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OpenGL mesa3d buffer uncompatible with jpg & my Baseimage buffer..help!

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i use opengl and mesa3d.org to render the 2d drawing offscreen and get the buffer. again i can successfully save buffer to iSaveJpegdirect by using jpglib but i need to convert the mesa3d offscreen rendered buffer to our own cImage object. and there is uncompatible with mesa3d buffer and our own cImage class(object) buffer. help! please cImage image; image.Create(buffer8,4000,4000,24); iSaveJpeg(image,"C:\\jpgimage.jpg"); << //this one give me blank page (help!) iSaveJpegdirect(buffer8,"C:\\jpgimagedirect.jpg"); << this one is working and get the image i want cImage class can be found in the following link. Download BaseImage.h from Uploading.com Download BaseImage.cpp from Uploading.com ///////////////////// iSaveJpeg & iSaveJpegdirect are here //////////////////////

template <class T> 
bool iSaveJpegdirect(cBaseImage<T>& image,unsigned char* buffersimage,char * filename)
{
	JSAMPLE* image_buffer;	/* Points to large array of R,G,B-order data */
	int image_height;	/* Number of rows in image */
	int image_width;
	image_height = 4000;
	image_width = 4000;
	//image_height = 454;
	//image_width = 367;
image_buffer = buffersimage;

  struct jpeg_compress_struct cinfo;
  struct jpeg_error_mgr jerr;
  FILE * outfile;		/* target file */
  JSAMPROW row_pointer[1];	/* pointer to JSAMPLE row[s] */
  int row_stride;		/* physical row width in image buffer */
  cinfo.err = jpeg_std_error(&jerr);
  jpeg_create_compress(&cinfo);

  if ((outfile = fopen(filename, "wb")) == NULL) {
    fprintf(stderr, "can't open %s\n", filename);
    exit(1);
  }
  jpeg_stdio_dest(&cinfo, outfile);
  cinfo.image_width = image_width; 	/* image width and height, in pixels */
  cinfo.image_height = image_height;
  cinfo.input_components = 3;		/* # of color components per pixel */
  cinfo.in_color_space = JCS_RGB; 	/* colorspace of input image */
  jpeg_set_defaults(&cinfo);
  int quality=200;
  jpeg_set_quality(&cinfo, quality, TRUE /* limit to baseline-JPEG values */);
  jpeg_start_compress(&cinfo, TRUE);
  row_stride = image_width * 3;	/* JSAMPLEs per row in image_buffer */
  while (cinfo.next_scanline < cinfo.image_height) {
    row_pointer[0] = & image_buffer[cinfo.next_scanline * row_stride];
    (void) jpeg_write_scanlines(&cinfo, row_pointer, 1);
  }
  jpeg_finish_compress(&cinfo);
  fclose(outfile);
  jpeg_destroy_compress(&cinfo);
  return true;
}
// It returns true, so that it can be used in ASSERT(Save()) for debugging
template <class T> 
bool iSaveJpeg(cBaseImage<T>& image, const string& imageFile)
{
//	if (imageFile.find(".tif")!=string::npos) return iSaveTiff(image, imageFile);
//	ofstream s(imageFile.c_str(),ios::out|ios::binary);
//	s << image;
//	s.close();
//	return true;
  /* This struct contains the JPEG compression parameters and pointers to
   * working space (which is allocated as needed by the JPEG library).
   * It is possible to have several such structures, representing multiple
   * compression/decompression processes, in existence at once.  We refer
   * to any one struct (and its associated working data) as a "JPEG object".
   */
  struct jpeg_compress_struct cinfo;
  /* This struct represents a JPEG error handler.  It is declared separately
   * because applications often want to supply a specialized error handler
   * (see the second half of this file for an example).  But here we just
   * take the easy way out and use the standard error handler, which will
   * print a message on stderr and call exit() if compression fails.
   * Note that this struct must live as long as the main JPEG parameter
   * struct, to avoid dangling-pointer problems.
   */
  struct jpeg_error_mgr jerr;
  /* More stuff */
  FILE * outfile;		/* target file */
  JSAMPROW row_pointer[1];	/* pointer to JSAMPLE row[s] */
  int row_stride;		/* physical row width in image buffer */

