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• By elect
Hi,
ok, so, we are having problems with our current mirror reflection implementation.
At the moment we are doing it very simple, so for the i-th frame, we calculate the reflection vectors given the viewPoint and some predefined points on the mirror surface (position and normal).
Then, using the least squared algorithm, we find the point that has the minimum distance from all these reflections vectors. This is going to be our virtual viewPoint (with the right orientation).
After that, we render offscreen to a texture by setting the OpenGL camera on the virtual viewPoint.
And finally we use the rendered texture on the mirror surface.
So far this has always been fine, but now we are having some more strong constraints on accuracy.
What are our best options given that:
- we have a dynamic scene, the mirror and parts of the scene can change continuously from frame to frame
- we have about 3k points (with normals) per mirror, calculated offline using some cad program (such as Catia)
- all the mirror are always perfectly spherical (with different radius vertically and horizontally) and they are always convex
- a scene can have up to 10 mirror
- it should be fast enough also for vr (Htc Vive) on fastest gpus (only desktops)

Looking around, some papers talk about calculating some caustic surface derivation offline, but I don't know if this suits my case
Also, another paper, used some acceleration structures to detect the intersection between the reflection vectors and the scene, and then adjust the corresponding texture coordinate. This looks the most accurate but also very heavy from a computational point of view.

Other than that, I couldn't find anything updated/exhaustive around, can you help me?

• Hello all,
I am currently working on a game engine for use with my game development that I would like to be as flexible as possible.  As such the exact requirements for how things should work can't be nailed down to a specific implementation and I am looking for, at least now, a default good average case scenario design.
Here is what I have implemented:
Deferred rendering using OpenGL Arbitrary number of lights and shadow mapping Each rendered object, as defined by a set of geometry, textures, animation data, and a model matrix is rendered with its own draw call Skeletal animations implemented on the GPU.   Model matrix transformation implemented on the GPU Frustum and octree culling for optimization Here are my questions and concerns:
Doing the skeletal animation on the GPU, currently, requires doing the skinning for each object multiple times per frame: once for the initial geometry rendering and once for the shadow map rendering for each light for which it is not culled.  This seems very inefficient.  Is there a way to do skeletal animation on the GPU only once across these render calls? Without doing the model matrix transformation on the CPU, I fail to see how I can easily batch objects with the same textures and shaders in a single draw call without passing a ton of matrix data to the GPU (an array of model matrices then an index for each vertex into that array for transformation purposes?) If I do the matrix transformations on the CPU, It seems I can't really do the skinning on the GPU as the pre-transformed vertexes will wreck havoc with the calculations, so this seems not viable unless I am missing something Overall it seems like simplest solution is to just do all of the vertex manipulation on the CPU and pass the pre-transformed data to the GPU, using vertex shaders that do basically nothing.  This doesn't seem the most efficient use of the graphics hardware, but could potentially reduce the number of draw calls needed.

Really, I am looking for some advice on how to proceed with this, how something like this is typically handled.  Are the multiple draw calls and skinning calculations not a huge deal?  I would LIKE to save as much of the CPU's time per frame so it can be tasked with other things, as to keep CPU resources open to the implementation of the engine.  However, that becomes a moot point if the GPU becomes a bottleneck.

