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    • By Achivai
      Hey, I am semi-new to 3d-programming and I've hit a snag. I have one object, let's call it Object A. This object has a long int array of 3d xyz-positions stored in it's vbo as an instanced attribute. I am using these numbers to instance object A a couple of thousand times. So far so good. 
      Now I've hit a point where I want to remove one of these instances of object A while the game is running, but I'm not quite sure how to go about it. At first my thought was to update the instanced attribute of Object A and change the positions to some dummy number that I could catch in the vertex shader and then decide there whether to draw the instance of Object A or not, but I think that would be expensive to do while the game is running, considering that it might have to be done several times every frame in some cases. 
      I'm not sure how to proceed, anyone have any tips?
    • By fleissi
      Hey guys!

      I'm new here and I recently started developing my own rendering engine. It's open source, based on OpenGL/DirectX and C++.
      The full source code is hosted on github:
      https://github.com/fleissna/flyEngine

      I would appreciate if people with experience in game development / engine desgin could take a look at my source code. I'm looking for honest, constructive criticism on how to improve the engine.
      I'm currently writing my master's thesis in computer science and in the recent year I've gone through all the basics about graphics programming, learned DirectX and OpenGL, read some articles on Nvidia GPU Gems, read books and integrated some of this stuff step by step into the engine.

      I know about the basics, but I feel like there is some missing link that I didn't get yet to merge all those little pieces together.

      Features I have so far:
      - Dynamic shader generation based on material properties
      - Dynamic sorting of meshes to be renderd based on shader and material
      - Rendering large amounts of static meshes
      - Hierarchical culling (detail + view frustum)
      - Limited support for dynamic (i.e. moving) meshes
      - Normal, Parallax and Relief Mapping implementations
      - Wind animations based on vertex displacement
      - A very basic integration of the Bullet physics engine
      - Procedural Grass generation
      - Some post processing effects (Depth of Field, Light Volumes, Screen Space Reflections, God Rays)
      - Caching mechanisms for textures, shaders, materials and meshes

      Features I would like to have:
      - Global illumination methods
      - Scalable physics
      - Occlusion culling
      - A nice procedural terrain generator
      - Scripting
      - Level Editing
      - Sound system
      - Optimization techniques

      Books I have so far:
      - Real-Time Rendering Third Edition
      - 3D Game Programming with DirectX 11
      - Vulkan Cookbook (not started yet)

      I hope you guys can take a look at my source code and if you're really motivated, feel free to contribute :-)
      There are some videos on youtube that demonstrate some of the features:
      Procedural grass on the GPU
      Procedural Terrain Engine
      Quadtree detail and view frustum culling

      The long term goal is to turn this into a commercial game engine. I'm aware that this is a very ambitious goal, but I'm sure it's possible if you work hard for it.

      Bye,

      Phil
    • By tj8146
      I have attached my project in a .zip file if you wish to run it for yourself.
      I am making a simple 2d top-down game and I am trying to run my code to see if my window creation is working and to see if my timer is also working with it. Every time I run it though I get errors. And when I fix those errors, more come, then the same errors keep appearing. I end up just going round in circles.  Is there anyone who could help with this? 
       
      Errors when I build my code:
      1>Renderer.cpp 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2039: 'string': is not a member of 'std' 1>c:\program files (x86)\windows kits\10\include\10.0.16299.0\ucrt\stddef.h(18): note: see declaration of 'std' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2061: syntax error: identifier 'string' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(28): error C2511: 'bool Game::Rendering::initialize(int,int,bool,std::string)': overloaded member function not found in 'Game::Rendering' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(9): note: see declaration of 'Game::Rendering' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(35): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(36): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(43): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>Done building project "Game.vcxproj" -- FAILED. ========== Build: 0 succeeded, 1 failed, 0 up-to-date, 0 skipped ==========  
       