  /* Step 1: allocate and initialize JPEG compression object */

  /* We have to set up the error handler first, in case the initialization
   * step fails.  (Unlikely, but it could happen if you are out of memory.)
   * This routine fills in the contents of struct jerr, and returns jerr's
   * address which we place into the link field in cinfo.
   */
  cinfo.err = jpeg_std_error(&jerr);
  /* Now we can initialize the JPEG compression object. */
  jpeg_create_compress(&cinfo);

  /* Step 2: specify data destination (eg, a file) */
  /* Note: steps 2 and 3 can be done in either order. */

  /* Here we use the library-supplied code to send compressed data to a
   * stdio stream.  You can also write your own code to do something else.
   * VERY IMPORTANT: use "b" option to fopen() if you are on a machine that
   * requires it in order to write binary files.
   */
  if ((outfile = fopen(imageFile.c_str(), "wb")) == NULL) {
//    fprintf(stderr, "can't open %s\n", filename);
//    exit(1);
	  assert(0);
  }
  jpeg_stdio_dest(&cinfo, outfile);

  /* Step 3: set parameters for compression */

  /* First we supply a description of the input image.
   * Four fields of the cinfo struct must be filled in:
   */
  int ncomp = (image.GetBitCount()==24)?3:1;
  cinfo.image_width = image.Width(); 	/* image width and height, in pixels */
  cinfo.image_height = image.Height();
  cinfo.input_components = ncomp;		/* # of color components per pixel */
  cinfo.in_color_space = (ncomp==1)?JCS_GRAYSCALE:JCS_RGB; 	/* colorspace of input image */
  /* Now use the library's routine to set default compression parameters.
   * (You must set at least cinfo.in_color_space before calling this,
   * since the defaults depend on the source color space.)
   */
  jpeg_set_defaults(&cinfo);
  /* Now you can set any non-default parameters you wish to.
   * Here we just illustrate the use of quality (quantization table) scaling:
   */
  jpeg_set_quality(&cinfo, 100, TRUE /* limit to baseline-JPEG values */);

  /* Step 4: Start compressor */

  /* TRUE ensures that we will write a complete interchange-JPEG file.
   * Pass TRUE unless you are very sure of what you're doing.
   */
  jpeg_start_compress(&cinfo, TRUE);

  /* Step 5: while (scan lines remain to be written) */
  /*           jpeg_write_scanlines(...); */

  /* Here we use the library's state variable cinfo.next_scanline as the
   * loop counter, so that we don't have to keep track ourselves.
   * To keep things simple, we pass one scanline per call; you can pass
   * more if you wish, though.
   */
  row_stride = image.Width() * ncomp;	/* JSAMPLEs per row in image_buffer */
  ubyte* line_buffer = new ubyte[row_stride];

  while (cinfo.next_scanline < cinfo.image_height) {
    /* jpeg_write_scanlines expects an array of pointers to scanlines.
     * Here the array is only one element long, but you could pass
     * more than one scanline at a time if that's more convenient.
     */
	ubyte* line = image[cinfo.image_height-1-cinfo.next_scanline].GetBufferPointer();;
	ubyte* ptr = line_buffer;
	for (int x=0; x<ncomp*image.Width(); x+=ncomp, ptr+=ncomp)
	{
		for (int c=0; c<ncomp; c++)
			*(ptr+ncomp-1-c) = line[x+c];
//			*ptr = 255-line[x];
	//	image.GetRGB(line[x], *ptr, *(ptr+1), *(ptr+2));
	}
    row_pointer[0] = line_buffer;
    (void) jpeg_write_scanlines(&cinfo, row_pointer, 1);
  }
  delete [] line_buffer;
  /* Step 6: Finish compression */

  jpeg_finish_compress(&cinfo);
  /* After finish_compress, we can close the output file. */
  fclose(outfile);

  /* Step 7: release JPEG compression object */

  /* This is an important step since it will release a good deal of memory. */
  jpeg_destroy_compress(&cinfo);

  return true;
}

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What makes you think your custom buffer is compatible with the mesa buffer? Some things to check: pixel format, byte ordering and padding/alignment constraints.

Most likely, you will not be able to do a straight-across copy like you seem to be relying on.

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since i'm new to image processing, what you mean by padding and alignment stuff? could you please explain more for me. besides, what does it mean by 32 bit alignment? help!

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Alignment refers to a constraint on the memory location at which the data begins, for example, it might require that the data begin on a WORD or DWORD boundary.