• Hello!
I would like to introduce Diligent Engine, a project that I've been recently working on. Diligent Engine is a light-weight cross-platform abstraction layer between the application and the platform-specific graphics API. Its main goal is to take advantages of the next-generation APIs such as Direct3D12 and Vulkan, but at the same time provide support for older platforms via Direct3D11, OpenGL and OpenGLES. Diligent Engine exposes common front-end for all supported platforms and provides interoperability with underlying native API. Shader source code converter allows shaders authored in HLSL to be translated to GLSL and used on all platforms. Diligent Engine supports integration with Unity and is designed to be used as a graphics subsystem in a standalone game engine, Unity native plugin or any other 3D application. It is distributed under Apache 2.0 license and is free to use. Full source code is available for download on GitHub.
Features:
True cross-platform Exact same client code for all supported platforms and rendering backends No #if defined(_WIN32) ... #elif defined(LINUX) ... #elif defined(ANDROID) ... No #if defined(D3D11) ... #elif defined(D3D12) ... #elif defined(OPENGL) ... Exact same HLSL shaders run on all platforms and all backends Modular design Components are clearly separated logically and physically and can be used as needed Only take what you need for your project (do not want to keep samples and tutorials in your codebase? Simply remove Samples submodule. Only need core functionality? Use only Core submodule) No 15000 lines-of-code files Clear object-based interface No global states Key graphics features: Automatic shader resource binding designed to leverage the next-generation rendering APIs Multithreaded command buffer generation 50,000 draw calls at 300 fps with D3D12 backend Descriptor, memory and resource state management Modern c++ features to make code fast and reliable The following platforms and low-level APIs are currently supported:
Windows Desktop: Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL Universal Windows: Direct3D11, Direct3D12 Linux: OpenGL Android: OpenGLES MacOS: OpenGL iOS: OpenGLES API Basics
Initialization
The engine can perform initialization of the API or attach to already existing D3D11/D3D12 device or OpenGL/GLES context. For instance, the following code shows how the engine can be initialized in D3D12 mode:
#include "RenderDeviceFactoryD3D12.h" using namespace Diligent; // ...  GetEngineFactoryD3D12Type GetEngineFactoryD3D12 = nullptr; // Load the dll and import GetEngineFactoryD3D12() function LoadGraphicsEngineD3D12(GetEngineFactoryD3D12); auto *pFactoryD3D11 = GetEngineFactoryD3D12(); EngineD3D12Attribs EngD3D12Attribs; EngD3D12Attribs.CPUDescriptorHeapAllocationSize[0] = 1024; EngD3D12Attribs.CPUDescriptorHeapAllocationSize[1] = 32; EngD3D12Attribs.CPUDescriptorHeapAllocationSize[2] = 16; EngD3D12Attribs.CPUDescriptorHeapAllocationSize[3] = 16; EngD3D12Attribs.NumCommandsToFlushCmdList = 64; RefCntAutoPtr<IRenderDevice> pRenderDevice; RefCntAutoPtr<IDeviceContext> pImmediateContext; SwapChainDesc SwapChainDesc; RefCntAutoPtr<ISwapChain> pSwapChain; pFactoryD3D11->CreateDeviceAndContextsD3D12( EngD3D12Attribs, &pRenderDevice, &pImmediateContext, 0 ); pFactoryD3D11->CreateSwapChainD3D12( pRenderDevice, pImmediateContext, SwapChainDesc, hWnd, &pSwapChain ); Creating Resources
Device resources are created by the render device. The two main resource types are buffers, which represent linear memory, and textures, which use memory layouts optimized for fast filtering. To create a buffer, you need to populate BufferDesc structure and call IRenderDevice::CreateBuffer(). The following code creates a uniform (constant) buffer:
BufferDesc BuffDesc; BufferDesc.Name = "Uniform buffer"; BuffDesc.BindFlags = BIND_UNIFORM_BUFFER; BuffDesc.Usage = USAGE_DYNAMIC; BuffDesc.uiSizeInBytes = sizeof(ShaderConstants); BuffDesc.CPUAccessFlags = CPU_ACCESS_WRITE; m_pDevice->CreateBuffer( BuffDesc, BufferData(), &m_pConstantBuffer ); Similar, to create a texture, populate TextureDesc structure and call IRenderDevice::CreateTexture() as in the following example:
TextureDesc TexDesc; TexDesc.Name = "My texture 2D"; TexDesc.Type = TEXTURE_TYPE_2D; TexDesc.Width = 1024; TexDesc.Height = 1024; TexDesc.Format = TEX_FORMAT_RGBA8_UNORM; TexDesc.Usage = USAGE_DEFAULT; TexDesc.BindFlags = BIND_SHADER_RESOURCE | BIND_RENDER_TARGET | BIND_UNORDERED_ACCESS; TexDesc.Name = "Sample 2D Texture"; m_pRenderDevice->CreateTexture( TexDesc, TextureData(), &m_pTestTex ); Initializing Pipeline State
Diligent Engine follows Direct3D12 style to configure the graphics/compute pipeline. One big Pipelines State Object (PSO) encompasses all required states (all shader stages, input layout description, depth stencil, rasterizer and blend state descriptions etc.)
To create a shader, populate ShaderCreationAttribs structure. An important member is ShaderCreationAttribs::SourceLanguage. The following are valid values for this member:
SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_DEFAULT  - The shader source format matches the underlying graphics API: HLSL for D3D11 or D3D12 mode, and GLSL for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL  - The shader source is in HLSL. For OpenGL and OpenGLES modes, the source code will be converted to GLSL. See shader converter for details. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_GLSL  - The shader source is in GLSL. There is currently no GLSL to HLSL converter. To allow grouping of resources based on the frequency of expected change, Diligent Engine introduces classification of shader variables:
Static variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC) are variables that are expected to be set only once. They may not be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. Such variables are intended to hold global constants such as camera attributes or global light attributes constant buffers. Mutable variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE) define resources that are expected to change on a per-material frequency. Examples may include diffuse textures, normal maps etc. Dynamic variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC) are expected to change frequently and randomly. This post describes the resource binding model in Diligent Engine.
The following is an example of shader initialization:
To create a pipeline state object, define instance of PipelineStateDesc structure. The structure defines the pipeline specifics such as if the pipeline is a compute pipeline, number and format of render targets as well as depth-stencil format:
// This is a graphics pipeline PSODesc.IsComputePipeline = false; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.NumRenderTargets = 1; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.RTVFormats[0] = TEX_FORMAT_RGBA8_UNORM_SRGB; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.DSVFormat = TEX_FORMAT_D32_FLOAT; The structure also defines depth-stencil, rasterizer, blend state, input layout and other parameters. For instance, rasterizer state can be defined as in the code snippet below:
// Init rasterizer state RasterizerStateDesc &RasterizerDesc = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.RasterizerDesc; RasterizerDesc.FillMode = FILL_MODE_SOLID; RasterizerDesc.CullMode = CULL_MODE_NONE; RasterizerDesc.FrontCounterClockwise = True; RasterizerDesc.ScissorEnable = True; //RSDesc.MultisampleEnable = false; // do not allow msaa (fonts would be degraded) RasterizerDesc.AntialiasedLineEnable = False; When all fields are populated, call IRenderDevice::CreatePipelineState() to create the PSO:
Shader resource binding in Diligent Engine is based on grouping variables in 3 different groups (static, mutable and dynamic). Static variables are variables that are expected to be set only once. They may not be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. Such variables are intended to hold global constants such as camera attributes or global light attributes constant buffers. They are bound directly to the shader object:

m_pPSO->CreateShaderResourceBinding(&m_pSRB); Dynamic and mutable resources are then bound through SRB object:
m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_VERTEX, "tex2DDiffuse")->Set(pDiffuseTexSRV); m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_VERTEX, "cbRandomAttribs")->Set(pRandomAttrsCB); The difference between mutable and dynamic resources is that mutable ones can only be set once for every instance of a shader resource binding. Dynamic resources can be set multiple times. It is important to properly set the variable type as this may affect performance. Static variables are generally most efficient, followed by mutable. Dynamic variables are most expensive from performance point of view. This post explains shader resource binding in more details.
Setting the Pipeline State and Invoking Draw Command
Before any draw command can be invoked, all required vertex and index buffers as well as the pipeline state should be bound to the device context:
// Clear render target const float zero[4] = {0, 0, 0, 0}; m_pContext->ClearRenderTarget(nullptr, zero); // Set vertex and index buffers IBuffer *buffer[] = {m_pVertexBuffer}; Uint32 offsets[] = {0}; Uint32 strides[] = {sizeof(MyVertex)}; m_pContext->SetVertexBuffers(0, 1, buffer, strides, offsets, SET_VERTEX_BUFFERS_FLAG_RESET); m_pContext->SetIndexBuffer(m_pIndexBuffer, 0); m_pContext->SetPipelineState(m_pPSO); Also, all shader resources must be committed to the device context:
m_pContext->CommitShaderResources(m_pSRB, COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES); When all required states and resources are bound, IDeviceContext::Draw() can be used to execute draw command or IDeviceContext::DispatchCompute() can be used to execute compute command. Note that for a draw command, graphics pipeline must be bound, and for dispatch command, compute pipeline must be bound. Draw() takes DrawAttribs structure as an argument. The structure members define all attributes required to perform the command (primitive topology, number of vertices or indices, if draw call is indexed or not, if draw call is instanced or not, if draw call is indirect or not, etc.). For example:
DrawAttribs attrs; attrs.IsIndexed = true; attrs.IndexType = VT_UINT16; attrs.NumIndices = 36; attrs.Topology = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLE_LIST; pContext->Draw(attrs); Tutorials and Samples
The GitHub repository contains a number of tutorials and sample applications that demonstrate the API usage.