      Renderer.cpp
      #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include "Renderer.h" #include "Timer.h" #include <iostream> namespace Game { GLFWwindow* window; /* Initialize the library */ Rendering::Rendering() { mClock = new Clock; } Rendering::~Rendering() { shutdown(); } bool Rendering::initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title) { if (!glfwInit()) { return -1; } /* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */ window = glfwCreateWindow(640, 480, "Hello World", NULL, NULL); if (!window) { glfwTerminate(); return -1; } /* Make the window's context current */ glfwMakeContextCurrent(window); glViewport(0, 0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height); glOrtho(0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height, 0, 1, -1); glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); glLoadIdentity(); glfwSwapInterval(1); glEnable(GL_SMOOTH); glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); glEnable(GL_BLEND); glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL); glHint(GL_PERSPECTIVE_CORRECTION_HINT, GL_NICEST); glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D); glLoadIdentity(); return true; } bool Rendering::render() { /* Loop until the user closes the window */ if (!glfwWindowShouldClose(window)) return false; /* Render here */ mClock->reset(); glfwPollEvents(); if (mClock->step()) { glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); glfwSwapBuffers(window); mClock->update(); } return true; } void Rendering::shutdown() { glfwDestroyWindow(window); glfwTerminate(); } GLFWwindow* Rendering::getCurrentWindow() { return window; } } Renderer.h
      #pragma once namespace Game { class Clock; class Rendering { public: Rendering(); ~Rendering(); bool initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title = "Rendering window"); void shutdown(); bool render(); GLFWwindow* getCurrentWindow(); private: GLFWwindow * window; Clock* mClock; }; } Timer.cpp
      #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include <time.h> #include "Timer.h" namespace Game { Clock::Clock() : mTicksPerSecond(50), mSkipTics(1000 / mTicksPerSecond), mMaxFrameSkip(10), mLoops(0) { mLastTick = tick(); } Clock::~Clock() { } bool Clock::step() { if (tick() > mLastTick && mLoops < mMaxFrameSkip) return true; return false; } void Clock::reset() { mLoops = 0; } void Clock::update() { mLastTick += mSkipTics; mLoops++; } clock_t Clock::tick() { return clock(); } } TImer.h
      #pragma once #include "Common.h" namespace Game { class Clock { public: Clock(); ~Clock(); void update(); bool step(); void reset(); clock_t tick(); private: uint mTicksPerSecond; ufloat mSkipTics; uint mMaxFrameSkip; uint mLoops; uint mLastTick; }; } Common.h
      #pragma once #include <cstdio> #include <cstdlib> #include <ctime> #include <cstring> #include <cmath> #include <iostream> namespace Game { typedef unsigned char uchar; typedef unsigned short ushort; typedef unsigned int uint; typedef unsigned long ulong; typedef float ufloat; }  
      Game.zip
    • By lxjk
      Hi guys,
      There are many ways to do light culling in tile-based shading. I've been playing with this idea for a while, and just want to throw it out there.
      Because tile frustums are general small compared to light radius, I tried using cone test to reduce false positives introduced by commonly used sphere-frustum test.
      On top of that, I use distance to camera rather than depth for near/far test (aka. sliced by spheres).
      This method can be naturally extended to clustered light culling as well.
      The following image shows the general ideas

       
      Performance-wise I get around 15% improvement over sphere-frustum test. You can also see how a single light performs as the following: from left to right (1) standard rendering of a point light; then tiles passed the test of (2) sphere-frustum test; (3) cone test; (4) spherical-sliced cone test
       

       
      I put the details in my blog post (https://lxjk.github.io/2018/03/25/Improve-Tile-based-Light-Culling-with-Spherical-sliced-Cone.html), GLSL source code included!
       
      Eric
    • By Fadey Duh
      Good evening everyone!

      I was wondering if there is something equivalent of  GL_NV_blend_equation_advanced for AMD?
      Basically I'm trying to find more compatible version of it.

