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jessica_chen

OpenGL OpenGL+Win32 api+Timer problem

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I have 2 projects with "Timer" usage for OpenGL display. One has good performance (without using much CPU resources); another one DON'T. WHY? Is there anybody can give me any suggestion to improve the one which consume too much CPU resources? The code projects are attached. Thanks in advance, Jessica

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You can upload your finished projects/demos to GD, but otherwise you need to find a free site on the web (search a bit, they are popping out like crazy) - unless you run a FTP server at home :).

Once you have uploaded your projects, you can link to them in GD posts using a standard HTML link tag.

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//this code works fine-performance is normal.
//=====


//minimal.cpp
/* An example of the minimal Win32 & OpenGL program. It only works in
16 bit color modes or higher (since it doesn't create a
palette). */



#include <windows.h>/* must include this before GL/gl.h */
#include <GL/gl.h>/* OpenGL header file */
#include <GL/glu.h>/* OpenGL utilities header file */
#include <stdio.h>
// angle variables
float angx = 0.0f;
float angy = 0.0f;
float angz = 1.0f;
// grid variables
float Fx = 0.0f;
float Fy = 1.0f;
float Sx = 0.87f;
float Sy = -0.5f;
float Tx = -0.87f;
float Ty = -0.5f;
// speed
float theta = 0.0f;
float Spd = 1.0f;

HDC hDC;

void
display()
{
/* rotate a triangle around */
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

glPushMatrix();
glRotatef( theta, angx, angy, angz);
glBegin(GL_TRIANGLES);
glColor3f(1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f); glVertex2f(Fx, Fy);
glColor3f(0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f); glVertex2f(Sx, Sy);
glColor3f(0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f); glVertex2f(Tx, Ty);
glEnd();
glPopMatrix();

SwapBuffers(hDC);
// start of add
theta += Spd;
// end of add
}


LONG WINAPI
WindowProc(HWND hWnd, UINT uMsg, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)
{
static PAINTSTRUCT ps;

switch(uMsg) {
// Start of add
case WM_CREATE:
SetTimer(hWnd, 1, 10, NULL);
return TRUE;

case WM_TIMER:
PostMessage(hWnd, WM_PAINT, 0, 0);
break;
// End of add
case WM_PAINT:
display();
BeginPaint(hWnd, &ps);
EndPaint(hWnd, &ps);

return 0;

case WM_SIZE:
glViewport(0, 0, LOWORD(lParam), HIWORD(lParam));
PostMessage(hWnd, WM_PAINT, 0, 0);
return 0;

case WM_CHAR:
switch (wParam) {
case 27:/* ESC key */
PostQuitMessage(0);
DestroyWindow(hWnd);
exit(1);
break;
}
return 0;

case WM_CLOSE:
PostQuitMessage(0);
DestroyWindow(hWnd);
exit(1);
return 0;
}

return DefWindowProc(hWnd, uMsg, wParam, lParam);
}

HWND
CreateOpenGLWindow(char* title, int x, int y, int width, int height,
BYTE type, DWORD flags)
{
int pf;

HWND hWnd;
WNDCLASS wc;
PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR pfd;
static HINSTANCE hInstance = 0;

/* only register the window class once - use hInstance as a flag. */
if (!hInstance) {
hInstance = GetModuleHandle(NULL);
wc.style = CS_OWNDC;
wc.lpfnWndProc = (WNDPROC)WindowProc;
wc.cbClsExtra = 0;
wc.cbWndExtra = 0;
wc.hInstance = hInstance;
wc.hIcon = LoadIcon(NULL, IDI_WINLOGO);
wc.hCursor = LoadCursor(NULL, IDC_ARROW);
wc.hbrBackground = NULL;
wc.lpszMenuName = NULL;
wc.lpszClassName = "OpenGL";

if (!RegisterClass(&wc)) {
MessageBox(NULL, "RegisterClass() failed: "
"Cannot register window class.", "Error", MB_OK);
return NULL;
}
}

hWnd = CreateWindow("OpenGL", title, WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW |
WS_CLIPSIBLINGS | WS_CLIPCHILDREN,
x, y, width, height, NULL, NULL, hInstance, NULL);

if (hWnd == NULL) {
MessageBox(NULL, "CreateWindow() failed: Cannot create a window.",
"Error", MB_OK);
return NULL;
}

hDC = GetDC(hWnd);