Sometimes this alignment constraint is per line of the image, which means that the data in line N must be padded (usually with 0 by convention, but the bytes are nearly always ignored in practice) such that line N+1 begins at a memory location which also satisfies the alignment constraint. This can be seen in the bitmap file format and Win32 DIBs, IIRC. Sometimes, images are padded out to the next higher power of two, which would be 4096x4096 in your case if true.

Specifically, 32bit alignment means that data must begin at an address that is aligned on a 32bit boundary, or, in layman's terms, the address should end in only 0, 4, 8 or C (hex), any other alignment would produce incorrect results.

Now, 24bit color presents some interesting possibilities -- It does not align naturally with the any single data type, ie it doesn't fill a 32bit int like 32bit ARGB color format would. But it does align on a multiple of of the fundamental data type, byte. The long and the short of all that is that the Mesa color buffers for 24 bit mode might be a triplet of bytes per color, or a 32bit word which leaves 1 byte's worth unused. You'll have to find out what mesa does and compare that to what your own image class expects.

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Line 28 in the mesa code you posted seems to be allocating 4 channels, which means it is including an alpha channel in addition to the R, G and B channels. the 'bits' variable there also seems to be not the bits per pixel, but the pits per channel -- in other words, as best as I can tell, setting it to 32 like you have at the top means its allocating 1 float per channel per pixel, or 16 bytes per pixel -- you commented out setting it to 8, but 8 seems to have been correct, although you still have the additional alpha channel to deal with. You don't seem to be doing any alignment or padding, so that appears unnecessary if this code works on its own.

cBaseImage seems to allocate only 3 bytes per pixel, assuming that WidthBytes() simply divides by 8. It doesn't seem to allocate an alpha channel.

The bottom line is that you can't do a simple bitwise copy of one buffer into the other and expect it to work. As it stands, they are extremely different formats and have a different number of channels. You'll have to loop over each pixel and do the conversion or make cBaseImage's internal format such that it matches Mesa's internal format.

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i changed the format of mesa3d buffer to be compatible with buffer that cBaseImage accepts. but still it doesnt seem to be working out.
My last question is what is the use of SetPalette() and GetPalette for? they also accepts ubyte*(unsigned char)..thx

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GLint bits=8;
const char *filename ="C:\\image81.ppm";
// const GLint z = 32;
const GLint z = 8;
const GLint stencil = 0;
const GLint accum = 0;
OSMesaContext ctx;
void *buffer;
GLint cBits;
assert(bits == 8 ||
bits == 16 ||
bits == 32);
assert(type == GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE ||
type == GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT ||
type == GL_FLOAT);
ctx = OSMesaCreateContextExt(OSMESA_RGB, z, stencil, accum, NULL );
buffer = malloc(WIDTH*HEIGHT*3*bits/8);
if (!OSMesaMakeCurrent( ctx, buffer, type, WIDTH, HEIGHT )) {

}
rendering comes here

GLubyte *buffer8 = (GLubyte *) buffer;

image1.Create(4000,4000,8);
image1.CreatePalette(256);
//image1.InitGrayPalette(256);
image1.SetPalette(buffer8,4000*4000*8);
//image1.InitGrayPalette();
//image1.Init8BitColorPalette();
iSaveJpeg(image1,"C:\\testing.jpg");
i tried above code and can't successfully save to jpg.
the internal format of mesa3d and cBaseImage is now compatible i suppose.
please help

