2]), float.Parse(currentLine[3])); inNormals.Add(nom); } } if (currentLine[0] == "f") { Vector3 pos = inPositions[0]; positions.Add(pos.X); positions.Add(pos.Y); positions.Add(pos.Z); Vector2 tc = inTexcoords[0]; texcoords.Add(tc.X); texcoords.Add(tc.Y); indices.Add(nextIdx); ++nextIdx; } reader.Close(); return loader.loadToVAO(positions.ToArray(), texcoords.ToArray(), indices.ToArray()); } } } } } And It have tried other method but it can't show for me.  I am mad now. Because any OpenTK developers won't help me.
      Please help me how do I fix.

      And my download (mega.nz) should it is original but I tried no success...
      - Add blend source and png file here I have tried tried,.....  
      PS: Why is our community not active? I wait very longer. Stop to lie me!
      Thanks !
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OpenGL [Cg] Some shaders don't work. Wrong initialisation?

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Hi, I'm using Cg shaders in a project, which can use an OpenGL and Direct3D9 renderer to render it's data. All shaders work without a problem in the OpenGL renderer, but some wont work (they all compile though) in the Direct3D9 renderer. The wierdest thing is that the shaders stop working in Direct3D as soon is I try to use colored lighting (at least, in the shader below). For example, I wrote this simple diffuse lighting shader which works flawlessly in OpenGL, but this only works for Direct3D if I use white lighting:
//Vertex Shader
float4x4 modelViewProj;
float4 lightPos;

struct output{
  float4 position : POSITION;
  float4 texture : TEXCOORD0;
  float4 lightDir : TEXCOORD1; 
  float4 normal : TEXCOORD2;

output main(float4 position: POSITION,
			float4 texCoord: TEXCOORD0,
			float4 normal : NORMAL)
  output OUT;
  float4 tempPos;
  OUT.position = mul(modelViewProj, position);
  OUT.texture = texCoord;
  OUT.lightDir = normalize(lightPos - position);
  OUT.normal = normalize(normal);
  return OUT;

//Fragment shader
uniform sampler2D textureMap;

struct fs_output{
  float4 color : COLOR;

fs_output main(float4 lightDir: TEXCOORD1, float4 normal : TEXCOORD2, float4 texture : TEXCOORD0)
  fs_output OUT;
  float4 c1;
  float cosAngle = saturate(dot(normal, lightDir));
  c1 = tex2D(textureMap, texture.xy);

  OUT.color = cosAngle * float4(1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f) * c1;
  return OUT;

The above shader works in both situations. When I change the light-color in the pixelshader, like this: OUT.color = cosAngle * float4(1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f) * c1; ...then there is no lighting whatsoever in Direct3D-mode. I see the texture though, so the shader works (in a way :)) Could someone please look at my Cg-setup code please? I did a good search about it, and I can't really see any mistakes: This code I run during setup of the renderer: (I'm using the Cg 1.5 Toolkit, by the way)
context = cgCreateContext();

This code I run everytime I load a shader:
//Load Vertex-shader
shader->vertexProfile = cgD3D9GetLatestVertexProfile();
shader->vertexProgram =	cgCreateProgramFromFile(context, CG_SOURCE, vertexPath.c_str(), shader->vertexProfile, vertexEntryName.c_str(), NULL); 

/*I removed error-checking code here, for clarity!*/
cgD3D9LoadProgram(shader->vertexProgram, TRUE, 0);

//Load fragment-shader
shader->fragmentProfile = cgD3D9GetLatestPixelProfile();
shader->fragmentProgram = cgCreateProgramFromFile(context, CG_SOURCE, fragmentPath.c_str(), shader->fragmentProfile, fragmentEntryName.c_str(), NULL);                      

/*I removed error-checking code here, for clarity!*/
cgD3D9LoadProgram(shader->fragmentProgram, TRUE, 0);

I guess I'm not using a correct shader-profile in Direct3D, but there isn't a way to set this manually, is there? If someone would look at the above code, I would be much obliged. Thanks a lot in advance!

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I did some more reading about the subject and some people create a unique VertexDeclaration for each shader-program (depending on the shader input-values). Is this absolutely necessary? I just use one VertexDeclaration in my renderer which describes how the vertex-data of objects are interleaved, that's all.

Because the input-values can't be determined at load-time and cause they are highly dependent on the shader in question I find it hard to believe that you have to declare a unique VertexDeclaration for each one, to be honest.

But just to be sure, could this be my problem?

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Ok, this is really getting over my head. I found a workaround (well, sort off, it's ugly) but can anyone please explain me what's going on here?

As mentioned before the code above works for OpenGL and Direct3D if I use white lights in my fragment shader, like this:

float cosAngle = saturate(dot(IN.normal, IN.lightDir));
c1 = tex2D(textureMap, IN.texture.xy);
OUT.color = cosAngle * float4(1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0) * c1;

If I use a "colored" light, the shader stops working for Direct3D:

float cosAngle = saturate(dot(IN.normal, IN.lightDir));
c1 = tex2D(textureMap, IN.texture.xy);
//This should be a teal-colored light, but somehow makes the pixelshader invalid for Direct3D.
OUT.color = cosAngle * float4(0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0) * c1;

....BUT, if I change the color values "manually" the lighting is correct in Direct3D! Like this:

float cosAngle = saturate(dot(IN.normal, IN.lightDir));
c1 = tex2D(textureMap, IN.texture.xy);

float4 color = c1;
//give light some color (teal);
color.x *= 0.0 * cosAngle;
color.y *= 1.0 * cosAngle;
color.z *= 1.0 * cosAngle;

OUT.color = color;

Does anyone have a reason for this behaviour please? This workaround works, but it's ugly and I would like to change it. Could this be an error in Cg perhaps?

Thanks a lot!

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