/* there is no guarantee that the contents of the stack that become
the pfd are zeroed, therefore _make sure_ to clear these bits. */

memset(&pfd, 0, sizeof(pfd));
pfd.nSize = sizeof(pfd);
pfd.nVersion = 1;
pfd.dwFlags = PFD_DRAW_TO_WINDOW | PFD_SUPPORT_OPENGL | flags;
pfd.iPixelType = type;
pfd.cColorBits = 32;

pf = ChoosePixelFormat(hDC, &pfd);
if (pf == 0) {
MessageBox(NULL, "ChoosePixelFormat() failed: "
"Cannot find a suitable pixel format.", "Error", MB_OK);
return 0;
}

if (SetPixelFormat(hDC, pf, &pfd) == FALSE) {
MessageBox(NULL, "SetPixelFormat() failed: "
"Cannot set format specified.", "Error", MB_OK);
return 0;
}

DescribePixelFormat(hDC, pf, sizeof(PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR), &pfd);

ReleaseDC(hWnd, hDC);

return hWnd;
}

int APIENTRY
WinMain(HINSTANCE hCurrentInst, HINSTANCE hPreviousInst,
LPSTR lpszCmdLine, int nCmdShow)
{
HDC hDC;/* device context */
HGLRC hRC;/* opengl context */
HWND hWnd;/* window */
MSG msg;/* message */

hWnd = CreateOpenGLWindow("minimal", 0, 0, 256, 256, PFD_TYPE_RGBA, 0);
if (hWnd == NULL)
exit(1);

hDC = GetDC(hWnd);
hRC = wglCreateContext(hDC);
wglMakeCurrent(hDC, hRC);

ShowWindow(hWnd, nCmdShow);

while(GetMessage(&msg, hWnd, 0, 0)) {
TranslateMessage(&msg);
DispatchMessage(&msg);
}

wglMakeCurrent(NULL, NULL);
ReleaseDC(hWnd, hDC );
wglDeleteContext(hRC);
DestroyWindow(hWnd);

return msg.wParam;
}



[Edited by - jessica_chen on January 8, 2008 2:41:05 PM]

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// this projects cannot work fine - performance is really high.
// why? how shall i modify it?
// i think maybe u can help me find the solution.
// i wrote the code based on the project above.
// there are 3 files in this projects: main.cpp;main.h;rsrc.rc

// 1. main.cpp
#include <windows.h>
#include <process.h>
#include "main.h"
#include <gl/gl.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

HWND ghMainDialog;
HWND Structure;
HWND About;
HWND hwndTimer;
UINT KBcod;

int nCmdShow;
HDC hDC;

HDC ghDC;
HGLRC ghRC;

typedef unsigned (WINAPI *PBEGINTHREADEX_THREADFUNC)(
LPVOID lpThreadParameter
);
typedef unsigned *PBEGINTHREADEX_THREADID;

// angle variables
float angx = 0.0f;
float angy = 0.0f;
float angz = 1.0f;
// grid variables
float Fx = 0.0f;
float Fy = 1.0f;
float Sx = 0.87f;
float Sy = -0.5f;
float Tx = -0.87f;
float Ty = -0.5f;
// speed
float theta = 0.0f;
float Spd = 1.0f;


BOOL CALLBACK OpenProc(HWND, UINT, WPARAM, LPARAM);
VOID EnableOpenGL( HWND hWnd, HDC * ghDC, HGLRC * ghRC );
VOID DisableOpenGL( HWND hWnd, HDC ghDC, HGLRC ghRC );

static char g_szClassName[] = "MyWindowClass";
static HINSTANCE g_hInst = NULL;

void
display()
{
glClearColor( 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f );
/* rotate a triangle around */
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

glPushMatrix();
glRotatef( theta, angx, angy, angz);
glBegin(GL_TRIANGLES);
glColor3f(1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f); glVertex2f(Fx, Fy);
glColor3f(0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f); glVertex2f(Sx, Sy);
glColor3f(0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f); glVertex2f(Tx, Ty);
glEnd();
glPopMatrix();

// printf("display\n");

SwapBuffers(ghDC);
// start of add
theta += Spd;
// end of add
}

int STDCALL WinMain (HINSTANCE hInstance, HINSTANCE hPrev, LPSTR lpCmd, int nCmdShow)
{
int i = 0;
HANDLE hThread;
DWORD dwThreadId;

g_hInst = hInstance;


MSG msg;
BOOL bQuit = FALSE;

ghMainDialog = CreateDialog(GetModuleHandle(NULL), MAKEINTRESOURCE(ID_DIALOG), NULL, OpenProc);

if(!ghMainDialog)
return FALSE;

