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d h k

OpenGL Weird overall problems when using D3D9 in plugin... [SOLVED]

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Okay, this is going to be a little hard to explain but please bear with me, I'm pretty clueless right now. I'm an OpenGL user but for this project I'm forced to deal with Direct3d, so consider me a newbie... First of all, I'm looking at the D3D9 tutorials here. When I compile the code from the lessons there in a fresh project with MSVC++ 2008 Express Edition, everything's working fine. However, I need to use d3d9 in a slightly different environment now, as a C++ plugin (DLL) running in another game-maker styled application. That host application is using d3d9 to render and it's technically possible to get the d3d device and render own stuff but for some reason I get very weird problems that I can't seem to solve. First of all, z buffering doesn't work (although this probably has to do with the host application and I'm working this one it myself at the moment, it's a known problem). But textures from .x files don't show up correctly (it is loading the textures but the u-/v-coordinates seem wrong, totally stretched or something - I know it's not the model's fault because it works fine as a standard d3d9 application and in the viewer) and lighting doesn't want to work either (at all), without textures its pure black with textures it seems fullbright. That I don't understand. It doesn't seem like the fact that this is a plugin could cause these problems, could it? Here's some code:
void Init ( IDirect3DDevice9 *d3ddev )
{
	// INIT GRAPHICS

	LPD3DXBUFFER bufShipMaterial;

    D3DXLoadMeshFromX("airplane 2.x",    // load this file
                      D3DXMESH_SYSTEMMEM,    // load the mesh into system memory
                      d3ddev,    // the Direct3D Device
                      NULL,    // we aren't using adjacency
                      &bufShipMaterial,    // put the materials here
                      NULL,    // we aren't using effect instances
                      &numMaterials,    // the number of materials in this model
                      &meshSpaceship);    // put the mesh here

    // retrieve the pointer to the buffer containing the material information
    D3DXMATERIAL* tempMaterials = (D3DXMATERIAL*)bufShipMaterial->GetBufferPointer();

    // create a new material buffer and texture for each material in the mesh
    material = new D3DMATERIAL9[numMaterials];
    texture = new LPDIRECT3DTEXTURE9[numMaterials];

    for(DWORD i = 0; i < numMaterials; i++)    // for each material...
    {
        material[i] = tempMaterials[i].MatD3D;    // get the material info
        material[i].Ambient = material[i].Diffuse;    // make ambient the same as diffuse
        // if there is a texture to load, load it
        if(FAILED(D3DXCreateTextureFromFileA(d3ddev,
                                             tempMaterials[i].pTextureFilename,
                                             &texture[i])))
        texture[i] = NULL;    // if there is no texture, set the texture to NULL
      }


	// INIT LIGHT

	D3DLIGHT9 light;    // create the light struct

    ZeroMemory(&light, sizeof(light));    // clear out the struct for use
    light.Type = D3DLIGHT_DIRECTIONAL;    // make the light type 'directional light'
    light.Diffuse.r = 0.5f;    // .5 red
    light.Diffuse.g = 0.5f;    // .5 green
    light.Diffuse.b = 0.5f;    // .5 blue
    light.Diffuse.a = 1.0f;    // full alpha (we'll get to that soon)

    D3DVECTOR vecDirection = {-1.0f, -0.3f, -1.0f};    // the direction of the light
    light.Direction = vecDirection;    // set the direction

    d3ddev->SetLight(0, &light);    // send the light struct properties to light #0
    d3ddev->LightEnable(0, TRUE);    // turn on light #0


	// INIT MISC

	d3ddev->SetRenderState(D3DRS_LIGHTING, TRUE);    // turn on the 3D lighting
    d3ddev->SetRenderState(D3DRS_ZENABLE, TRUE );
    d3ddev->SetRenderState(D3DRS_AMBIENT, D3DCOLOR_XRGB(50, 50, 50));    // ambient light
}

void Render ( IDirect3DDevice9 *d3ddev )
{
	d3ddev->Clear(0,NULL,D3DCLEAR_TARGET,D3DCOLOR_XRGB(0,0,128),1.0f,0);
	d3ddev->Clear(0,NULL,D3DCLEAR_ZBUFFER,D3DCOLOR_XRGB(0,0,0),1.0f,0);

    d3ddev->BeginScene();

