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OpenGL Opengl placement of statements

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HELP!!!! I am used to ALLEGRO and i dont know where to place statements like l=l+1 and so on. here is my code. the line in question is marked by <----HERE-- #include <windows.h> #include <gl\gl.h> #include <gl\glut.h> #include <gl\glu.h> /* GLU extention library */ void init(void); void display(void); void keyboard(unsigned char, int, int); void resize(int, int); void drawcube(int, int, int); int is_depth; /* depth testing flag */ int l; int main (int argc, char **argv) { glutInit(&argc, argv); glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_RGB); glutInitWindowSize(600, 600); glutInitWindowPosition(40, 40); glutCreateWindow("The Cube World"); init(); glutDisplayFunc(display); glutKeyboardFunc(keyboard); l=-3; /* this time we're going to keep the aspect ratio constant by trapping the window resizes */ glutReshapeFunc(resize); glutMainLoop(); return 0; } void init(void) { glClearColor(0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0); glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); is_depth = 1; glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW); } void display(void) { if (is_depth) glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); else glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT); /* draw the floor */ glBegin(GL_QUADS); glColor3f(0.2f, 0.2f, 0.2f); glVertex3f(-100.0, 0.0, -100.0); glColor3f(0.4f, 0.4f, 0.4f); glVertex3f(-100.0, 0.0, 100.0); glColor3f(0.6f, 0.6f, 0.6f); glVertex3f(100.0, 0.0, 100.0); glColor3f(0.8f, 0.8f, 0.8f); glVertex3f(100.0, 0.0, -100.0); glEnd(); /* draw 12 cubes with different colors */ //drawcube(75, 57, 2); //drawcube(-65, -12, 3); //drawcube(50, -50, 1); //drawcube(-56, 17, 2); //drawcube(67, 12, 3); //drawcube(-87, 32, 1); //drawcube(-26, 75, 2); //drawcube(57, 82, 3); drawcube(l, 12, 1); //drawcube(46, 35, 2); //drawcube(37, -2, 3); glutSwapBuffers(); } void keyboard(unsigned char key, int x, int y) {l=l+1; /////////////////////////////<-----------------HERE---- /* This time the controls are: "a": move left "d": move right "w": move forward "s": move back "t": toggle depth-testing */ switch (key) { case 'a': case 'A': glTranslatef(5.0, 0.0, 0.0); break; case 'd': case 'D': glTranslatef(-5.0, 0.0, 0.0); break; case 'w': case 'W': glTranslatef(0.0, 0.0, 5.0); break; case 's': case 'S': glTranslatef(0.0, 0.0, -5.0); break; case 'u': case 'U': glRotatef(3.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0); /* rotate up */ break; case 'y': case 'Y': glRotatef(-3.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0); /* rotate up */ break; case 't': case 'T': if (is_depth) { is_depth = 0; glDisable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); } else { is_depth = 1; glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); } } display(); } void resize(int width, int height) { if (height == 0) height = 1; glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); glLoadIdentity(); /* note we divide our width by our height to get the aspect ratio */ gluPerspective(45.0, width / height, 1.0, 400.0); /* set initial position */ glTranslatef(0.0, -5.0, -150.0); glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW); } void drawcube(int x_offset, int z_offset, int color) { /* this function draws a cube centerd at (x_offset, z_offset) x and z _big are the back and rightmost points, x and z _small are the front and leftmost points */ float x_big = (float)x_offset + 5; float z_big = (float)z_offset + 5; float x_small = (float)x_offset - 5; float z_small = (float)z_offset - 5; switch(color) { case 1: glColor3f(1.0,0.0,0.0); break; case 2: glColor3f(0.0,1.0,0.0); break; case 3: glColor3f(0.0,0.0,1.0); break; } glBegin(GL_QUADS); glVertex3f(x_small,10.0,z_big); /* front */ glVertex3f(x_small,0.0,z_big); glVertex3f(x_big,0.0,z_big); glVertex3f(x_big,10.0,z_big); glVertex3f(x_big,10.0,z_small); /* back */ glVertex3f(x_big,0.0,z_small); glVertex3f(x_small,0.0,z_small); glVertex3f(x_small,10.0,z_small); glVertex3f(x_big,10.0,z_big); /* right */ glVertex3f(x_big,0.0,z_big); glVertex3f(x_big,0.0,z_small); glVertex3f(x_big,10.0,z_small); glVertex3f(x_small,10.0,z_small); /* left */ glVertex3f(x_small,0.0,z_small); glVertex3f(x_small,0.0,z_big); glVertex3f(x_small,10.0,z_big); glVertex3f(x_small,10.0,z_big); /* top */ glVertex3f(x_big,10.0,z_big); glVertex3f(x_big,10.0,z_small); glVertex3f(x_small,10.0,z_small); glVertex3f(x_small,0.0,z_small); /* bottom */ glVertex3f(x_big,0.0,z_small); glVertex3f(x_big,0.0,z_big); glVertex3f(x_small,0.0,z_big); glEnd(); } it works but i have to press a button to make it work. I want it to just move across the screen automatically I tried moving it outside of the keyboard loop, but then I get an error like its not supposed to be there. It has to work if placed in the right position in the code, right????? but i dont know where opengl wants me to put it. please help someone.

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you mean like just before the key loop. something like

for(l<100)
{l=l+1;}

if that is what you mean then i have already tried this and i get an error message...."expected unqualified id"
so I don't know what to do or where to turn. I mean Opengl should be able to handle a for loop right???

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Quote:
Original post by sakares
you mean like just before the key loop. something like

for(l<100)
{l=l+1;}

if that is what you mean then i have already tried this and i get an error message...."expected unqualified id"
so I don't know what to do or where to turn. I mean Opengl should be able to handle a for loop right???