ShowWindow(ghMainDialog, SW_SHOW);

UpdateWindow(ghMainDialog);

while(1)
{
while (PeekMessage(&msg, NULL, 0, 0, PM_NOREMOVE) == TRUE)
{
if (GetMessage(&msg, NULL, 0, 0) )
{
TranslateMessage(&msg);
DispatchMessage(&msg);
}
else
{
return TRUE;
}
}

}
}


BOOL CALLBACK OpenProc(HWND hWnd, UINT Message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)
{
int len = 0;
HDC main;
LPRECT recy;

static PAINTSTRUCT ps;

switch(Message)
{
case WM_INITDIALOG:
case WM_CREATE:
// 2.
SetTimer(hWnd, 1, 10, NULL);
// 3.
ghDC = GetDC(hWnd);
// if (!bSetupPixelFormat(ghDC))
// PostQuitMessage (0);

ghRC = wglCreateContext(ghDC);
wglMakeCurrent(ghDC, ghRC);

Structure = GetDlgItem(hWnd,IDC_STRUCT);

// enable OpenGL for the window
EnableOpenGL( Structure, &ghDC, &ghRC );

break;


case WM_TIMER:
printf("WindowProc WM_TIMER\n");
PostMessage(hWnd, WM_PAINT, 0, 0);
break;
// End of add
case WM_PAINT:
printf("WindowProc WM_PAINT\n");
display();
BeginPaint(hWnd, &ps);
EndPaint(hWnd, &ps);
break;

case WM_SIZE:
printf("WindowProc WM_SIZE\n");
glViewport(0, 0, LOWORD(lParam), HIWORD(lParam));
PostMessage(hWnd, WM_PAINT, 0, 0);
break;

case WM_CLOSE:
DisableOpenGL(Structure, ghDC, ghRC);
DestroyWindow (hWnd);
break;

case WM_DESTROY:
KillTimer(hWnd, 1);
DisableOpenGL(Structure, ghDC, ghRC);
PostQuitMessage (0);
break;


case ID_FILE_EXIT:
EndDialog(hWnd, IDCANCEL);
return TRUE;

case IDC_ABOUT:
system("start IExplore.exe http://users.pandora.be/gothicsouls");
MessageBox (NULL, "OpenGL" , "About...", 0 + MB_ICONASTERISK);
break;

case IDC_MODIFY:

len = GetWindowTextLength(GetDlgItem(hWnd, IDC_SPEED));
if(len > 0)
{
char* Speed;
Speed = (char*)GlobalAlloc(GPTR, len + 1);
GetDlgItemText(hWnd, IDC_SPEED, Speed, len + 1);
sscanf(Speed,"%f", &Spd);
GlobalFree((HANDLE)Speed);
}

len = GetWindowTextLength(GetDlgItem(hWnd, ANGX));
if(len > 0)
{
char* AngleX;
AngleX = (char*)GlobalAlloc(GPTR, len + 1);
GetDlgItemText(hWnd, ANGX, AngleX, len + 1);
sscanf(AngleX,"%f", &angx);
GlobalFree((HANDLE)AngleX);
}

len = GetWindowTextLength(GetDlgItem(hWnd, ANGY));
if(len > 0)
{
char* AngleY;
AngleY = (char*)GlobalAlloc(GPTR, len + 1);
GetDlgItemText(hWnd, ANGY, AngleY, len + 1);
sscanf(AngleY,"%f", &angy);
GlobalFree((HANDLE)AngleY);
}

len = GetWindowTextLength(GetDlgItem(hWnd, ANGZ));
if(len > 0)
{
char* AngleZ;
AngleZ = (char*)GlobalAlloc(GPTR, len + 1);
GetDlgItemText(hWnd, ANGZ, AngleZ, len + 1);
sscanf(AngleZ,"%f", &angz);
GlobalFree((HANDLE)AngleZ);
}

len = GetWindowTextLength(GetDlgItem(hWnd, FIRSTX));
if(len > 0)
{
char* FirstX;
FirstX = (char*)GlobalAlloc(GPTR, len + 1);
GetDlgItemText(hWnd, FIRSTX, FirstX, len + 1);
sscanf(FirstX,"%f", &Fx);
GlobalFree((HANDLE)FirstX);
}

len = GetWindowTextLength(GetDlgItem(hWnd, FIRSTY));
if(len > 0)
{
char* FirstY;
FirstY = (char*)GlobalAlloc(GPTR, len + 1);
GetDlgItemText(hWnd, FIRSTY, FirstY, len + 1);
sscanf(FirstY,"%f", &Fy);
GlobalFree((HANDLE)FirstY);
}