      Thank you!
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OpenGL Problems with DirectX...

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Hi everybody. I'm a programmer, as it is quite obvious. At the momment I've been working with c++ and the Win32 API. Done a couple of applications (with some real utilities...) here and there. For the past 7 months I've been developing a game of my own, nobody else is in the project. What matters is that i finally decided I wanted to spice things a little bit... So I decided to get deeper into graphics development. I had to make an option between OpenGL and DirectX. I opted OpenGL, yet, at the first attempt i got some troubles and decided to go with DirectX. =YOU CAN START READING FROM HERE IF YOU DON'T WANT AN INTRODUCTION :P= I found a tutorial and tried it out. It came with some libraries already. Tested it (just test, didn't read a thing, just wanted to see if it could compile) but it didn't compile. First there was a library difference: in Dev-Cpp (my current IDE) the d3dx9.h (or smthin like that) was missing, I ran through Dev's includes and found d3d9.h and thought "Oh well, let's rename all the files..." I did as so and, then i got linker errors, (you know undefined references)... I linked all I could but none solved the problem...I mean, they did, (I followed this: http://www.sherman3d.com/Sherman3D/S3Dplugins/content/content.php?content.7) but then, the compiler just returned: [Build Error] ["Simpl1.exe"] Error 1 Time to change to VC++ 2005...I did, No windows.h, i downloaded the Win32 Platform SDK which solved that and also the DirectX SDK. So, now i tried compiling and all I got (after linking and linking and relinking and getting frustrated...)
Linking...
FirstProject.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "public: __thiscall dhUserPrefs::dhUserPrefs(char const *)" (??0dhUserPrefs@@$$FQAE@PBD@Z)
FirstProject.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "public: __thiscall dhUserPrefs::~dhUserPrefs(void)" (??1dhUserPrefs@@$$FQAE@XZ)
FirstProject.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "public: bool __thiscall dhUserPrefs::QueryUser(void)" (?QueryUser@dhUserPrefs@@$$FQAE_NXZ)
FirstProject.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "void __cdecl dhLog(char const *,long)" (?dhLog@@$$FYAXPBDJ@Z)
FirstProject.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "public: bool __thiscall dhUserPrefs::GetFullscreen(void)" (?GetFullscreen@dhUserPrefs@@$$FQAE_NXZ)
FirstProject.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "long __cdecl dhInitWindow(bool,char const *,unsigned long,unsigned long,long (__stdcall*)(struct HWND__ *,unsigned int,unsigned int,long),struct HWND__ * *)" (?dhInitWindow@@$$FYAJ_NPBDKKP6GJPAUHWND__@@IIJ@ZPAPAU1@@Z)
FirstProject.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "long __cdecl dhInitD3D(struct IDirect3D9 * *)" (?dhInitD3D@@$$FYAJPAPAUIDirect3D9@@@Z)
FirstProject.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "void __cdecl dhKillWindow(struct HWND__ * *)" (?dhKillWindow@@$$FYAXPAPAUHWND__@@@Z)
FirstProject.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "long __cdecl dhGetFormat(struct IDirect3D9 *,bool,unsigned char,enum _D3DFORMAT *)" (?dhGetFormat@@$$FYAJPAUIDirect3D9@@_NEPAW4_D3DFORMAT@@@Z)
FirstProject.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "public: unsigned long __thiscall dhUserPrefs::GetAdapter(void)" (?GetAdapter@dhUserPrefs@@$$FQAEKXZ)
FirstProject.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "public: enum _D3DDEVTYPE __thiscall dhUserPrefs::GetDeviceType(void)" (?GetDeviceType@dhUserPrefs@@$$FQAE?AW4_D3DDEVTYPE@@XZ)
FirstProject.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "void __cdecl dhInitPresentParameters(bool,struct HWND__ *,unsigned long,unsigned long,enum _D3DFORMAT,enum _D3DFORMAT,struct _D3DPRESENT_PARAMETERS_ *)" (?dhInitPresentParameters@@$$FYAX_NPAUHWND__@@KKW4_D3DFORMAT@@2PAU_D3DPRESENT_PARAMETERS_@@@Z)
FirstProject.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "long __cdecl dhInitDevice(struct IDirect3D9 *,unsigned long,enum _D3DDEVTYPE,struct HWND__ *,struct _D3DPRESENT_PARAMETERS_ *,struct IDirect3DDevice9 * *)" (?dhInitDevice@@$$FYAJPAUIDirect3D9@@KW4_D3DDEVTYPE@@PAUHWND__@@PAU_D3DPRESENT_PARAMETERS_@@PAPAUIDirect3DDevice9@@@Z)
FirstProject.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "void __cdecl dhKillD3D(struct IDirect3D9 * *,struct IDirect3DDevice9 * *)" (?dhKillD3D@@$$FYAXPAPAUIDirect3D9@@PAPAUIDirect3DDevice9@@@Z)
FirstProject.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "void __cdecl dhMessagePump(void)" (?dhMessagePump@@$$FYAXXZ)
FirstProject.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol "long __cdecl dhHandleLostDevice(struct IDirect3DDevice9 *,struct _D3DPRESENT_PARAMETERS_ *,long)" (?dhHandleLostDevice@@$$FYAJPAUIDirect3DDevice9@@PAU_D3DPRESENT_PARAMETERS_@@J@Z)
D:\Documents and Settings\Jorl17\Os meus documentos\Visual Studio 2005\Projects\FirstProject\Release\FirstProject.exe : fatal error LNK1120: 16 unresolved externals


