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• By elect
Hi,
ok, so, we are having problems with our current mirror reflection implementation.
At the moment we are doing it very simple, so for the i-th frame, we calculate the reflection vectors given the viewPoint and some predefined points on the mirror surface (position and normal).
Then, using the least squared algorithm, we find the point that has the minimum distance from all these reflections vectors. This is going to be our virtual viewPoint (with the right orientation).
After that, we render offscreen to a texture by setting the OpenGL camera on the virtual viewPoint.
And finally we use the rendered texture on the mirror surface.
So far this has always been fine, but now we are having some more strong constraints on accuracy.
What are our best options given that:
- we have a dynamic scene, the mirror and parts of the scene can change continuously from frame to frame
- we have about 3k points (with normals) per mirror, calculated offline using some cad program (such as Catia)
- all the mirror are always perfectly spherical (with different radius vertically and horizontally) and they are always convex
- a scene can have up to 10 mirror
- it should be fast enough also for vr (Htc Vive) on fastest gpus (only desktops)

Looking around, some papers talk about calculating some caustic surface derivation offline, but I don't know if this suits my case
Also, another paper, used some acceleration structures to detect the intersection between the reflection vectors and the scene, and then adjust the corresponding texture coordinate. This looks the most accurate but also very heavy from a computational point of view.

Other than that, I couldn't find anything updated/exhaustive around, can you help me?

• Hello all,
I am currently working on a game engine for use with my game development that I would like to be as flexible as possible.  As such the exact requirements for how things should work can't be nailed down to a specific implementation and I am looking for, at least now, a default good average case scenario design.
Here is what I have implemented:
Deferred rendering using OpenGL Arbitrary number of lights and shadow mapping Each rendered object, as defined by a set of geometry, textures, animation data, and a model matrix is rendered with its own draw call Skeletal animations implemented on the GPU.   Model matrix transformation implemented on the GPU Frustum and octree culling for optimization Here are my questions and concerns:
Doing the skeletal animation on the GPU, currently, requires doing the skinning for each object multiple times per frame: once for the initial geometry rendering and once for the shadow map rendering for each light for which it is not culled.  This seems very inefficient.  Is there a way to do skeletal animation on the GPU only once across these render calls? Without doing the model matrix transformation on the CPU, I fail to see how I can easily batch objects with the same textures and shaders in a single draw call without passing a ton of matrix data to the GPU (an array of model matrices then an index for each vertex into that array for transformation purposes?) If I do the matrix transformations on the CPU, It seems I can't really do the skinning on the GPU as the pre-transformed vertexes will wreck havoc with the calculations, so this seems not viable unless I am missing something Overall it seems like simplest solution is to just do all of the vertex manipulation on the CPU and pass the pre-transformed data to the GPU, using vertex shaders that do basically nothing.  This doesn't seem the most efficient use of the graphics hardware, but could potentially reduce the number of draw calls needed.

Really, I am looking for some advice on how to proceed with this, how something like this is typically handled.  Are the multiple draw calls and skinning calculations not a huge deal?  I would LIKE to save as much of the CPU's time per frame so it can be tasked with other things, as to keep CPU resources open to the implementation of the engine.  However, that becomes a moot point if the GPU becomes a bottleneck.