len = GetWindowTextLength(GetDlgItem(hWnd, SECONDX));
if(len > 0)
{
char* SecondX;
SecondX = (char*)GlobalAlloc(GPTR, len + 1);
GetDlgItemText(hWnd, SECONDX, SecondX, len + 1);
sscanf(SecondX,"%f", &Sx);
GlobalFree((HANDLE)SecondX);
}

len = GetWindowTextLength(GetDlgItem(hWnd, SECONDY));
if(len > 0)
{
char* SecondY;
SecondY = (char*)GlobalAlloc(GPTR, len + 1);
GetDlgItemText(hWnd, SECONDY, SecondY, len + 1);
sscanf(SecondY,"%f", &Sy);
GlobalFree((HANDLE)SecondY);
}

len = GetWindowTextLength(GetDlgItem(hWnd, THIRDX));
if(len > 0)
{
char* ThirdX;
ThirdX = (char*)GlobalAlloc(GPTR, len + 1);
GetDlgItemText(hWnd, THIRDX, ThirdX, len + 1);
sscanf(ThirdX,"%f", &Tx);
GlobalFree((HANDLE)ThirdX);
}

len = GetWindowTextLength(GetDlgItem(hWnd, THIRDY));
if(len > 0)
{
char* ThirdY;
ThirdY = (char*)GlobalAlloc(GPTR, len + 1);
GetDlgItemText(hWnd, THIRDY, ThirdY, len + 1);
sscanf(ThirdY,"%f", &Ty);
GlobalFree((HANDLE)ThirdY);
}
//sscanf(string, "%f", floatnumber)//
break;

// case WM_DESTROY:
// DestroyWindow(ghMainDialog);
// PostQuitMessage (0);
// return 0;
// break;

default:
return FALSE;
}
return TRUE;
}

// Enable OpenGL

VOID EnableOpenGL( HWND hWnd, HDC * ghDC, HGLRC * ghRC )
{
PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR pfd;
int iFormat;

// get the device context (DC)
*ghDC = GetDC( hWnd );

// set the pixel format for the DC
// ZeroMemory( &pfd, sizeof( pfd ) );
memset(&pfd, 0, sizeof(pfd));
pfd.nSize = sizeof( pfd );
pfd.nVersion = 1;
pfd.dwFlags = PFD_DRAW_TO_WINDOW |
PFD_SUPPORT_OPENGL | PFD_DOUBLEBUFFER;
pfd.iPixelType = PFD_TYPE_RGBA;
pfd.cColorBits = 24;
pfd.cDepthBits = 16;
pfd.iLayerType = PFD_MAIN_PLANE;
iFormat = ChoosePixelFormat( *ghDC, &pfd );
SetPixelFormat( *ghDC, iFormat, &pfd );

// create and enable the render context (RC)
*ghRC = wglCreateContext( *ghDC );
wglMakeCurrent( *ghDC, *ghRC );

printf("EnableOpenGL\n");
}


// Disable OpenGL

VOID DisableOpenGL( HWND hWnd, HDC ghDC, HGLRC ghRC )
{
wglMakeCurrent( NULL, NULL );
wglDeleteContext( ghRC );
ReleaseDC( Structure, ghDC );
}


=======================================
// 2. MAIN.H

#define ID_DIALOG 101
#define IDC_STRUCT 999
#define IDC_ABOUT 56

#define ANGX 2001
#define ANGY 2002
#define ANGZ 2003

#define FIRSTX 3001
#define FIRSTY 3002
#define SECONDX 3003
#define SECONDY 3004
#define THIRDX 3005
#define THIRDY 3006

#define IDC_SPEED 4001

#define IDC_MODIFY 7001

#define ID_FILE_EXIT 8001
#define ID_HELP 8002
#define ID_ABOUT 8003

#define IDR_MENU 9001
===========================
// 3. Rsrc.rc

#include <windows.h>
#include "main.h"
//Microsoft Developer Studio generated resource script.
//


#define APSTUDIO_READONLY_SYMBOLS
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
// Generated from the TEXTINCLUDE 2 resource.
//
#ifndef __BORLANDC__
#include "afxres.h"
#endif

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
#undef APSTUDIO_READONLY_SYMBOLS

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// English (U.S.) resources


#ifdef _WIN32
LANGUAGE LANG_ENGLISH, SUBLANG_ENGLISH_US
#pragma code_page(1252)
#endif //_WIN32