Of course I googled and found answers, but none worked for me... I kept making experiences in dev-cpp... I changed tutorials and compiled a new one in VC++ 2005... LINKER ERRORS...always after me...
1>MasterX3D.obj : error LNK2019: unresolved external symbol __imp__PeekMessageA@20 referenced in function "public: unsigned int __thiscall MasterX3DHWND::InitLoop(void (__cdecl*)(int))" (?InitLoop@MasterX3DHWND@@QAEIP6AXH@Z@Z)
1>MasterX3D.obj : error LNK2019: unresolved external symbol __imp__DispatchMessageA@4 referenced in function "public: unsigned int __thiscall MasterX3DHWND::InitLoop(void (__cdecl*)(int))" (?InitLoop@MasterX3DHWND@@QAEIP6AXH@Z@Z)
1>MasterX3D.obj : error LNK2019: unresolved external symbol __imp__TranslateMessage@4 referenced in function "public: unsigned int __thiscall MasterX3DHWND::InitLoop(void (__cdecl*)(int))" (?InitLoop@MasterX3DHWND@@QAEIP6AXH@Z@Z)
1>MasterX3D.obj : error LNK2019: unresolved external symbol _Direct3DCreate8@4 referenced in function "private: bool __thiscall MasterX3DHWND::InitD3D(void)" (?InitD3D@MasterX3DHWND@@AAE_NXZ)
1>MasterX3D.obj : error LNK2019: unresolved external symbol __imp__DestroyWindow@4 referenced in function "public: bool __thiscall MasterX3DHWND::CreateMaster3D(char *,int,int,int,int,struct HICON__ *,struct HICON__ *,long (__stdcall*)(struct HWND__ *,unsigned int,unsigned int,long),unsigned long)" (?CreateMaster3D@MasterX3DHWND@@QAE_NPADHHHHPAUHICON__@@1P6GJPAUHWND__@@IIJ@ZK@Z)
1>MasterX3D.obj : error LNK2019: unresolved external symbol __imp__MessageBoxA@16 referenced in function "public: bool __thiscall MasterX3DHWND::CreateMaster3D(char *,int,int,int,int,struct HICON__ *,struct HICON__ *,long (__stdcall*)(struct HWND__ *,unsigned int,unsigned int,long),unsigned long)" (?CreateMaster3D@MasterX3DHWND@@QAE_NPADHHHHPAUHICON__@@1P6GJPAUHWND__@@IIJ@ZK@Z)
1>MasterX3D.obj : error LNK2019: unresolved external symbol __imp__UpdateWindow@4 referenced in function "public: bool __thiscall MasterX3DHWND::CreateMaster3D(char *,int,int,int,int,struct HICON__ *,struct HICON__ *,long (__stdcall*)(struct HWND__ *,unsigned int,unsigned int,long),unsigned long)" (?CreateMaster3D@MasterX3DHWND@@QAE_NPADHHHHPAUHICON__@@1P6GJPAUHWND__@@IIJ@ZK@Z)