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      As it was mentioned earlier, Diligent Engine follows next-gen APIs to configure the graphics/compute pipeline. One big Pipelines State Object (PSO) encompasses all required states (all shader stages, input layout description, depth stencil, rasterizer and blend state descriptions etc.). This approach maps directly to Direct3D12/Vulkan, but is also beneficial for older APIs as it eliminates pipeline misconfiguration errors. With many individual calls tweaking various GPU pipeline settings it is very easy to forget to set one of the states or assume the stage is already properly configured when in fact it is not. Using pipeline state object helps avoid these problems as all stages are configured at once.
      Creating Shaders
      While in earlier APIs shaders were bound separately, in the next-generation APIs as well as in Diligent Engine shaders are part of the pipeline state object. The biggest challenge when authoring shaders is that Direct3D and OpenGL/Vulkan use different shader languages (while Apple uses yet another language in their Metal API). Maintaining two versions of every shader is not an option for real applications and Diligent Engine implements shader source code converter that allows shaders authored in HLSL to be translated to GLSL. To create a shader, one needs to populate ShaderCreationAttribs structure. SourceLanguage member of this structure tells the system which language the shader is authored in:
      SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_DEFAULT - The shader source language matches the underlying graphics API: HLSL for Direct3D11/Direct3D12 mode, and GLSL for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL - The shader source is in HLSL. For OpenGL and OpenGLES modes, the source code will be converted to GLSL. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_GLSL - The shader source is in GLSL. There is currently no GLSL to HLSL converter, so this value should only be used for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. There are two ways to provide the shader source code. The first way is to use Source member. The second way is to provide a file path in FilePath member. Since the engine is entirely decoupled from the platform and the host file system is platform-dependent, the structure exposes pShaderSourceStreamFactory member that is intended to provide the engine access to the file system. If FilePath is provided, shader source factory must also be provided. If the shader source contains any #include directives, the source stream factory will also be used to load these files. The engine provides default implementation for every supported platform that should be sufficient in most cases. Custom implementation can be provided when needed.
      When sampling a texture in a shader, the texture sampler was traditionally specified as separate object that was bound to the pipeline at run time or set as part of the texture object itself. However, in most cases it is known beforehand what kind of sampler will be used in the shader. Next-generation APIs expose new type of sampler called static sampler that can be initialized directly in the pipeline state. Diligent Engine exposes this functionality: when creating a shader, textures can be assigned static samplers. If static sampler is assigned, it will always be used instead of the one initialized in the texture shader resource view. To initialize static samplers, prepare an array of StaticSamplerDesc structures and initialize StaticSamplers and NumStaticSamplers members. Static samplers are more efficient and it is highly recommended to use them whenever possible. On older APIs, static samplers are emulated via generic sampler objects.
      The following is an example of shader initialization:
      ShaderCreationAttribs Attrs; Attrs.Desc.Name = "MyPixelShader"; Attrs.FilePath = "MyShaderFile.fx"; Attrs.SearchDirectories = "shaders;shaders\\inc;"; Attrs.EntryPoint = "MyPixelShader"; Attrs.Desc.ShaderType = SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL; Attrs.SourceLanguage = SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL; BasicShaderSourceStreamFactory BasicSSSFactory(Attrs.SearchDirectories); Attrs.pShaderSourceStreamFactory = &BasicSSSFactory; ShaderVariableDesc ShaderVars[] = {     {"g_StaticTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC},     {"g_MutableTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE},     {"g_DynamicTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC} }; Attrs.Desc.VariableDesc = ShaderVars; Attrs.Desc.NumVariables = _countof(ShaderVars); Attrs.Desc.DefaultVariableType = SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC; StaticSamplerDesc StaticSampler; StaticSampler.Desc.MinFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.Desc.MagFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.Desc.MipFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.TextureName = "g_MutableTexture"; Attrs.Desc.NumStaticSamplers = 1; Attrs.Desc.StaticSamplers = &StaticSampler; ShaderMacroHelper Macros; Macros.AddShaderMacro("USE_SHADOWS", 1); Macros.AddShaderMacro("NUM_SHADOW_SAMPLES", 4); Macros.Finalize(); Attrs.Macros = Macros; RefCntAutoPtr<IShader> pShader; m_pDevice->CreateShader( Attrs, &pShader );
      Creating the Pipeline State Object
      After all required shaders are created, the rest of the fields of the PipelineStateDesc structure provide depth-stencil, rasterizer, and blend state descriptions, the number and format of render targets, input layout format, etc. For instance, rasterizer state can be described as follows:
      PipelineStateDesc PSODesc; RasterizerStateDesc &RasterizerDesc = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.RasterizerDesc; RasterizerDesc.FillMode = FILL_MODE_SOLID; RasterizerDesc.CullMode = CULL_MODE_NONE; RasterizerDesc.FrontCounterClockwise = True; RasterizerDesc.ScissorEnable = True; RasterizerDesc.AntialiasedLineEnable = False; Depth-stencil and blend states are defined in a similar fashion.