IDR_MENU MENU DISCARDABLE
BEGIN
// 1. File
POPUP "&File"
BEGIN
MENUITEM "&Exit", ID_FILE_EXIT
END

// 3. Help
POPUP "&Help"
BEGIN
MENUITEM "&Help", ID_HELP
MENUITEM SEPARATOR
MENUITEM "&About...", ID_ABOUT
END
END


ID_DIALOG DIALOG 120, 100, 304, 300
style DS_MODALFRAME | WS_POPUP | WS_VISIBLE | WS_CAPTION | WS_SYSMENU
CAPTION "OpenGL"
LANGUAGE LANG_NEUTRAL, SUBLANG_NEUTRAL
FONT 8, "HELV"
{
CONTROL "0.0f", 2001, "EDIT", 0x50810000, 10, 20, 27, 14
CONTROL "0.0f", 2002, "EDIT", 0x50810000, 45, 20, 27, 14
CONTROL "1.0f", 2003, "EDIT", 0x50810000, 80, 20, 27, 14
CONTROL "Modify", 7001, "BUTTON", 0x50018000, 10, 183, 60, 14
CONTROL "Angle:", 0, "STATIC", 0x50020000, 10, 5, 23, 10
CONTROL "Speed:", 0, "STATIC", 0x50020000, 10, 164, 24, 11
CONTROL "1.0f", 4001, "EDIT", 0x50810000, 39, 162, 30, 14
CONTROL "Structure", 999, "BUTTON", 0x50000007, 120, 17, 174, 181
CONTROL "About", 56, "BUTTON", 0x50018000, 76, 183, 35, 14
CONTROL "Grid points:", 0, "STATIC", SS_LEFT | WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE | WS_GROUP, 10, 45, 38, 12
CONTROL "First:", 0, "STATIC", SS_LEFT | WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE | WS_GROUP, 10, 60, 18, 10
CONTROL "Second:", 0, "STATIC", SS_LEFT | WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE | WS_GROUP, 10, 90, 28, 9
CONTROL "Third:", 0, "STATIC", SS_LEFT | WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE | WS_GROUP, 10, 120, 21, 10
CONTROL "X", 0, "STATIC", SS_LEFT | WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE | WS_GROUP, 50, 45, 8, 9
CONTROL "Y", 0, "STATIC", SS_LEFT | WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE | WS_GROUP, 80, 45, 8, 9
CONTROL "0.0f", 3001, "EDIT", ES_AUTOHSCROLL | ES_LEFT | WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE | WS_BORDER | WS_TABSTOP, 40, 70, 20, 14
CONTROL "1.0f", 3002, "EDIT", ES_AUTOHSCROLL | ES_LEFT | WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE | WS_BORDER | WS_TABSTOP, 75, 70, 20, 14
CONTROL "0.87f", 3003, "EDIT", ES_AUTOHSCROLL | ES_LEFT | WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE | WS_BORDER | WS_TABSTOP, 40, 100, 20, 14
CONTROL "-0.5f", 3004, "EDIT", ES_AUTOHSCROLL | ES_LEFT | WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE | WS_BORDER | WS_TABSTOP, 75, 100, 20, 14
CONTROL "-0.87f", 3005, "EDIT", ES_AUTOHSCROLL | ES_LEFT | WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE | WS_BORDER | WS_TABSTOP, 40, 130, 20, 14
CONTROL "-0.5f", 3006, "EDIT", ES_AUTOHSCROLL | ES_LEFT | WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE | WS_BORDER | WS_TABSTOP, 75, 130, 20, 14
}

//500 ICON MOVEABLE PURE LOADONCALL DISCARDABLE "D:/Dev-C++/Icon/console.ico"




[Edited by - jessica_chen on January 8, 2008 2:44:04 PM]

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Please post source inside
[ code ] source goes here [ / code ]
tags (without the spaces), since it will make the source a lot easier to read for the rest of us :)

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Quote:
Please post source inside
[ code ] source goes here [ / code ]
tags (without the spaces), since it will make the source a lot easier to read for the rest of us :)


For long snippets of code, it's better to replace 'code' with 'source' in both brackets. It will create a small white scrollable box, like this:


void foo() {
// ...
}



You might want to edit your posts and add this to make them easier to read.

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jessica_chen,
If you are asking why the second example use 100% CPU resource, then, the problem is your message loop. PeekMessage() will keep executed, so "while(1)" loop does not rest. However, when GetMessage() is used in message loop, the system will be idle until an event is triggered.

