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Hardware Programming

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Like a calculator you use at school, buy in the shops....

My question doesnt have to be just on calculators. Basically im wondering how i would write a piece of software and put it onto the hardware. Eg A processor must have some software so i want to know what language they would generally use to write the software and how they get the software onto the processor

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For micro-controllers I always use C. For the most part C code is more compact then C++. Yes you could go assembler but who really wants to do that anymore? On micro-controllers memory is a much greater concern then on a PC, so you want to try to keep things small.

theTroll

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You should know assembler and processor architeture. If I understand your question right, you should know also boolean logic perfect.
If you talking about creating calculator, you must know chip/processor architecture and that isn't a programming language, but logic.
If you wanna write a virtual calculator at you PC, you shold know computer programming language.

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Quote:
Original post by hahaha
Im just wondering how you would program a physical calculator and what language would you use?


Each calculator, or any small electronic device like a tv remote, has a little black chip called a microcontroller (as thetroll mentioned). which is just a small processor like a cpu with its own instruction set, which usually varies between brands e.g. atmel, texas instruments, phillips etc. It can be programmed just like a normal app using a specialised compiler. the compiled program is then downloaded onto the chip via hardware, for example out the serial port on your pc directly onto the chip.

Usually they're programmed in C, because its fast and doesn't need much memory. Assembly is also very common in industry because many microcontroller applications are time critical and even C isn't fast enough (most micro's run on a clock of about 5-50Mhz).

Theres also Embedded C++ which is a kinda stipped down faster version of C++ specifically for micro's, and lets you use an OO approach while still meeting speed/memory requirements.

In addition to microcontrollers, which are general purpose, you'll find in some devices a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) which is a similar thing i.e. a little black processor chip, but run at far higher clock speeds and are designed specifically for processing signals in real time e.g. soundcards have afew to do all the fourier calculations and effects and stuff. DSP's are really good at doing complex math really fast, but pretty crap at other general purpose stuff which is what microcontrollers are more suited to.

Hopefully this helps explain it..

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Are there some good emulators for PC? Because writing and debugging applications for other chips are a little bit complicated.
Especialy for some atmel RISC processors?

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here is my old resource about poor but standard chips.
www.alldatasheet.com
you can find any standard chips documentation .
thats are lowest level area about programming
good resource if you hawe tuime to try.

i trying to connect some chips vith pc .
for example you can use that for controling lights from pc.
or for sending data to your calsulator..(yea this is stupid but fun)

for example if you search for 4017 you wil find easiest counter/clock chip
which couts arround 0-9

[Edited by - RSC_x on July 15, 2007 9:30:08 AM]

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Quote:
Original post by razorjack
Are there some good emulators for PC? Because writing and debugging applications for other chips are a little bit complicated.
Especialy for some atmel RISC processors?


I remember awhile back using something for Atmel called AVR Studio which was was a debugger/emulator for their range. it let you run your program on a simulation of whatever chip you were targeting, so you don't have to download the actual code and you can see the values of each register and sort out timing issues etc.

Infact, Here it is.

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If you want to program for a calculator, get a TI-89 from Texas instruments. It has a Basic editor on the calculator and has a C compiler so that you can write code on your computer, along with assembly. And besides, it's a mighty fine calculator.

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