AntTweakBar sample demonstrates how to use AntTweakBar library to create simple user interface.

Atmospheric scattering sample is a more advanced example. It demonstrates how Diligent Engine can be used to implement various rendering tasks: loading textures from files, using complex shaders, rendering to textures, using compute shaders and unordered access views, etc.

The repository includes Asteroids performance benchmark based on this demo developed by Intel. It renders 50,000 unique textured asteroids and lets compare performance of D3D11 and D3D12 implementations. Every asteroid is a combination of one of 1000 unique meshes and one of 10 unique textures.

Integration with Unity
Diligent Engine supports integration with Unity through Unity low-level native plugin interface. The engine relies on Native API Interoperability to attach to the graphics API initialized by Unity. After Diligent Engine device and context are created, they can be used us usual to create resources and issue rendering commands. GhostCubePlugin shows an example how Diligent Engine can be used to render a ghost cube only visible as a reflection in a mirror.

• By Yxjmir
I'm trying to load data from a .gltf file into a struct to use to load a .bin file. I don't think there is a problem with how the vertex positions are loaded, but with the indices. This is what I get when drawing with glDrawArrays(GL_LINES, ...):

Also, using glDrawElements gives a similar result. Since it looks like its drawing triangles using the wrong vertices for each face, I'm assuming it needs an index buffer/element buffer. (I'm not sure why there is a line going through part of it, it doesn't look like it belongs to a side, re-exported it without texture coordinates checked, and its not there)
I'm using jsoncpp to load the GLTF file, its format is based on JSON. Here is the gltf struct I'm using, and how I parse the file:
glBindVertexArray(g_pGame->m_VAO);
glDrawElements(GL_LINES, g_pGame->m_indices.size(), GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, (void*)0); // Only shows with GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE
glDrawArrays(GL_LINES, 0, g_pGame->m_vertexCount);
So, I'm asking what type should I use for the indices? it doesn't seem to be unsigned short, which is what I selected with the Khronos Group Exporter for blender. Also, am I reading part or all of the .bin file wrong?
Test.gltf
Test.bin

• That means how do I use base DirectX or OpenGL api's to make a physics based destruction simulation?
Will it be just smart rendering or something else is required?

# OpenGL Understanding camera basics...

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I'm currently learning OpenGL using the NeHe tutorials. I'm currently up to lesson 10, but I'm having some trouble understand the whole deal around the camera. It says: 1. Rotate and translate the camera position according to user commands 2. Rotate the world around the origin in the opposite direction of the camera rotation (giving the illusion that the camera has been rotated) 3. Translate the world in the opposite manner that the camera has been translated (again, giving the illusion that the camera has moved). I don't completely understand 2 and 3. 1 is updating the camera according to user input, ie. move 1 unit forward, rotate to 90 degrees. But what about 2 and 3? And why is it done like that? I want to understand WHY I have to do it. I also want to move away from doing translations/rotations by doing it the hard way, and therefor I want to switch to the use of matrices. What would be good material to dive into for that? Thank you. Toolmaker

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I also dislike that method of doing cameras.
My cameras work via matrices, and are API agnostic. Put simply, my camera system is a position and a direction. To move the camera forwards, I add the direction * distance to the position. To rotate the camera, I use euler rotation.

To apply the camera to my renderer, I pass it in via a set method, and the renderer then uses it with gluLookAt(___), and gluPerspective(___). There are no graphics API calls inside the camera class. the result of thsi is that I can give cameras to entities such as characters, and even physics objects, with some pretty sick results.

I trust you are familiar with euler rotation? It makes life a whole lot easier where cameras are concerned.

Would you like more details?

[update] While I recommend you start by writing your own and then upgrade to a better one later, I currently use vmath.

[Edited by - shotgunnutter on January 14, 2008 11:22:49 AM]

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You should definitely look here at some point, but the explanations there are not as beginner friendly as they could be, so I'll try to explain this as best as I can.

Obviously there is no actual camera in the world, but we want to achieve the effect of a camera that we can move and orient. How can we do this?