    // SET UP THE TRANSFORMS

    D3DXMATRIX matView;    // the view transform matrix
    D3DXMatrixLookAtLH(&matView,
    &D3DXVECTOR3 (0.0f, 8.0f, 16.0f),    // the camera position
    &D3DXVECTOR3 (0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f),    // the look-at position
    &D3DXVECTOR3 (0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f));    // the up direction
    d3ddev->SetTransform(D3DTS_VIEW, &matView);    // set the view transform to matView

    D3DXMATRIX matProjection;    // the projection transform matrix
    D3DXMatrixPerspectiveFovLH(&matProjection,
                               D3DXToRadian(60),    // the horizontal field of view
                               SCREEN_WIDTH / SCREEN_HEIGHT,    // the aspect ratio
                               1.0f,    // the near view-plane
                               100.0f);    // the far view-plane
    d3ddev->SetTransform(D3DTS_PROJECTION, &matProjection);    // set the projection

    static float index = 0.0f; index+=0.03f;    // an ever-increasing float value
    D3DXMATRIX matRotateY;    // a matrix to store the rotation for each triangle
    D3DXMatrixRotationY(&matRotateY, index);    // the rotation matrix
    d3ddev->SetTransform(D3DTS_WORLD, &(matRotateY));    // set the world transform

      // draw the spaceship
    for(DWORD i = 0; i < numMaterials; i++)    // loop through each subset
    {
        d3ddev->SetMaterial(&material[i]);    // set the material for the subset
        if(texture[i] != NULL)    // if the subset has a texture (if texture is not NULL)
            d3ddev->SetTexture(0, texture[i]);    // ...then set the texture

        meshSpaceship->DrawSubset(i);    // draw the subset
    }

    d3ddev->EndScene(); 

    d3ddev->Present(NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL);
}





Init ( ) and Render ( ) are called at appropriate times. Meaning, the very first frame that the game runs, first Init ( ) and then Render ( ) get called, then every following frame only Render ( ). I realize that this is really, really ugly code (and I hate nothing more than that) but this is not the point right now, I'm working on a proof-of-concept right now, cleaning up comes later. The thing is, in the plugin I only have access to the d3d_device every frame when rendering and not much else (meaning, I don't have access to the CreateDevice ( ) call for example and I don't know what exactly it looks like). Of course you probably won't be able to help me much as I can't talk about or show the host application etc., I'm just hoping that maybe some d3d guru could maybe have a hunch as to what *could* possibly be wrong, maybe there's some common mistake that could explain the texture or the lighting trouble. Please let me know, if you need even more code or if it's just impossible to judge for you guys what's wrong, that's no problem. Thanks ahead of time. [Edited by - d h k on July 25, 2009 9:14:44 AM]

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I really dislike that particular site for tutorials, since it teaches some pretty bad habits, and things that are just plain wrong. Having said that, I don't really know of any better alternatives...

First, do the Debug runtimes have anything relevant to say?

For the texture problem - are the textures a power of 2 in width and height? D3DXCreateTextureFromFile() will resize textures if they're not a power of two, which could cause artifacts.

For the Z-buffer problem - how do you set up your present parameters when you create the device?

It may be worth creating a state block, and applying it every time you render; that way you can be sure the device is in the correct state for rendering each time.

For lighting; do you know if the model has normals in it? You can check if meshSpaceship->GetFVF() includes the D3DFVF_NORMAL flag.

Why are you loading the mesh into system memory? I was under the impression that you couldn't render meshes loaded into system memory, and you should be using D3DXMESH_MANAGED instead.

Also, you can clear your z-buffer and backbuffer in one go with:
d3ddev->Clear(0, NULL, D3DCLEAR_ZBUFFER | D3DCLEAR_TARGET, D3DCOLOR_XRGB(0,0,128), 1.0f, 0);

EDIT: Also, do these problems exist if you put the above code into the main app rather than a plugin (If that's possible, and I don't think it should make any difference)?

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Thanks for the quick answer!

Quote:
Original post by Evil Steve
First, do the Debug runtimes have anything relevant to say?


That's interesting but how would I use those when I don't run the project from VC but rather just create the DLL, cut it, overwrite the older version in the host application's directory and then run that host app (not mine, don't have the source). I wouldn't have the VC console for it to write stuff to or can they also output to a textfile for example?

Quote:
Original post by Evil Steve
For the texture problem - are the textures a power of 2 in width and height? D3DXCreateTextureFromFile() will resize textures if they're not a power of two, which could cause artifacts.


Yep, the model is the one from the textured mesh lesson on that site, it uses two textures and they're 128x128 and 256x256.