You may have 2 options:
One is using Timer function with a generic message loop;
while(::GetMessage(&msg, 0, 0, 0) > 0)
{
::TranslateMessage(&msg);
::DispatchMessage(&msg);
}

The other is using PeekMessage() without Timer;
while(1)
{
::Sleep(10);

if(::PeekMessage(&msg, 0, 0, 0, PM_REMOVE))
{
if(msg.message == WM_QUIT)
{
break;
}
else
{
::TranslateMessage(&msg);
::DispatchMessage(&msg);
}
}
else
{
display();
}
}

Notice the first line in "while(1)" block. Sleep(10) makes the application idle for 10 ms. It gives a similar effect as SetTimer(10).

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Hi, SongHo,

Thanks very much. They works fine now.

May I ask more questions about your suggestion?
(1) why you use ::? is the style from C++?
(2) my colleague told me, Sleep() is always the temp solution. because Sleep() will block the process. so i should use timer to do, then the process won't be stopped. what do you think about Sleep()? do you think in formal project, we can use Sleep()?

Thanks.

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      Hello. So far i got decently looking 3d scene. I also managed to render a truetype font, on my way to implementing gui (windows, buttons and textboxes). There are several issues i am facing, would love to hear your feedback.
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      2) Rendering GUI. Situation is similar to above. I guess the widgets should NOT scale when scaling window, am i right? So what am i looking for is saying "this should be always in the middle, 200x200 size no matter the display window xy", and "this should stick to the bottom left corner". Is ortho matrix the cure for all such problems?
      3) The game is 3D but i have to go 2D to render static gui elements over the scene - and i want to do it properly! At the moment i am using matrix 3x3 for 2d transformations and vec3 for all kinds of coordinates. In shaders tho i technically still IS 3D. I have to set all 4 x y z w of the gl_Position while it would be much much more conventient to... just do the maths in 2d space. Can i achieve it somehow?
      4) Text again. I am kind of confused what is the reason of artifacts in Times New Roman font displaying (screenshot 1). I render from left to right, letter after letter. You can clearly see that letters on the right (so the ones rendered after ones on the left are covered by the previous one). I was toying around with blending options but no luck. I do not support kerning at the moment but that's definitely not the cause of error. The display of the small font looks dirty aliased too. I am knd of confused how to interpret the integer data and how should be scaled/adapted to the screen view. Is it just store the data as constant size and again - use ortho matrix?
      Thanks in advance for all your ideas and suggestions!
      https://i.imgur.com/4rd1VC3.png
      https://i.imgur.com/uHrSXfe.png
      https://i.imgur.com/xRTffPn.png
    • By plz717
      Hello, everyone! I hope my problem isn't too 'beginnerish'. I'm doing research on motion synthesis now, trying to implement the Deep Mimic paper (DeepMimic) by BINPENG XUE, in this paper, I need to first retarget character A's motion to another character B to make the reference motion clips for character B, since we don't have character B‘s reference motion. The most important thing is that in the paper, the author copied character A's joint's rotation with respective to joint's local coordinate system (not the parent) to character B. In my personal understanding, the joint's rotation with respective to joint's local coordinate system is something like that in the attached photo, where for the Elbow joint, i need to get the Elbow's rotation in the elbow's local coordinate system (i'm very grateful for you to share your ideas if i have misunderstanding about it 🙂)
      I have searched many materials on the internet about how to extract the local joint's information from FBX, the most relative one i found is the pivot rotation( and geometric transformation, object offset transformation). I'm a beginner in computer graphics, and i'm confused about whether the pivot rotation( or geometric transformation, object offset transformation) is exactly the joint's local rotation i'm seeking? I hope someone that have any ideas can help me, I'd be very grateful for any pointers in the right direction. Thanks in advance! 

    • By nOoNEE
      hello guys , i have some questions  what does glLinkProgram  and  glBindAttribLocation do?  i searched but there wasnt any good resource 
    • By owenjr
      Hi, I'm a Multimedia Engineering student. I am about to finish my dergree and I'm already thinking about what topic to cover in my final college project.
      I'm interested in the procedural animation with c++ and OpenGL of creatures, something like a spider for example. Can someone tell me what are the issues I should investigate to carry it out? I understand that it has some dependence on artificial intelligence but I do not know to what extent. Can someone help me to find information about it? Thank you very much.
       