Suppose we have a scene with just one object, and the camera is looking directly at it. Moving the camera 1 unit forward (suppose forward means the negative Z-axis) will give the same result as moving the object 1 unit backward, the result being that the object is 1 unit closer to the camera. Similarly, rotating the camera 30 degrees to the left is the same as rotating the object 30 degrees to the right around the camera (so in this case 'orbiting' might be a better term than 'rotation').

After we understand this, we see that we can achieve the effect of a camera by properly translating and rotating the objects, but by negated distances and angles, and in reverse order so that the objects rotate around the camera's position and not around themselves. This last point requires understanding how applying transformations in a different order can affect the result. The section titled "Thinking About Transformations" in the link above covers this very well.

Of course, we might have more than one object in the scene, and we have to do this for all of them. Therefore, in your code, you specify the camera position and orientation before you specify any of the transformations for the objects. That way, any transformation you specify for the object will be combined with the camera-related transformations to simulate the effect of a movable camera (this point also requires that you understand how OpenGL transformations work and the material in the section I mentioned earlier).

Well, after reading my explanation, it's not as clear as I would have wanted it to be, but if you have any specific questions I'll try to explain further.

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Quote:
 Original post by Gage64You should definitely look here at some point, but the explanations there are not as beginner friendly as they could be, so I'll try to explain this as best as I can.Obviously there is no actual camera in the world, but we want to achieve the effect of a camera that we can move and orient. How can we do this?Suppose we have a scene with just one object, and the camera is looking directly at it. Moving the camera 1 unit forward (suppose forward means the negative Z-axis) will give the same result as moving the object 1 unit backward, the result being that the object is 1 unit closer to the camera. Similarly, rotating the camera 30 degrees to the left is the same as rotating the object 30 degrees to the right around the camera (so in this case 'orbiting' might be a better term than 'rotation').After we understand this, we see that we can achieve the effect of a camera by properly translating and rotating the objects, but by negated distances and angles, and in reverse order so that the objects rotate around the camera's position and not around themselves. This last point requires understanding how applying transformations in a different order can affect the result. The section titled "Thinking About Transformations" in the link above covers this very well.Of course, we might have more than one object in the scene, and we have to do this for all of them. Therefore, in your code, you specify the camera position and orientation before you specify any of the transformations for the objects. That way, any transformation you specify for the object will be combined with the camera-related transformations to simulate the effect of a movable camera (this point also requires that you understand how OpenGL transformations work and the material in the section I mentioned earlier).Well, after reading my explanation, it's not as clear as I would have wanted it to be, but if you have any specific questions I'll try to explain further.

That explains it pretty well, but its a problematic way of handling OpenGL cameras, IMHO. I find that doing it via matrices is easier. YMMV.

[Edited by - shotgunnutter on January 14, 2008 11:51:17 AM]

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Quote:
 Original post by shotgunnutterits a problematic way of handling OpenGL cameras, IMHO. I find that doing it via matrices is easier.

The only way you could do it is with matrices (note that gluLookAt() also generates a matrix). How you create that matrix is up to you - you can use Euler angles and trigonometry, quaternions, etc., but at the end you have to create a matrix because that's all OpenGL understands. So even if you hide it behind a more convenient interface, my description above is the only way to achieve the effect of a camera.

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Quote:
 Original post by Gage64You should definitely look here at some point, but the explanations there are not as beginner friendly as they could be, so I'll try to explain this as best as I can.Obviously there is no actual camera in the world, but we want to achieve the effect of a camera that we can move and orient. How can we do this?Suppose we have a scene with just one object, and the camera is looking directly at it. Moving the camera 1 unit forward (suppose forward means the negative Z-axis) will give the same result as moving the object 1 unit backward, the result being that the object is 1 unit closer to the camera. Similarly, rotating the camera 30 degrees to the left is the same as rotating the object 30 degrees to the right around the camera (so in this case 'orbiting' might be a better term than 'rotation').After we understand this, we see that we can achieve the effect of a camera by properly translating and rotating the objects, but by negated distances and angles, and in reverse order so that the objects rotate around the camera's position and not around themselves. This last point requires understanding how applying transformations in a different order can affect the result. The section titled "Thinking About Transformations" in the link above covers this very well.Of course, we might have more than one object in the scene, and we have to do this for all of them. Therefore, in your code, you specify the camera position and orientation before you specify any of the transformations for the objects. That way, any transformation you specify for the object will be combined with the camera-related transformations to simulate the effect of a movable camera (this point also requires that you understand how OpenGL transformations work and the material in the section I mentioned earlier).Well, after reading my explanation, it's not as clear as I would have wanted it to be, but if you have any specific questions I'll try to explain further.