      Another important thing that pipeline state object encompasses is the input layout description that defines how inputs to the vertex shader, which is the very first shader stage, should be read from the memory. Input layout may define several vertex streams that contain values of different formats and sizes:
      // Define input layout InputLayoutDesc &Layout = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.InputLayout; LayoutElement TextLayoutElems[] = {     LayoutElement( 0, 0, 3, VT_FLOAT32, False ),     LayoutElement( 1, 0, 4, VT_UINT8, True ),     LayoutElement( 2, 0, 2, VT_FLOAT32, False ), }; Layout.LayoutElements = TextLayoutElems; Layout.NumElements = _countof( TextLayoutElems ); Finally, pipeline state defines primitive topology type. When all required members are initialized, a pipeline state object can be created by IRenderDevice::CreatePipelineState() method:
      // Define shader and primitive topology PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.PrimitiveTopologyType = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TYPE_TRIANGLE; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pVS = pVertexShader; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pPS = pPixelShader; PSODesc.Name = "My pipeline state"; m_pDev->CreatePipelineState(PSODesc, &m_pPSO); When PSO object is bound to the pipeline, the engine invokes all API-specific commands to set all states specified by the object. In case of Direct3D12 this maps directly to setting the D3D12 PSO object. In case of Direct3D11, this involves setting individual state objects (such as rasterizer and blend states), shaders, input layout etc. In case of OpenGL, this requires a number of fine-grain state tweaking calls. Diligent Engine keeps track of currently bound states and only calls functions to update these states that have actually changed.
      Binding Shader Resources
      Direct3D11 and OpenGL utilize fine-grain resource binding models, where an application binds individual buffers and textures to certain shader or program resource binding slots. Direct3D12 uses a very different approach, where resource descriptors are grouped into tables, and an application can bind all resources in the table at once by setting the table in the command list. Resource binding model in Diligent Engine is designed to leverage this new method. It introduces a new object called shader resource binding that encapsulates all resource bindings required for all shaders in a certain pipeline state. It also introduces the classification of shader variables based on the frequency of expected change that helps the engine group them into tables under the hood:
      Static variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC) are variables that are expected to be set only once. They may not be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. Such variables are intended to hold global constants such as camera attributes or global light attributes constant buffers. Mutable variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE) define resources that are expected to change on a per-material frequency. Examples may include diffuse textures, normal maps etc. Dynamic variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC) are expected to change frequently and randomly. Shader variable type must be specified during shader creation by populating an array of ShaderVariableDesc structures and initializing ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::VariableDesc and ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::NumVariables members (see example of shader creation above).
      Static variables cannot be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. They are bound directly to the shader object. For instance, a shadow map texture is not expected to change after it is created, so it can be bound directly to the shader:
      PixelShader->GetShaderVariable( "g_tex2DShadowMap" )->Set( pShadowMapSRV ); Mutable and dynamic variables are bound via a new Shader Resource Binding object (SRB) that is created by the pipeline state (IPipelineState::CreateShaderResourceBinding()):
      m_pPSO->CreateShaderResourceBinding(&m_pSRB); Note that an SRB is only compatible with the pipeline state it was created from. SRB object inherits all static bindings from shaders in the pipeline, but is not allowed to change them.
      Mutable resources can only be set once for every instance of a shader resource binding. Such resources are intended to define specific material properties. For instance, a diffuse texture for a specific material is not expected to change once the material is defined and can be set right after the SRB object has been created:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL, "tex2DDiffuse")->Set(pDiffuseTexSRV); In some cases it is necessary to bind a new resource to a variable every time a draw command is invoked. Such variables should be labeled as dynamic, which will allow setting them multiple times through the same SRB object:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_VERTEX, "cbRandomAttribs")->Set(pRandomAttrsCB); Under the hood, the engine pre-allocates descriptor tables for static and mutable resources when an SRB objcet is created. Space for dynamic resources is dynamically allocated at run time. Static and mutable resources are thus more efficient and should be used whenever possible.