      Examples: 
      - Procedural multi-legged walking animation
      - Procedural Locomotion of Multi-Legged Characters in Dynamic Environments
    • By Lewa
      So, i'm still on my quest to unterstanding the intricacies of HDR and implementing this into my engine. Currently i'm at the step to implementing tonemapping. I stumbled upon this blogposts:
      http://filmicworlds.com/blog/filmic-tonemapping-operators/
      http://frictionalgames.blogspot.com/2012/09/tech-feature-hdr-lightning.html
      and tried to implement some of those mentioned tonemapping methods into my postprocessing shader.
      The issue is that none of them creates the same results as shown in the blogpost which definitely has to do with the initial range in which the values are stored in the HDR buffer. For simplicity sake i store the values between 0 and 1 in the HDR buffer (ambient light is 0.3, directional light is 0.7)
      This is the tonemapping code:
      vec3 Uncharted2Tonemap(vec3 x) { float A = 0.15; float B = 0.50; float C = 0.10; float D = 0.20; float E = 0.02; float F = 0.30; return ((x*(A*x+C*B)+D*E)/(x*(A*x+B)+D*F))-E/F; } This is without the uncharted tonemapping:
      This is with the uncharted tonemapping:
      Which makes the image a lot darker.
      The shader code looks like this:
      void main() { vec3 color = texture2D(texture_diffuse, vTexcoord).rgb; color = Uncharted2Tonemap(color); //gamma correction (use only if not done in tonemapping code) color = gammaCorrection(color); outputF = vec4(color,1.0f); } Now, from my understanding is that tonemapping should bring the range down from HDR to 0-1.
      But the output of the tonemapping function heavily depends on the initial range of the values in the HDR buffer. (You can't expect to set the sun intensity the first time to 10 and the second time to 1000 and excpect the same result if you feed that into the tonemapper.) So i suppose that this also depends on the exposure which i have to implement?
      To check this i plotted the tonemapping curve:
      You can see that the curve goes only up to around to a value of 0.21 (while being fed a value of 1) and then basically flattens out. (which would explain why the image got darker.)
       
      My guestion is: In what range should the values in the HDR buffer be which then get tonemapped? Do i have to bring them down to a range of 0-1 by multiplying with the exposure?
      For example, if i increase the values of the light by 10 (directional light would be 7 and ambient light 3) then i would need to divide HDR values by 10 in order to get a value range of 0-1 which then could be fed into the tonemapping curve. Is that correct?
    • By nOoNEE
      i am reading this book : link
      in the OpenGL Rendering Pipeline section there is a picture like this: link
      but the question is this i dont really understand why it is necessary to turn pixel data in to fragment and then fragment into pixel could please give me a source or a clear Explanation that why it is necessary ? thank you so mu
       
       
    • By Inbar_xz
      I'm using the OPENGL with eclipse+JOGL.
      My goal is to create movement of the camera and the player.
      I create main class, which create some box in 3D and hold 
      an object of PlayerAxis.
      I create PlayerAxis class which hold the axis of the player.
      If we want to move the camera, then in the main class I call to 
      the func "cameraMove"(from PlayerAxis) and it update the player axis.
      That's work good.
      The problem start if I move the camera on 2 axis, 
      for example if I move with the camera right(that's on the y axis)
      and then down(on the x axis) -
      in some point the move front is not to the front anymore..
      In order to move to the front, I do
      player.playerMoving(0, 0, 1);
      And I learn that in order to keep the front move, 
      I need to convert (0, 0, 1) to the player axis, and then add this.
      I think I dont do the convert right.. 
      I will be glad for help!

      Here is part of my PlayerAxis class:
       
      //player coordinate float x[] = new float[3]; float y[] = new float[3]; float z[] = new float[3]; public PlayerAxis(float move_step, float angle_move) { x[0] = 1; y[1] = 1; z[2] = -1; step = move_step; angle = angle_move; setTransMatrix(); } public void cameraMoving(float angle_step, String axis) { float[] new_x = x; float[] new_y = y; float[] new_z = z; float alfa = angle_step * angle; switch(axis) { case "x": new_z = addVectors(multScalar(z, COS(alfa)), multScalar(y, SIN(alfa))); new_y = subVectors(multScalar(y, COS(alfa)), multScalar(z, SIN(alfa))); break; case "y": new_x = addVectors(multScalar(x, COS(alfa)), multScalar(z, SIN(alfa))); new_z = subVectors(multScalar(z, COS(alfa)), multScalar(x, SIN(alfa))); break; case "z": new_x = addVectors(multScalar(x, COS(alfa)), multScalar(y, SIN(alfa))); new_y = subVectors(multScalar(y, COS(alfa)), multScalar(x, SIN(alfa))); } x = new_x; y = new_y; z = new_z; normalization(); } public void playerMoving(float x_move, float y_move, float z_move) { float[] move = new float[3]; move[0] = x_move; move[1] = y_move; move[2] = z_move; setTransMatrix(); float[] trans_move = transVector(move); position[0] = position[0] + step*trans_move[0]; position[1] = position[1] + step*trans_move[1]; position[2] = position[2] + step*trans_move[2]; } public void setTransMatrix() { for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) { coordiTrans[0][i] = x[i]; coordiTrans[1][i] = y[i]; coordiTrans[2][i] = z[i]; } } public float[] transVector(float[] v) { return multiplyMatrixInVector(coordiTrans, v); }  
      and in the main class i have this:
       