Quote:
Original post by Evil Steve
For the Z-buffer problem - how do you set up your present parameters when you create the device?


The host application allows a plugin to retrieve the present parameters and make changes. I do it like this:


void OnInitGFX ( const char* driverID, void *data )
{
D3DPRESENT_PARAMETERS *d3dpp = (D3DPRESENT_PARAMETERS *) data;

d3dpp->EnableAutoDepthStencil = TRUE;
d3dpp->AutoDepthStencilFormat = D3DFMT_D16;
}




The above function gets called correctly by the host application on init, the driverID really is D3D9 and in that case data is a pointer to the present parameters. I then try to enable the z buffer as I read you should. Using D3DFMT_D32 doesn't help either.

Quote:
Original post by Evil Steve
For lighting; do you know if the model has normals in it? You can check if meshSpaceship->GetFVF() includes the D3DFVF_NORMAL flag.


I'm sure it has normals because the D3D .x viewer shows them and, as I said, in a normal d3d9 application it all works with lighting and the same code.

Quote:
Original post by Evil Steve
Why are you loading the mesh into system memory? I was under the impression that you couldn't render meshes loaded into system memory, and you should be using D3DXMESH_MANAGED instead.


Did it because the lesson said so, unfortunately changing yielded no difference.


Quote:
Original post by Evil Steve
Also, you can clear your z-buffer and backbuffer in one go with:
d3ddev->Clear(0, NULL, D3DCLEAR_ZBUFFER | D3DCLEAR_TARGET, D3DCOLOR_XRGB(0,0,128), 1.0f, 0);


Changed that, thanks! :)

Quote:
Original post by Evil Steve
EDIT: Also, do these problems exist if you put the above code into the main app rather than a plugin (If that's possible, and I don't think it should make any difference)?


What do you mean with main app in this case, the host app that runs my plugin? It's not mine and I don't have the source. If I put the code into a new standalone simple D3D9 win32 app it works perfectly fine.

Thanks so far!!

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Quote:
Original post by d h k
That's interesting but how would I use those when I don't run the project from VC but rather just create the DLL, cut it, overwrite the older version in the host application's directory and then run that host app (not mine, don't have the source). I wouldn't have the VC console for it to write stuff to or can they also output to a textfile for example?


You can simply attach the debugger to the running process. (Debug => Attach). I can't say if it works for the debug output of DirectX, but I'm guessing it does.

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Quote:
Original post by d h k
That's interesting but how would I use those when I don't run the project from VC but rather just create the DLL, cut it, overwrite the older version in the host application's directory and then run that host app (not mine, don't have the source). I wouldn't have the VC console for it to write stuff to or can they also output to a textfile for example?
You can run DebugView to capture system-wide debug output, which will show what they're reporting.

Quote:
Original post by d h k
Yep, the model is the one from the textured mesh lesson on that site, it uses two textures and they're 128x128 and 256x256.
Hmm, I'm not really sure what the problem would be then - any chance of seeing a screenshot?

Quote:
Original post by d h k
The host application allows a plugin to retrieve the present parameters and make changes. I do it like this:

[snip]

The above function gets called correctly by the host application on init, the driverID really is D3D9 and in that case data is a pointer to the present parameters. I then try to enable the z buffer as I read you should. Using D3DFMT_D32 doesn't help either.
Very few cards support D3DFMT_D32 actually, D3DFMT_D24X8 is a lot more common. Quite a few cards also require that the Z-buffer bit depth matches the backbuffer bit depth, so if you have a 32-bit backbuffer, you'll probably want a 32-bit Z-buffer (Or 24-bit with 8 bits unused). The debug runtimes will let you know if this is a problem, or you can call IDirect3D9::CheckDeviceFormat and IDirect3D9::CheckDepthStencilMatch to see if the format is valid.

Quote:
Original post by d h k
Quote:
Original post by Evil Steve
Why are you loading the mesh into system memory? I was under the impression that you couldn't render meshes loaded into system memory, and you should be using D3DXMESH_MANAGED instead.


Did it because the lesson said so, unfortunately changing yielded no difference.
Ah, it's quite possible that I'm wrong and system memory meshes work fine [smile]

Quote:
Original post by d h k
Quote:
Original post by Evil Steve
EDIT: Also, do these problems exist if you put the above code into the main app rather than a plugin (If that's possible, and I don't think it should make any difference)?


