# Frustrating..! Original code works, but copied+pasted code doesn't?!

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Hey, I'm using Visual Studio .Net 2003 and am looking at NeHe's OpenGL tutorials, but this problem's really annoying me (mostly because I know it's me thats doing something wrong). I go to File->New->Project, I get that choice of projects to start, so I chose "Empty Project (.Net)" and call it "01-ogl-win". Then you have the solution explorer on the right, so I right click "Source Files" and go Add->Add New Item->C++ File (.cpp), and call it main (well, main.cpp). This is where my problem is... I'm looking at NeHe's first lesson: http://nehe.gamedev.net/data/lessons/lesson.asp?lesson=01 Scroll right to the bottom of that page, and you can download the Visual Studio .Net code for the tutorial. If I do that, open it, I can build and execute the DOWNLOADED code no problem. However, if I have the EXACT SAME CODE in the .cpp file I have just created in the way I just explained, I get 14 "Unresolved Externals" errors! Basically, I'm completely confused, and I'm sure it's something wrong with the way I'm setting up my project. Please, if you can... help me! :) Thanks!

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There's more to it than just copying in code. You need to configure the project settings as well. In specific, you need to link libraries to it. Nehe's lesson 1 explains that.

the unresolved externals are basically stuff defined in those libraries, that can't be found because you haven't linked them to the project.

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You need to include:
OpenGL32.lib GLu32.lib and GLaux.lib

To include those you may need to go through a process such as this (i am using visual studio 2005):

An alternate that might work is:
#pragma comment (lib, "OpenGL32.lib")#pragma comment (lib, "GLu32.lib")#pragma comment (lib, "GLaux.lib")

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Thanks for your help, guys :-)

I've got it working now. I knew I was doing something wrong..!

In the C++ evening courses we didn't do anything as far as additional resources are concerned :( I didn't learn as much as I thought it would teach me, only basic programming and some (seemingly dodgy) Windows programming :-P

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Quote:
 Original post by furnaceI get 14 "Unresolved Externals" errors!

These are linker errors. If you have a linker error, your .cpp files have compiled fine, and the problem lies with your project settings.

"Unresolved External" is linkerspeak for "You told me that these functions exist (via headers), but you never gave me their implementations!". This can mean a few things:

1) If the unresolved external is for a function which you were supposed to have written:
1.a) You forgot to implement the function at all (the implementation can't be found because it doesn't exist)
1.b) You made a typeo implementing the function (e.g. you implemented Pine instead of Pie, and so your linker can't find it)
1.c) You screwed up your build system badly enough that it isn't even linking together all the right .o files (generated from the .cpp files)

2) If the unresolved external is for a function of a library you didn't write yourself (e.g. "Unresolved external to glBegin@4"):
2.a) You forgot to add the relevant .lib to your linker settings (the implementation can't be found because you forgot to tell your linker where to find said implementation)
2.b) Your .lib was built with vastly different settings than whatever you're trying to use said .lib with (e.g. you compiled the .lib with one default calling convention (e.g. stdcall), and tried to use it with a seperate default in your .exe/.dll (e.g. fastcall))

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Thanks monkey :)

I didn't want to start a new thread for this little question, but I've never come across this before:

gluPerspective(45.0f,(GLdouble)width/(GLdouble)height,0.1f,100.0f);

See where it says 45.0f, 0.1f and 100.0f..?

What's the 'f'? Does it denote the number as a float?

Do you know anywhere I can read more about these (can you do 'i' for integer or anything like that?) - I don't really know what to google to find out more about it!

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the f denotes a floating point literal. I don't belive that i works simply because it's unnecessary - an integer with no suffix specifies an integral literal

10  - integer literal10.0f - floating point literal10.0  - double literal

The f differentiates between a double precision literal and a single precision floating point literal

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