• Hello!
I would like to introduce Diligent Engine, a project that I've been recently working on. Diligent Engine is a light-weight cross-platform abstraction layer between the application and the platform-specific graphics API. Its main goal is to take advantages of the next-generation APIs such as Direct3D12 and Vulkan, but at the same time provide support for older platforms via Direct3D11, OpenGL and OpenGLES. Diligent Engine exposes common front-end for all supported platforms and provides interoperability with underlying native API. Shader source code converter allows shaders authored in HLSL to be translated to GLSL and used on all platforms. Diligent Engine supports integration with Unity and is designed to be used as a graphics subsystem in a standalone game engine, Unity native plugin or any other 3D application. It is distributed under Apache 2.0 license and is free to use. Full source code is available for download on GitHub.
Features:
True cross-platform Exact same client code for all supported platforms and rendering backends No #if defined(_WIN32) ... #elif defined(LINUX) ... #elif defined(ANDROID) ... No #if defined(D3D11) ... #elif defined(D3D12) ... #elif defined(OPENGL) ... Exact same HLSL shaders run on all platforms and all backends Modular design Components are clearly separated logically and physically and can be used as needed Only take what you need for your project (do not want to keep samples and tutorials in your codebase? Simply remove Samples submodule. Only need core functionality? Use only Core submodule) No 15000 lines-of-code files Clear object-based interface No global states Key graphics features: Automatic shader resource binding designed to leverage the next-generation rendering APIs Multithreaded command buffer generation 50,000 draw calls at 300 fps with D3D12 backend Descriptor, memory and resource state management Modern c++ features to make code fast and reliable The following platforms and low-level APIs are currently supported:
Windows Desktop: Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL Universal Windows: Direct3D11, Direct3D12 Linux: OpenGL Android: OpenGLES MacOS: OpenGL iOS: OpenGLES API Basics
Initialization
The engine can perform initialization of the API or attach to already existing D3D11/D3D12 device or OpenGL/GLES context. For instance, the following code shows how the engine can be initialized in D3D12 mode:
#include "RenderDeviceFactoryD3D12.h" using namespace Diligent; // ...  GetEngineFactoryD3D12Type GetEngineFactoryD3D12 = nullptr; // Load the dll and import GetEngineFactoryD3D12() function LoadGraphicsEngineD3D12(GetEngineFactoryD3D12); auto *pFactoryD3D11 = GetEngineFactoryD3D12(); EngineD3D12Attribs EngD3D12Attribs; EngD3D12Attribs.CPUDescriptorHeapAllocationSize[0] = 1024; EngD3D12Attribs.CPUDescriptorHeapAllocationSize[1] = 32; EngD3D12Attribs.CPUDescriptorHeapAllocationSize[2] = 16; EngD3D12Attribs.CPUDescriptorHeapAllocationSize[3] = 16; EngD3D12Attribs.NumCommandsToFlushCmdList = 64; RefCntAutoPtr<IRenderDevice> pRenderDevice; RefCntAutoPtr<IDeviceContext> pImmediateContext; SwapChainDesc SwapChainDesc; RefCntAutoPtr<ISwapChain> pSwapChain; pFactoryD3D11->CreateDeviceAndContextsD3D12( EngD3D12Attribs, &pRenderDevice, &pImmediateContext, 0 ); pFactoryD3D11->CreateSwapChainD3D12( pRenderDevice, pImmediateContext, SwapChainDesc, hWnd, &pSwapChain ); Creating Resources
Device resources are created by the render device. The two main resource types are buffers, which represent linear memory, and textures, which use memory layouts optimized for fast filtering. To create a buffer, you need to populate BufferDesc structure and call IRenderDevice::CreateBuffer(). The following code creates a uniform (constant) buffer:
BufferDesc BuffDesc; BufferDesc.Name = "Uniform buffer"; BuffDesc.BindFlags = BIND_UNIFORM_BUFFER; BuffDesc.Usage = USAGE_DYNAMIC; BuffDesc.uiSizeInBytes = sizeof(ShaderConstants); BuffDesc.CPUAccessFlags = CPU_ACCESS_WRITE; m_pDevice->CreateBuffer( BuffDesc, BufferData(), &m_pConstantBuffer ); Similar, to create a texture, populate TextureDesc structure and call IRenderDevice::CreateTexture() as in the following example:
TextureDesc TexDesc; TexDesc.Name = "My texture 2D"; TexDesc.Type = TEXTURE_TYPE_2D; TexDesc.Width = 1024; TexDesc.Height = 1024; TexDesc.Format = TEX_FORMAT_RGBA8_UNORM; TexDesc.Usage = USAGE_DEFAULT; TexDesc.BindFlags = BIND_SHADER_RESOURCE | BIND_RENDER_TARGET | BIND_UNORDERED_ACCESS; TexDesc.Name = "Sample 2D Texture"; m_pRenderDevice->CreateTexture( TexDesc, TextureData(), &m_pTestTex ); Initializing Pipeline State
Diligent Engine follows Direct3D12 style to configure the graphics/compute pipeline. One big Pipelines State Object (PSO) encompasses all required states (all shader stages, input layout description, depth stencil, rasterizer and blend state descriptions etc.)
To create a shader, populate ShaderCreationAttribs structure. An important member is ShaderCreationAttribs::SourceLanguage. The following are valid values for this member:
SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_DEFAULT  - The shader source format matches the underlying graphics API: HLSL for D3D11 or D3D12 mode, and GLSL for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL  - The shader source is in HLSL. For OpenGL and OpenGLES modes, the source code will be converted to GLSL. See shader converter for details. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_GLSL  - The shader source is in GLSL. There is currently no GLSL to HLSL converter. To allow grouping of resources based on the frequency of expected change, Diligent Engine introduces classification of shader variables:
Static variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC) are variables that are expected to be set only once. They may not be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. Such variables are intended to hold global constants such as camera attributes or global light attributes constant buffers. Mutable variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE) define resources that are expected to change on a per-material frequency. Examples may include diffuse textures, normal maps etc. Dynamic variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC) are expected to change frequently and randomly. This post describes the resource binding model in Diligent Engine.
The following is an example of shader initialization:
To create a pipeline state object, define instance of PipelineStateDesc structure. The structure defines the pipeline specifics such as if the pipeline is a compute pipeline, number and format of render targets as well as depth-stencil format:
// This is a graphics pipeline PSODesc.IsComputePipeline = false; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.NumRenderTargets = 1; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.RTVFormats[0] = TEX_FORMAT_RGBA8_UNORM_SRGB; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.DSVFormat = TEX_FORMAT_D32_FLOAT; The structure also defines depth-stencil, rasterizer, blend state, input layout and other parameters. For instance, rasterizer state can be defined as in the code snippet below:
// Init rasterizer state RasterizerStateDesc &RasterizerDesc = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.RasterizerDesc; RasterizerDesc.FillMode = FILL_MODE_SOLID; RasterizerDesc.CullMode = CULL_MODE_NONE; RasterizerDesc.FrontCounterClockwise = True; RasterizerDesc.ScissorEnable = True; //RSDesc.MultisampleEnable = false; // do not allow msaa (fonts would be degraded) RasterizerDesc.AntialiasedLineEnable = False; When all fields are populated, call IRenderDevice::CreatePipelineState() to create the PSO:
Shader resource binding in Diligent Engine is based on grouping variables in 3 different groups (static, mutable and dynamic). Static variables are variables that are expected to be set only once. They may not be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. Such variables are intended to hold global constants such as camera attributes or global light attributes constant buffers. They are bound directly to the shader object:

m_pPSO->CreateShaderResourceBinding(&m_pSRB); Dynamic and mutable resources are then bound through SRB object:
m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_VERTEX, "tex2DDiffuse")->Set(pDiffuseTexSRV); m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_VERTEX, "cbRandomAttribs")->Set(pRandomAttrsCB); The difference between mutable and dynamic resources is that mutable ones can only be set once for every instance of a shader resource binding. Dynamic resources can be set multiple times. It is important to properly set the variable type as this may affect performance. Static variables are generally most efficient, followed by mutable. Dynamic variables are most expensive from performance point of view. This post explains shader resource binding in more details.
Setting the Pipeline State and Invoking Draw Command
Before any draw command can be invoked, all required vertex and index buffers as well as the pipeline state should be bound to the device context:
// Clear render target const float zero[4] = {0, 0, 0, 0}; m_pContext->ClearRenderTarget(nullptr, zero); // Set vertex and index buffers IBuffer *buffer[] = {m_pVertexBuffer}; Uint32 offsets[] = {0}; Uint32 strides[] = {sizeof(MyVertex)}; m_pContext->SetVertexBuffers(0, 1, buffer, strides, offsets, SET_VERTEX_BUFFERS_FLAG_RESET); m_pContext->SetIndexBuffer(m_pIndexBuffer, 0); m_pContext->SetPipelineState(m_pPSO); Also, all shader resources must be committed to the device context:
m_pContext->CommitShaderResources(m_pSRB, COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES); When all required states and resources are bound, IDeviceContext::Draw() can be used to execute draw command or IDeviceContext::DispatchCompute() can be used to execute compute command. Note that for a draw command, graphics pipeline must be bound, and for dispatch command, compute pipeline must be bound. Draw() takes DrawAttribs structure as an argument. The structure members define all attributes required to perform the command (primitive topology, number of vertices or indices, if draw call is indexed or not, if draw call is instanced or not, if draw call is indirect or not, etc.). For example:
DrawAttribs attrs; attrs.IsIndexed = true; attrs.IndexType = VT_UINT16; attrs.NumIndices = 36; attrs.Topology = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLE_LIST; pContext->Draw(attrs); Tutorials and Samples
The GitHub repository contains a number of tutorials and sample applications that demonstrate the API usage.

AntTweakBar sample demonstrates how to use AntTweakBar library to create simple user interface.

Atmospheric scattering sample is a more advanced example. It demonstrates how Diligent Engine can be used to implement various rendering tasks: loading textures from files, using complex shaders, rendering to textures, using compute shaders and unordered access views, etc.

The repository includes Asteroids performance benchmark based on this demo developed by Intel. It renders 50,000 unique textured asteroids and lets compare performance of D3D11 and D3D12 implementations. Every asteroid is a combination of one of 1000 unique meshes and one of 10 unique textures.