What do you mean with main app in this case, the host app that runs my plugin? It's not mine and I don't have the source. If I put the code into a new standalone simple D3D9 win32 app it works perfectly fine.
Yeah, unfortunately I meant in the host app. If it works fine in another "clean" app, then I'd guess it's some state that the host app is setting, or some change to the present parameters that it makes (Although that's less likely to affect anything).

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Okay, running the debug libraries and debug view now:

I have two memory leaks (not surprising), gonna fix those now but I guess they can't be the cause for these problems, right?

It gives me two "D3DX: Invalid file name for the textures" too, which is weird because as you can see, they do shine through. Any ideas?


Left is what I get, right is the same model in a standalone d3d9 app...

Changed both the backbuffer and the zbuffer to 24x8, no changes though. I'm running an NVidia GTX 260 by the way.

Quote:
Original post by Evil Steve
Yeah, unfortunately I meant in the host app. If it works fine in another "clean" app, then I'd guess it's some state that the host app is setting, or some change to the present parameters that it makes (Although that's less likely to affect anything).


That's exactly what I think. Any ideas as to what setting it is that could be causing all this?

Thangs again, great support!

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Bumping this one final time, if no more feedback comes I guess there's nothing you can do to help me with this (I understand that of course).

I think the textures might be wrong in the sense that they only seem to use the top portion of the texture ie. the body of the plane is red because the front propeller is etc. I'm not sure and I don't have any proof but it looks like that.

Now, what in the world could cause this? What does the host app do to make this happen in plugin code. I'm totally out of ideas.

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My guess would be you're having a pathing problem. The paths to textures in .x files are generally written as relative paths, from the location of the actual .x file. If you are loading with that path, but your working directory is a different path (the host program's path, for instance), that could cause you to not find the textures.

imo, the textures aren't being stretched, rather you are getting some kind of default material color or something from the x file.

I'd suggest checking to see what your current working directory is from the plugin code, and seeing how that compares to the path you are getting from tempMaterials[i].pTextureFileName. You may need to just do some path manipulation on that filename.

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With the strange output you are getting, does it look like one of the texture is applied and not the other one? I would think that you could use PIX to inspect that state of each of the textures and vertex/index data before and after rendering. Just take a single frame grab and inspect all of the draw calls. (I'm pretty sure you can use PIX even if your rendering code is in a dll...)

Perhaps that will give you a clue about what is wrong, then if you still can't figure it out you could post the PIX file here to see if anyone can help.

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That's a good thought there. I'm now using this:


for(DWORD i = 0; i < numMaterials; i++) // for each material...
{
MessageBox ( NULL, tempMaterials[i].pTextureFilename, "Texture filename", NULL );

material[i] = tempMaterials[i].MatD3D; // get the material info
material[i].Ambient = material[i].Diffuse; // make ambient the same as diffuse
// if there is a texture to load, load it
if(FAILED(D3DXCreateTextureFromFileA(d3ddev,
tempMaterials[i].pTextureFilename,
&texture[i])))
texture[i] = NULL; // if there is no texture, set the texture to NULL
}


And when I run the host app, it now shows a messagebox 5 or 6 times (numMaterials) with twice just "bihull.bmp" and then "wings.bmp" and also twice it's empty, I suppose that these are subsets of the model without texture. In these two empty cases I get the two "invalid filename" errors in DebugView. So it does find the textures fine and it can't be a pathing problem. Also, it finds the model just fine and everywhere where there's the model, there's also the two textures, I double checked that. Additionally, I'm pretty sure I see the shading of the wood even in my weird version, that couldn't be a standard material?

JasonZ, I have uploaded the PIX file here, I can't quite make much out of it but I see the two textures in there, I think, so it does load them.

Thanks a ton so far, I hope we can crack this nut! :)

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Okay, again a final bump, if nothing new comes in I'm gonna leave it at that.

BUT, new insight, I'm now loading a test texture, discarding the textures loaded from the .x and instead loading a debug texture that looks like this:



And check how the model renders now:



So it seems my initial impression of it only taking the top portion of the texture was correct.

Now the question is pretty much: any ideas as to what a user could possibly do to a d3d device/environment for it to do this to textures? What can I do against that?

As I said, I'm not sure as to how much you guys can help me with this (of course I also tried contacting the author of the host app etc., no answers yet tho) but maybe somebody here has had a similar experience or is able to read something out of the PIX report or whatever.

Thanks.