1>MasterX3D.obj : error LNK2019: unresolved external symbol __imp__ShowWindow@8 referenced in function "public: bool __thiscall MasterX3DHWND::CreateMaster3D(char *,int,int,int,int,struct HICON__ *,struct HICON__ *,long (__stdcall*)(struct HWND__ *,unsigned int,unsigned int,long),unsigned long)" (?CreateMaster3D@MasterX3DHWND@@QAE_NPADHHHHPAUHICON__@@1P6GJPAUHWND__@@IIJ@ZK@Z)
1>MasterX3D.obj : error LNK2019: unresolved external symbol __imp__CreateWindowExA@48 referenced in function "public: bool __thiscall MasterX3DHWND::CreateMaster3D(char *,int,int,int,int,struct HICON__ *,struct HICON__ *,long (__stdcall*)(struct HWND__ *,unsigned int,unsigned int,long),unsigned long)" (?CreateMaster3D@MasterX3DHWND@@QAE_NPADHHHHPAUHICON__@@1P6GJPAUHWND__@@IIJ@ZK@Z)
1>MasterX3D.obj : error LNK2019: unresolved external symbol __imp__GetDesktopWindow@0 referenced in function "public: bool __thiscall MasterX3DHWND::CreateMaster3D(char *,int,int,int,int,struct HICON__ *,struct HICON__ *,long (__stdcall*)(struct HWND__ *,unsigned int,unsigned int,long),unsigned long)" (?CreateMaster3D@MasterX3DHWND@@QAE_NPADHHHHPAUHICON__@@1P6GJPAUHWND__@@IIJ@ZK@Z)
1>MasterX3D.obj : error LNK2019: unresolved external symbol __imp__RegisterClassExA@4 referenced in function "public: bool __thiscall MasterX3DHWND::CreateMaster3D(char *,int,int,int,int,struct HICON__ *,struct HICON__ *,long (__stdcall*)(struct HWND__ *,unsigned int,unsigned int,long),unsigned long)" (?CreateMaster3D@MasterX3DHWND@@QAE_NPADHHHHPAUHICON__@@1P6GJPAUHWND__@@IIJ@ZK@Z)
1>WinMain.obj : error LNK2019: unresolved external symbol __imp__PostQuitMessage@4 referenced in function "long __stdcall MasterProc(struct HWND__ *,unsigned int,unsigned int,long)" (?MasterProc@@YGJPAUHWND__@@IIJ@Z)
1>WinMain.obj : error LNK2019: unresolved external symbol __imp__ValidateRect@8 referenced in function "long __stdcall MasterProc(struct HWND__ *,unsigned int,unsigned int,long)" (?MasterProc@@YGJPAUHWND__@@IIJ@Z)
1>WinMain.obj : error LNK2019: unresolved external symbol __imp__DefWindowProcA@16 referenced in function "long __stdcall MasterProc(struct HWND__ *,unsigned int,unsigned int,long)" (?MasterProc@@YGJPAUHWND__@@IIJ@Z)
1>.\Release/MasterX3D.exe : fatal error LNK1120: 14 unresolved externals
1>Build log was saved at "file://d:\Documents and Settings\Jorl17\Ambiente de trabalho\files\Release\BuildLog.htm"
1>MasterX3D - 15 error(s), 0 warning(s)
========== Build: 0 succeeded, 1 failed, 0 up-to-date, 0 skipped ==========