      public void keyPressed(KeyEvent e) { if (e.getKeyCode()== KeyEvent.VK_ESCAPE) { System.exit(0); //player move } else if (e.getKeyCode()== KeyEvent.VK_W) { //front //moveAmount[2] += -0.1f; player.playerMoving(0, 0, 1); } else if (e.getKeyCode()== KeyEvent.VK_S) { //back //moveAmount[2] += 0.1f; player.playerMoving(0, 0, -1); } else if (e.getKeyCode()== KeyEvent.VK_A) { //left //moveAmount[0] += -0.1f; player.playerMoving(-1, 0, 0); } else if (e.getKeyCode()== KeyEvent.VK_D) { //right //moveAmount[0] += 0.1f; player.playerMoving(1, 0, 0); } else if (e.getKeyCode()== KeyEvent.VK_E) { //moveAmount[0] += 0.1f; player.playerMoving(0, 1, 0); } else if (e.getKeyCode()== KeyEvent.VK_Q) { //moveAmount[0] += 0.1f; player.playerMoving(0, -1, 0); //camera move } else if (e.getKeyCode()== KeyEvent.VK_I) { //up player.cameraMoving(1, "x"); } else if (e.getKeyCode()== KeyEvent.VK_K) { //down player.cameraMoving(-1, "x"); } else if (e.getKeyCode()== KeyEvent.VK_L) { //right player.cameraMoving(-1, "y"); } else if (e.getKeyCode()== KeyEvent.VK_J) { //left player.cameraMoving(1, "y"); } else if (e.getKeyCode()== KeyEvent.VK_O) { //right round player.cameraMoving(-1, "z"); } else if (e.getKeyCode()== KeyEvent.VK_U) { //left round player.cameraMoving(1, "z"); } }  
      finallt found it.... i confused with the transformation matrix row and col. thanks anyway!
    • By Lewa
      So, i'm currently trying to implement an SSAO shader from THIS tutorial and i'm running into a few issues here.
      Now, this SSAO method requires view space positions and normals. I'm storing the normals in my deferred renderer in world-space so i had to do a conversion and reconstruct the position from the depth buffer.
      And something there goes horribly wrong (which has probably to do with worldspace to viewspace transformations).
      (here is the full shader source code if someone wants to take a look at it)
      Now, i suspect that the normals are the culprit.
      vec3 normal = ((uNormalViewMatrix*vec4(normalize(texture2D(sNormals, vTexcoord).rgb),1.0)).xyz); "sNormals" is a 2D texture which stores the normals in world space in a RGB FP16 buffer.
      Now i can't use the camera viewspace matrix to transform the normals into viewspace as the cameras position isn't set at (0,0,0), thus skewing the result.
      So what i did is to create a new viewmatrix specifically for this normal without the position at vec3(0,0,0);
      //"camera" is the camera which was used for rendering the normal buffer renderer.setUniform4m(ressources->shaderSSAO->getUniform("uNormalViewMatrix"), glmExt::createViewMatrix(glm::vec3(0,0,0),camera.getForward(),camera.getUp())//parameters are (position,forwardVector,upVector) ); Though i have the feeling this is the wrong approach. Is this right or is there a better/correct way of transforming a world space normal into viewspace?
    • By HawkDeath
      Hi,
      I'm trying mix two textures using own shader system, but I have a problem (I think) with uniforms.
      Code: https://github.com/HawkDeath/shader/tree/test
      To debug I use RenderDocs, but I did not receive good results. In the first attachment is my result, in the second attachment is what should be.
      PS. I base on this tutorial https://learnopengl.com/Getting-started/Textures.


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