EDIT: Okay, the texture seems solved now, must've been something with the model that I can't explain. I'm now testing with the tiny.x sample from the SDK and its single .dds texture and it's working just fine. What's left is zbuffering though...

[Edited by - d h k on July 24, 2009 4:56:57 PM]

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Ack! I checked out the PIX file, and it is using fixed function texture stage states! Unfortunately I haven't touched those in many years, so I can't offer help. However, from my memory it is pretty easy to mess up the states and get a completely different result than you are expecting. One possibility is that someone enables alpha blending, making the object seem like it is rendered in the wrong order? I see both diffuse and alpha stage states being set in there...

Perhaps someone more recently versed in the fixed function could chime in?

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If I understand correctly, you're using a D3D9 devices handed to you from another app. In this case you can't rely on default settings, which my guess is that you do.

For example, it's possible that your model is using texture coords outside the [0,1] range (perhaps by mistake), and since the default texture addressing mode is WRAP, it works, but the device you're getting might have set them to CLAMP. Similarly, the device might have disabled Z (or, worse, not created one, in which case you might have to do it yourself).

I haven't looked at the PIX file, but you can check the state of the device there. Open the device object and look at it on the relevant drawing call. Compare to a capture of your program with a device you created yourself.

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Ah, okay, that makes perfect sense. Let's forget about the textures now as they work and I guess if I plugged that other airplane model in and checked all the settings (such as whether WRAP is enabled or not), I'd get it to work too. As I said, I now have a model that's textured perfectly fine.

The last thing that I need to work is the z buffer. You are right, ET3D, the host app does definitely NOT create a z buffer, I need to do that in my plugin. The problem is: I thought I'm doing that, I modify the present parameters (EnableAutoDepthStencil to TRUE and set AutoDepthStencilFormat), use the SetRenderState function to enable z buffering and clear it at the beginning of every frame. That's all I can find for z buffers in D3D9, is there more to it?

This is probably a really easy question now, so if this is easy to do and solve then I finally have everything in there I need, already you've all been really helpful, thanks!!

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Are you actually setting the depth buffer in the device:

IDirect3DDevice9::SetDepthStencilSurface

You would need to do this prior to enabling the depth buffering, but should only have to do it once (unless the remainder of your application sets NULL in its spot instead...).

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Quote:
Original post by d h k
And that did the trick. Wow, major thanks to everybody for helping me out a lot and not getting frustrating with me and my D3D noobieness... :)

Everyone starts somewhere - welcome to the club!