      As you can see, Diligent Engine does not expose low-level details of how resources are bound to shader variables. One reason for this is that these details are very different for various APIs. The other reason is that using low-level binding methods is extremely error-prone: it is very easy to forget to bind some resource, or bind incorrect resource such as bind a buffer to the variable that is in fact a texture, especially during shader development when everything changes fast. Diligent Engine instead relies on shader reflection system to automatically query the list of all shader variables. Grouping variables based on three types mentioned above allows the engine to create optimized layout and take heavy lifting of matching resources to API-specific resource location, register or descriptor in the table.
      This post gives more details about the resource binding model in Diligent Engine.
      Setting the Pipeline State and Committing Shader Resources
      Before any draw or compute command can be invoked, the pipeline state needs to be bound to the context:
      m_pContext->SetPipelineState(m_pPSO); Under the hood, the engine sets the internal PSO object in the command list or calls all the required native API functions to properly configure all pipeline stages.
      The next step is to bind all required shader resources to the GPU pipeline, which is accomplished by IDeviceContext::CommitShaderResources() method:
      m_pContext->CommitShaderResources(m_pSRB, COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES); The method takes a pointer to the shader resource binding object and makes all resources the object holds available for the shaders. In the case of D3D12, this only requires setting appropriate descriptor tables in the command list. For older APIs, this typically requires setting all resources individually.
      Next-generation APIs require the application to track the state of every resource and explicitly inform the system about all state transitions. For instance, if a texture was used as render target before, while the next draw command is going to use it as shader resource, a transition barrier needs to be executed. Diligent Engine does the heavy lifting of state tracking.  When CommitShaderResources() method is called with COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES flag, the engine commits and transitions resources to correct states at the same time. Note that transitioning resources does introduce some overhead. The engine tracks state of every resource and it will not issue the barrier if the state is already correct. But checking resource state is an overhead that can sometimes be avoided. The engine provides IDeviceContext::TransitionShaderResources() method that only transitions resources:
      m_pContext->TransitionShaderResources(m_pPSO, m_pSRB); In some scenarios it is more efficient to transition resources once and then only commit them.
      Invoking Draw Command
      The final step is to set states that are not part of the PSO, such as render targets, vertex and index buffers. Diligent Engine uses Direct3D11-syle API that is translated to other native API calls under the hood:
      ITextureView *pRTVs[] = {m_pRTV}; m_pContext->SetRenderTargets(_countof( pRTVs ), pRTVs, m_pDSV); // Clear render target and depth buffer const float zero[4] = {0, 0, 0, 0}; m_pContext->ClearRenderTarget(nullptr, zero); m_pContext->ClearDepthStencil(nullptr, CLEAR_DEPTH_FLAG, 1.f); // Set vertex and index buffers IBuffer *buffer[] = {m_pVertexBuffer}; Uint32 offsets[] = {0}; Uint32 strides[] = {sizeof(MyVertex)}; m_pContext->SetVertexBuffers(0, 1, buffer, strides, offsets, SET_VERTEX_BUFFERS_FLAG_RESET); m_pContext->SetIndexBuffer(m_pIndexBuffer, 0); Different native APIs use various set of function to execute draw commands depending on command details (if the command is indexed, instanced or both, what offsets in the source buffers are used etc.). For instance, there are 5 draw commands in Direct3D11 and more than 9 commands in OpenGL with something like glDrawElementsInstancedBaseVertexBaseInstance not uncommon. Diligent Engine hides all details with single IDeviceContext::Draw() method that takes takes DrawAttribs structure as an argument. The structure members define all attributes required to perform the command (primitive topology, number of vertices or indices, if draw call is indexed or not, if draw call is instanced or not, if draw call is indirect or not, etc.). For example:
      DrawAttribs attrs; attrs.IsIndexed = true; attrs.IndexType = VT_UINT16; attrs.NumIndices = 36; attrs.Topology = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLE_LIST; pContext->Draw(attrs); For compute commands, there is IDeviceContext::DispatchCompute() method that takes DispatchComputeAttribs structure that defines compute grid dimension.
      Source Code
      Full engine source code is available on GitHub and is free to use. The repository contains two samples, asteroids performance benchmark and example Unity project that uses Diligent Engine in native plugin.
      AntTweakBar sample is Diligent Engine’s “Hello World” example.

       
      Atmospheric scattering sample is a more advanced example. It demonstrates how Diligent Engine can be used to implement various rendering tasks: loading textures from files, using complex shaders, rendering to multiple render targets, using compute shaders and unordered access views, etc.

      Asteroids performance benchmark is based on this demo developed by Intel. It renders 50,000 unique textured asteroids and allows comparing performance of Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 implementations. Every asteroid is a combination of one of 1000 unique meshes and one of 10 unique textures.

      Finally, there is an example project that shows how Diligent Engine can be integrated with Unity.

      Future Work
      The engine is under active development. It currently supports Windows desktop, Universal Windows and Android platforms. Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES backends are now feature complete. Vulkan backend is coming next, and support for more platforms is planned.
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