Integration with Unity
Diligent Engine supports integration with Unity through Unity low-level native plugin interface. The engine relies on Native API Interoperability to attach to the graphics API initialized by Unity. After Diligent Engine device and context are created, they can be used us usual to create resources and issue rendering commands. GhostCubePlugin shows an example how Diligent Engine can be used to render a ghost cube only visible as a reflection in a mirror.

• By Yxjmir
I'm trying to load data from a .gltf file into a struct to use to load a .bin file. I don't think there is a problem with how the vertex positions are loaded, but with the indices. This is what I get when drawing with glDrawArrays(GL_LINES, ...):

Also, using glDrawElements gives a similar result. Since it looks like its drawing triangles using the wrong vertices for each face, I'm assuming it needs an index buffer/element buffer. (I'm not sure why there is a line going through part of it, it doesn't look like it belongs to a side, re-exported it without texture coordinates checked, and its not there)
I'm using jsoncpp to load the GLTF file, its format is based on JSON. Here is the gltf struct I'm using, and how I parse the file:
glBindVertexArray(g_pGame->m_VAO);
glDrawElements(GL_LINES, g_pGame->m_indices.size(), GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, (void*)0); // Only shows with GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE
glDrawArrays(GL_LINES, 0, g_pGame->m_vertexCount);
So, I'm asking what type should I use for the indices? it doesn't seem to be unsigned short, which is what I selected with the Khronos Group Exporter for blender. Also, am I reading part or all of the .bin file wrong?
Test.gltf
Test.bin

• That means how do I use base DirectX or OpenGL api's to make a physics based destruction simulation?
Will it be just smart rendering or something else is required?

# OpenGL Speeding up text printing

This topic is 3819 days old which is more than the 365 day threshold we allow for new replies. Please post a new topic.

## Recommended Posts

So, I've got a text printing routine that outputs outline text to the screen. My problem is that with the amount of text I need to display, my framerate drops by several hundred frames. I've been using NeHe's OpenGL tutorials for guidance. Is there anything I can do to speed up what I'm doing here? I originally tried this with bitmap fonts, but I found the performance hit to be greater than what I'm doing now. One thing... I need the ability to display text that may contain the values of variables, hence the argument list on the printing routine. I realize that may be what's slowing things down, but it is neccesary. Loading a system font:

LOGFONT logfont;

logfont.lfHeight =			-12;
logfont.lfWidth =			0;
logfont.lfEscapement =		0;
logfont.lfOrientation =		0;
logfont.lfWeight =			FW_BOLD;
logfont.lfItalic =			false;
logfont.lfUnderline =		false;
logfont.lfStrikeOut =		false;
logfont.lfCharSet =			ANSI_CHARSET;
logfont.lfOutPrecision =	OUT_TT_PRECIS;
logfont.lfClipPrecision =	CLIP_DEFAULT_PRECIS;
logfont.lfQuality =			ANTIALIASED_QUALITY;
logfont.lfPitchAndFamily =	FF_DONTCARE | DEFAULT_PITCH;
strcpy(logfont.lfFaceName, "Courier New");

HFONT font = CreateFontIndirect(&logfont);
SelectObject(deviceContext, font);
fontList = glGenLists(256);
wglUseFontOutlines(deviceContext, 0, 256, fontList, 0.0f, 0.0f, WGL_FONT_POLYGONS, gmf);
DeleteObject(font);


... And writing text to screen.
void Renderer::print (GLfloat x, GLfloat y, const char * mess, ...) {

if (mess != NULL) {

/*	Set the color and position of the text. */

glColor3f(0.9f, 0.9f, 0.9f);
glTranslatef(x, y, 0.0f);

va_list ap;
char text [256];
va_start(ap, mess);
vsprintf(text, mess, ap);
va_end(ap);

float length = 0.0f;

for (unsigned int loop = 0; loop < strlen(text); loop++)
length += gmf[text[loop]].gmfCellIncX;

glPushAttrib(GL_LIST_BIT);
glListBase(fontList);
glCallLists (strlen(text), GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, text);
glPopAttrib();

glTranslatef(-(x + length), -y, 0.0f);
}

}



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>>One thing... I need the ability to display text that may contain the values of variables, hence the argument list on the printing routine. I realize that may be what's slowing things down, but it is neccesary.

no thats not slowing it down, the reason its slow is cause u are calling a DL for each character
typically u create a texture containing all the alphabet in it + then do something

for ( all text )
{
glTexCoord2f( texcoords for this character )
draw character
}

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In China there are more than 10000 kinds of charactors (much more than 256), so we cannot store each charactor in a Display List at the program's initialization.
When you need to draw a string, use a texture. For example, use wglUseFontBitmap to build the Display List for each charactor that need's to draw, then draw the string to the GL_AUX0 buffer, destroy the Display list, copy the GL_AUX0 to a texture.