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      I'm trying to learn OpenGL through a website and have proceeded until this page of it. The output is a simple triangle. The problem is the complexity.
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      #include <glad/glad.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include <C:\Users\Abbasi\Desktop\std_lib_facilities_4.h> using namespace std; //****************************************************************************** void framebuffer_size_callback(GLFWwindow* window, int width, int height); void processInput(GLFWwindow *window); // settings const unsigned int SCR_WIDTH = 800; const unsigned int SCR_HEIGHT = 600; const char *vertexShaderSource = "#version 330 core\n" "layout (location = 0) in vec3 aPos;\n" "void main()\n" "{\n" " gl_Position = vec4(aPos.x, aPos.y, aPos.z, 1.0);\n" "}\0"; const char *fragmentShaderSource = "#version 330 core\n" "out vec4 FragColor;\n" "void main()\n" "{\n" " FragColor = vec4(1.0f, 0.5f, 0.2f, 1.0f);\n" "}\n\0"; //******************************* int main() { // glfw: initialize and configure // ------------------------------ glfwInit(); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MAJOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MINOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_PROFILE, GLFW_OPENGL_CORE_PROFILE); // glfw window creation GLFWwindow* window = glfwCreateWindow(SCR_WIDTH, SCR_HEIGHT, "My First Triangle", nullptr, nullptr); if (window == nullptr) { cout << "Failed to create GLFW window" << endl; glfwTerminate(); return -1; } glfwMakeContextCurrent(window); glfwSetFramebufferSizeCallback(window, framebuffer_size_callback); // glad: load all OpenGL function pointers if (!gladLoadGLLoader((GLADloadproc)glfwGetProcAddress)) { cout << "Failed to initialize GLAD" << endl; return -1; } // build and compile our shader program // vertex shader int vertexShader = glCreateShader(GL_VERTEX_SHADER); glShaderSource(vertexShader, 1, &vertexShaderSource, nullptr); glCompileShader(vertexShader); // check for shader compile errors int success; char infoLog[512]; glGetShaderiv(vertexShader, GL_COMPILE_STATUS, &success); if (!success) { glGetShaderInfoLog(vertexShader, 512, nullptr, infoLog); cout << "ERROR::SHADER::VERTEX::COMPILATION_FAILED\n" << infoLog << endl; } // fragment shader int fragmentShader = glCreateShader(GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER); glShaderSource(fragmentShader, 1, &fragmentShaderSource, nullptr); glCompileShader(fragmentShader); // check for shader compile errors glGetShaderiv(fragmentShader, GL_COMPILE_STATUS, &success); if (!success) { glGetShaderInfoLog(fragmentShader, 512, nullptr, infoLog); cout << "ERROR::SHADER::FRAGMENT::COMPILATION_FAILED\n" << infoLog << endl; } // link shaders int shaderProgram = glCreateProgram(); glAttachShader(shaderProgram, vertexShader); glAttachShader(shaderProgram, fragmentShader); glLinkProgram(shaderProgram); // check for linking errors glGetProgramiv(shaderProgram, GL_LINK_STATUS, &success); if (!success) { glGetProgramInfoLog(shaderProgram, 512, nullptr, infoLog); cout << "ERROR::SHADER::PROGRAM::LINKING_FAILED\n" << infoLog << endl; } glDeleteShader(vertexShader); glDeleteShader(fragmentShader); // set up vertex data (and buffer(s)) and configure vertex attributes float vertices[] = { -0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f, // left 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f, // right 0.0f, 0.5f, 0.0f // top }; unsigned int VBO, VAO; glGenVertexArrays(1, &VAO); glGenBuffers(1, &VBO); // bind the Vertex Array Object first, then bind and set vertex buffer(s), //and then configure vertex attributes(s). glBindVertexArray(VAO); glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, VBO); glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(vertices), vertices, GL_STATIC_DRAW); glVertexAttribPointer(0, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 3 * sizeof(float), (void*)0); glEnableVertexAttribArray(0); // note that this is allowed, the call to glVertexAttribPointer registered VBO // as the vertex attribute's bound vertex buffer object so afterwards we can safely unbind glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, 0); // You can unbind the VAO afterwards so other VAO calls won't accidentally // modify this VAO, but this rarely happens. Modifying other // VAOs requires a call to glBindVertexArray anyways so we generally don't unbind // VAOs (nor VBOs) when it's not directly necessary. glBindVertexArray(0); // uncomment this call to draw in wireframe polygons. //glPolygonMode(GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, GL_LINE); // render loop while (!glfwWindowShouldClose(window)) { // input // ----- processInput(window); // render // ------ glClearColor(0.2f, 0.3f, 0.3f, 1.0f); glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT); // draw our first triangle glUseProgram(shaderProgram); glBindVertexArray(VAO); // seeing as we only have a single VAO there's no need to // bind it every time, but we'll do so to keep things a bit more organized glDrawArrays(GL_TRIANGLES, 0, 3); // glBindVertexArray(0); // no need to unbind it every time // glfw: swap buffers and poll IO events (keys pressed/released, mouse moved etc.) glfwSwapBuffers(window); glfwPollEvents(); } // optional: de-allocate all resources once they've outlived their purpose: glDeleteVertexArrays(1, &VAO); glDeleteBuffers(1, &VBO); // glfw: terminate, clearing all previously allocated GLFW resources. glfwTerminate(); return 0; } //************************************************** // process all input: query GLFW whether relevant keys are pressed/released // this frame and react accordingly void processInput(GLFWwindow *window) { if (glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_ESCAPE) == GLFW_PRESS) glfwSetWindowShouldClose(window, true); } //******************************************************************** // glfw: whenever the window size changed (by OS or user resize) this callback function executes void framebuffer_size_callback(GLFWwindow* window, int width, int height) { // make sure the viewport matches the new window dimensions; note that width and // height will be significantly larger than specified on retina displays. glViewport(0, 0, width, height); } As you see, about 200 lines of complicated code only for a simple triangle. 
      I don't know what parts are necessary for that output. And also, what the correct order of instructions for such an output or programs is, generally. That start point is too complex for a beginner of OpenGL like me and I don't know how to make the issue solved. What are your ideas please? What is the way to figure both the code and the whole program out correctly please?
      I wish I'd read a reference that would teach me OpenGL through a step-by-step method. 
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