Excellent explanation! That's pretty much what I wanted to know :). Now to brush up my matrix maths(I've had it, but I kinda forgot how to do it, so I'll have to look it up) and from there on, work further on my vector maths.

I'll give you a rate++ for the excellent explanation :). 1 question tho, all object movements should be relative to the camera in order to achieve a camera-like 'experience'. How does this affect other translations(I'll leave out rotations for now).

If I move my 'camera' to (0, 0, -10) and I have an object at (0, 0, -50) and another one at (10, 0, -50), do I need call glLoadIdentity(); -> do camera translation + object translation, or would it be best to calculate the relative position of object a to b and translate with that(ie, glTranslatef(10, 0, 0))?

Toolmaker

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Quote:
 Original post by ToolmakerExcellent explanation!

Quote:
 Now to brush up my matrix maths(I've had it, but I kinda forgot how to do it, so I'll have to look it up) and from there on, work further on my vector maths.

You might want to look at the two sample chapters I linked to here. The first is a long chapter on vectors. You can probably skip some of it because at first it is important to understand the geometric meaning of vectors and their operations, so focus on that.

The second chapter is an excellent introduction to matrices, probably the best I have ever seen. It does a great job of explaining how to interpret matrices geometrically and not just as tables of numbers. It also emphasizes the important distinction between row vectors and column vectors. After reading this chapter, you'll want to look at the section titled "Thinking About Transformations" in the link in my first post to understand why this is especially when using OpenGL.

Quote:
 If I move my 'camera' to (0, 0, -10) and I have an object at (0, 0, -50) and another one at (10, 0, -50), do I need call glLoadIdentity(); -> do camera translation + object translation, or would it be best to calculate the relative position of object a to b and translate with that(ie, glTranslatef(10, 0, 0))?

I'm not entirely sure I understand your question, but in general you don't have to think about the camera when moving your objects. You just know that it will work correctly. How do you know? Look at the following code:

void display() {    glLoadIdentity();        // Position camera at (0, 0, -10) so we translate by the negative units    glTranslatef(0, 0, 10);    // Position first object    glPushMatrix();    glTranslatef(0, 0, -50);    drawObjectA();    glPopMatrix();    // Position second object    glPushMatrix();    glTranslatef(10, 0, -50);    drawObjectA();    glPopMatrix();}

The calls to glPush/glPop are needed when manipulating multiple objects (unless you want their transformations to be combined, but we'll forget about that for now). If you are not familiar with these calls, just pretend there's one object and you can ignore them (they are explained with nice examples in the link in my first post).

I don't want to go into too much detail (because you need to understand matrices to understand those details), but calls Like glTranslatef() combine their transformations with any transformations that were previously applied (EDIT - this is exactly why you call glLoadIdentity() at the start of each frame). In the code above, the camera related transformation was applied first, so any further transformations will be combined with it. So, we can just move our objects and be sure that they will move properly with relation to the camera, because the camera transform will be applied to them "automatically".

Again this turned out to be more confusing than I intended. I recommend that you first get comfortable with matrices, then with how transformations work in OpenGL (including the glPush/glPop functions). The sample chapter on matrices covers the former (to an extent), and the link in my first post covers the latter. Once you are comfortable with writing code that can move several objects independently with a fixed camera, come back to this post and see if what I said is somewhat clearer.

Hope this helps and sorry for the long post (again!).

[Edited by - Gage64 on January 15, 2008 1:54:57 AM]

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Thanks for the answers :). You're great at explaining it understandly. A skill which is extremely useful in our field.

I'm currently doing 2D vector math in my computer graphics class at college, so I do understand how most of the stuff works, except it has another added direction to it. And, I need to start brushing up my skills when it comes to matrices, because I need them at the exam.

For example, let's take this as our environment:

Ok, so now I want to move my camera 10 units towards the boxes. This would mean I have to translate the camera 10 units negatively on the z-axis(-10). Unless I want move all the objects, then I translate all the objects along the z-axis in +10 units.

In other words, the translation/rotation of the camera is always the inverse of the translation I would do the world. Perhaps I should stop trying to understand this all, without actually having seen all the maths and stuff.

Again, thanks a lot!

Toolmaker