Tried them in Dev-Cpp and turned out to have linker errors again, until i followed the steps presented to me in the tutorial i previously referred and got, onc emore, the Build error 1... So, all of this is just to ask for help in order to make something work... I'd like to be able to do this in Dev-Cpp, but if I have to change to Visual C++ 2005 Express Edition, I wouldn't care that much, i jsut want to be able to USE DirectX... Any questions and/or needs to help me just tell me. I Thank even not knowing if any1 will help me. P.S: If you spot bad English, sorry, but I'm Portuguese... EDIT_ After having a better look at those snippets i posted, i realized that part of the errors were due to lack of Win32 API's libraries...didn't add them though, because the directx linker error i used to get from dev-cpp was still there...

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Are you linking d3d9.lib and d3dx9.lib? You'd need to add them in:
Project -> (your project name)'s properties -> Configuration Settings (on the left) -> Linker (on the left) -> Input -> Additional Dependencies.

This should remove the linker error against Direct3DCreate9. For the rest, you'd need windows libraries.

Hope this helps.

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Sorry for spamming...

So, i finished up by adding a bunch of libs to VC++ 2005...The SDK one's and some of them from Dev-Cpp...(i know, it's whacko...):

"C:\Programas\MS_Platform_SDK\Lib\kernel32.lib"
"C:\Programas\MS_Platform_SDK\Lib\user32.lib"
"C:\Programas\MS_Platform_SDK\Lib\gdi32.lib"
"C:\Programas\MS_Platform_SDK\Lib\winspool.lib"
"C:\Programas\MS_Platform_SDK\Lib\comdlg32.lib"
"C:\Programas\MS_Platform_SDK\Lib\advapi32.lib"
"C:\Programas\MS_Platform_SDK\Lib\shell32.lib"
"C:\Programas\MS_Platform_SDK\Lib\ole32.lib"
"C:\Programas\MS_Platform_SDK\Lib\oleaut32.lib"
"C:\Programas\MS_Platform_SDK\Lib\uuid.lib"
"C:\Programas\MS_Platform_SDK\Lib\odbc32.lib"
"C:\Programas\MS_Platform_SDK\Lib\odbccp32.lib"
"C:/New_Dev-Cpp/lib/libdsound.a"
"C:/New_Dev-Cpp/lib/libdxguid.a"
"C:/New_Dev-Cpp/lib/libd3d8.a"
"C:/New_Dev-Cpp/lib/libd3dx8d.a"
"C:/New_Dev-Cpp/lib/libd3dxof.a"
"C:/New_Dev-Cpp/lib/libdplayx.a"
"C:/New_Dev-Cpp/lib/libwinmm.a"
"C:/New_Dev-Cpp/lib/libdxapi.a"
"C:/New_Dev-Cpp/lib/libwsock32.a"
"C:/New_Dev-Cpp/lib/libdinput8.a"






This made the project compile but it got a bunch of debugging errors...
and it just went down, it...had errors... if u want i can post the debug log...



Edit: as a reply to what you said...
I have tried to link it before...

"C:\Programas\MS_DirectX_SDK\lib\x86\d3d9.lib"
"C:\Programas\MS_DirectX_SDK\lib\x86\d3dx9.lib"

Yet, it didn't solve a thing...
So, thanks for trying...:P

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I just started using VC++, so I wasn't sure, but i believe i had, it's both in the VC++ Directories (in options) and in the linker options, right?

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Hey man, forget it!
I did it! lol. If you want to know how, I can tell you, right now I just want to thank you at same for trying to help me out.
I just needed to get used to VC++.

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