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I think the most flexible and efficient method of text rendering is to use some library like FreeType to render the string and store that (the entire rendered string) in a texture. Then store that texture in some rendered-string-texture cache for the font you're using. Since most strings will probably be static (or change relatively infrequently) the speed of having FreeType render the strings and storing them in a texture shouldn't matter that much because it won't happen very often.

EDIT: Instead of using C's variable argument list and vsprintf, I recommend having your Renderer::print function just take a std::string and using C++'s type-safe std::ostringstream for writing formatted info to a string. You most likely won't notice any speed difference, and it will be much safer and cleaner.

So it could look something like this...
void Renderer::print (GLfloat x, GLfloat y, const std::string &mess){    ...}//Then when using it...std::ostringstream ss;ss << "Rendered " << numVertices << " vertices and " << numTriangles << " triangles.";renderer->print(x, y, ss.str());

[Edited by - Kalidor on September 27, 2007 10:05:25 AM]

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Quote:
 I think the most flexible and efficient method of text rendering is to use some library like FreeType to render the string and store that (the entire rendered string) in a texture. Then store that texture in some rendered-string-texture cache for the font you're using. Since most strings will probably be static (or change relatively infrequently) the speed of having FreeType render the strings and storing them in a texture shouldn't matter that much because it won't happen very often.

This is basically what I do (except I don't even use FreeType right now, I just have .NET's System.Drawing stuff do it).

I keep, on average, two "texture sheets" around (although the font renderer will dynamically add more if they're needed, in practice I rarely even fill both). One is for long-term strings, and the other for strings that will likely change rapidly (such as a string containing your score, or something). The first time a string is submitted, I ask the underlying font renderer (so FreeType, GDI, whatever) for the bounds of the string, use a rectangle-fitting routine to find a suitable spot on the appropriate texture sheet, and draw the string to the sheet. I update the texture from the sheet once per frame if the sheet was changed that frame.

There are some extra little tricks involved -- I can split strings across sheets or within a sheet to achieve better packing, et cetera, and there's a minor bit of work involved in recomputing texture coordinates for the strings, but it's not too bad.

One of the biggest advantages to this system (the general system of rendering the strings via a dedicated font renderer versus doing the typical quad-per-glyph bitmap font approach) is that you get all the benefits of the underlying renderer for free. GDI handles my Unicode inputs flawlessly, it handles nice word-wrapping if I specify a desired target rectangle, it handles locale issues like left-to-right or vertical text, and it handles (dynamic!) font sizes. All of that stuff can be very useful (the word wrapping, in particular, is almost required and really rather boring to write yourself), but none of it is very fun to implement yourself. Trust me, I've done it.

The method might seem less efficient because of the frequency of texture updates, but that's not as bad as you might think. I've never had a performance problem that I was able to attribute to the font system yet. This method is also more vertex-load friendly -- traditional bitmap font implementations require four vertices per glyph, this requires four per string (except in the case of large strings that must be split across sheets) on average.

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Hi,

If texture is not that important (esp for GUI), you could also try raster fonts.

Pros:
- not subject to maximum texture size.
- faster than textured fonts using the DL method.

Cons:
- no texture: the color is uniform (no color effect possible on letters).
- not suitable for 3D printing at arbitrary angles.
- need to precompile the font for rastering.

If it is RPG text, you could use a mixed approach (like medieval writing) where the first character is a textured letter and the rest is written with a simple raster font.

my 2 cents ...

Ghostly yours,
Red.

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Just as a side note to complete my previous post, I timed three text blitting functions on my system. Aside from the pros and cons of each blitting method, I wanted to check what were the speed gains of the method described by jptrie and Kalidor. Here are the three rendering methods:

1 - Textured font using quads in display lists (classical method)
2 - Bitmap (or Raster) font
3 - Fast textured font (sytem described by jpetrie and kalidor)

I use three GUI windows with text in it. Two windows display the same text labels. There are two testing conditions:

A - only one window
B - all three windows

Note that I have tested on a low end system (IBM PC with integrated Intel Graphics chipset). Here are the results:

Textured font
1 + A : 68 FPS
1 + B : 49 FPS
bitmap font
2 + A : 80 FPS
2 + B : 60 FPS
fast textured font
3 + A : 80 FPS
3 + B : 66 FPS

This means that bitmapped fonts are a good alternative for GUI text display. But the fastest text display is reached with the 3rd method (jptrie and Kalidor) any time there are redundant strings to display.

Ghostly yours,
Red.