First of all, OpenGL doesn't 'handle' for loops. OpenGL is simply a set of functions that let you talk to your graphics hardware. Second, you may want to look into the proper syntax for a for loop. Third, if you do get that for loop properly set up, the object isn't going to move smoothly (its going to jump, and disappear before you see anything). This is because your program will stop until the for loop is completed, and effectively just increment l by 100.

I'm not even sure why you would need a for loop in this instance. Probably the quickest and easiest (although, not necessarily the 'best') thing to do is simply most the l=l+1 statement to the top of your display function. As I recall, GLUT allows you to set up an idle function callback. Creating one of those, as CodeMunkie suggested, and putting the code there, is probably a better way to go.

And, although the code may work, there are certainly a number of things that should be done. Among other things, you really should have a call to glLoadIdentity at the start of your display function. However, this means you'll need to make some changes to your keyboard handling. The transformations will have to be stored in some variables, and the transformations moved into the display function.

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funny I was taken literally about opengl handling a for loop...anyway, i think this is great advice and thank you for it, although I odnt know what you mean by proper syntax, my syntax for for loops has been fine in all my other c++ application, but I am no expert. anyway I moved my l=l+1 to the top of the display function an it works but i need to press a key still for my cube to move across the screen. I htink the secret may lay in this callback function, I have not been able to find an example of this would you be able to or would anyone for this matter be able to provide me an example of this and what its purpose is???

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Look up glutTimerFunc. It is very similar to the way you set up your glutDisplayFunc and glutKeyboardFunc, but it also takes in a timeout parameter that determines how often the function is called.

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Man you guys are being so nice to me helping me out I really appreciate it. i looked up the gluttimer thing and got this.

void glutTimerFunc(unsigned int msecs, void (*func)(int value), value);

how to use it this is another question. ummmm... is it a really complicated thing or would someone be able to put it in the right place for me. I just need to see things in the right place and then I can figure them out from there. so basically when I figure this out and figure out how to display variables such as l on the screen i will be set.

and which things need to be filled in??? msec i assume that I put the time that i want to elapse between loops and *func what is this??? int value also????
anyway any more help would be appreciated.

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There's dozens of ways to display text on the screen. None are very easy. And I get the impression that you need to slow down. Your original question shows that you need to spend more time learning C++, rather than hopping into OpenGL. Getting a good foundation is very important, and is difficult to do if you get ahead of yourself. Write some Allegro programs totally from scratch. Don't copy a single line from any program (be it yours or a tutorial). This will help you solve problems like your first one on your own. I understand that you're excited and want to do as much as possible, but you will be able to do far more if you take it easy and make sure to get a strong understanding, rather than the bare minimum understanding, of base information.

Well, that's my take on it. Use it as you want.

Oh, and Allegro can handle OpenGL for you. This would let you learn just OpenGL instead of GLut along with OpenGL.

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actually i am pretty comfortable with c++ and have written several programs in allegro 2d games and such, its just the opengl syntax is quite different to me.but to anyone that can help me out with this it would be greatly appreciated.

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      normalize all the vertices on my vertex shader i can get a perfect sphere.
      T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, 1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(180.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[0] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, T * R, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_FRONT)); T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, -1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(0.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[1] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, R * T, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_BACK)); // So on and so forth for the rest of the sides As you can see, for the front side grid, i rotate it 180 degrees to make it face the camera and push it towards the eye;
      the back side is handled almost the same way only that i don't need to rotate it but simply push it away from the eye.
      The same technique is applied for the rest of the faces (obviously, with the proper rotations / translations).
      The matrix that result from the multiplication of R and T (in that particular order) is send to my vertex shader as `r_Grid'.
      // spherify vec3 V = normalize((r_Grid * vec4(r_Vertex, 1.0)).xyz); gl_Position = r_ModelViewProjection * vec4(V, 1.0); The `r_ModelViewProjection' matrix is generated on the CPU in this manner.
      // No the most efficient way, but it works. glm::dmat4 Camera::getMatrix() { // Create the view matrix // Roll, Yaw and Pitch are all quaternions. glm::dmat4 View = glm::toMat4(Roll) * glm::toMat4(Pitch) * glm::toMat4(Yaw); // The model matrix is generated by translating in the oposite direction of the camera. glm::dmat4 Model = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), -Position); // Projection = glm::perspective(fovY, aspect, zNear, zFar); // zNear = 0.1, zFar = 1.0995116e12 return Projection * View * Model; } I managed to get rid of z-fighting by using a technique called Logarithmic Depth Buffer described in this article; it works amazingly well, no z-fighting at all, at least not visible.
      Each frame i'm rendering each node by sending the generated matrices this way.
      // set the r_ModelViewProjection uniform // Sneak in the mRadiusMatrix which is a matrix that contains the radius of my planet. Shader::setUniform(0, Camera::getInstance()->getMatrix() * mRadiusMatrix); // set the r_Grid matrix uniform i created earlier. Shader::setUniform(1, r_Grid); grid->render(); My planet's radius is around 6400000.0 units, absurdly large, but that's what i really want to achieve;
      Everything works well, the node's split and merge as you'd expect, however whenever i get close to the surface
      of the planet the rounding errors start to kick in giving me that lovely stairs effect.
      I've read that if i could render each grid relative to the camera i could get better precision on the surface, effectively
      getting rid of those rounding errors.
       
      My question is how can i achieve this relative to camera rendering in my scenario here?
      I know that i have to do most of the work on the CPU with double, and that's exactly what i'm doing.
      I only use double on the CPU side where i also do most of the matrix multiplications.
      As you can see from my vertex shader i only do the usual r_ModelViewProjection * (some vertex coords).
       
      Thank you for your suggestions!
       
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