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gabriele farina

OpenGL Rendering liquids

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Hi guys, I'm working on a simple 2D platform game (that uses OpenGL ES for rendering) that involves fluids management. So far, each particle of the fluid simulation is being rendered using a single texture sprite. However the effect is not that good so I was thinking to try to alternative way to render the fluids when particles are in contact. What I want to achieve is something like PixelJunk Shooter's water rendering. The only thing I've tried so far is using Delaunay trinagulation on the particles: this creates a decent mesh out of a group of connected particles, that is then rendered using OpenGL. However the effect is not as expected because Delaunay triangulation creates every possible triangle that could be generated by the given set of points. So, if you have a situation like this one:
|
|O
|OOO
|AOOOOOO
-------OO
         OO
          OO
          OO
          B
You end out having additional edges (for instance the one that connects A and B, that shouldn't be there. As long as I'm on a mobile device, I cannot execute too much code so what I was thinking about was to remove all the edges that are longer then a given threshold (lets say that 2 particles interact when the distance is less then N, I can remove all the edges longer then N safely), and then render the fluid mesh below the obstacles on the screen. The effect won't be extremely good, but probably it will remove connections that are not required. Do you have any other suggestion ? Maybe an alternative approaches that are able to generate a less complicated mesh in less time ?

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I'm sure a 2D iso-surface is what you need. Basically a marching cubes implementation in 2D only. I'm sure this would be much simpler than the 3D case it's known for, but it still won't be trivial. I've not seen a demo for it done in 2D but tbh I never looked either.

Some kind of 2D metaballs might work too. At least it's a good seach term for you

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I have done this before, and I'm having trouble following the example on wikipedia.org, so perhaps that isn't the best example to go from.

Anyway, if you need some working source code for the 2D case, you can send me a private message, or pry it out of http://nd-disconnectedness.googlecode.com/files/nd-disconnectednessv1.zip -- this zip file contains code for the 1D and 2D cases. In the 2D case I convert a grayscale image to a mesh.

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Quote:
Original post by PolyVox
Quote:
Original post by Rubicon...Basically a marching cubes implementation in 2D only...


If you want to try this then 'Marching Squares' is the term to search for.
LOL, I guess I shoulda worked that one out for myself :)

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Great, thanks for the code.

I already did a 2D marching squares implementation but it wasn't working as expected. However I think that the problem might have been related to the fact that the grid was too small.
The other problem I was having was with the fact that the generated mesh was too complex (too many triangles).

I'll give a look at the code and let you know if I can achieve a good result.

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Original post by gabriele farina
Great, thanks for the code.

I already did a 2D marching squares implementation but it wasn't working as expected. However I think that the problem might have been related to the fact that the grid was too small.
The other problem I was having was with the fact that the generated mesh was too complex (too many triangles).

I'll give a look at the code and let you know if I can achieve a good result.


You will find that this code also gives lots of triangles. It's the nature of the beast.

Some kind of naive mesh simplification/decimation algorithm might work for you, like combining all adjacent squares on each "line" into a single rectangle.

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Not sure why you're getting too many triangles, but if they're mainly internal then it should be fairly easy to navigate the complex mesh you get and find just the edges, then restitch them using ear clipping.

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Original post by Rubicon
Not sure why you're getting too many triangles, but if they're mainly internal then it should be fairly easy to navigate the complex mesh you get and find just the edges, then restitch them using ear clipping.


I think you're probably right, that they're internal. Let's all remember though that the time taken to decimate the mesh on the CPU has to be roughly less than the time it takes to transfer the non-optimized mesh to GPU RAM and render it, otherwise decimation's not even worth it in the first place. I should have made this explicit beforehand.

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this is an extremely awesome idea! id love to see it once you got it working i bet its really cool :)

All I could think of is to grid up all the particles in a mesh, but then it wouldnt be able to spread apart so that idea doesnt work.

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Quote:
Original post by taby
Quote:
Original post by Rubicon
Not sure why you're getting too many triangles, but if they're mainly internal then it should be fairly easy to navigate the complex mesh you get and find just the edges, then restitch them using ear clipping.


I think you're probably right, that they're internal. Let's all remember though that the time taken to decimate the mesh on the CPU has to be roughly less than the time it takes to transfer the non-optimized mesh to GPU RAM and render it, otherwise decimation's not even worth it in the first place. I should have made this explicit beforehand.
You're right actually. Even if you're targetting quite old hardware, "too many" triangles is usually many orders of magnitude above "a visually acceptable amount". I'd just run with it as is, but I was trying to help the poster.

This particular problem is going to be pure CPU and I'd suggest getting off it asap.

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Quote:
Original post by Rubicon
Quote:
Original post by taby
Quote:
Original post by Rubicon
Not sure why you're getting too many triangles, but if they're mainly internal then it should be fairly easy to navigate the complex mesh you get and find just the edges, then restitch them using ear clipping.


I think you're probably right, that they're internal. Let's all remember though that the time taken to decimate the mesh on the CPU has to be roughly less than the time it takes to transfer the non-optimized mesh to GPU RAM and render it, otherwise decimation's not even worth it in the first place. I should have made this explicit beforehand.
You're right actually. Even if you're targetting quite old hardware, "too many" triangles is usually many orders of magnitude above "a visually acceptable amount". I'd just run with it as is, but I was trying to help the poster.

This particular problem is going to be pure CPU and I'd suggest getting off it asap.


That's a good idea in and of itself... I assume you mean using a geometry shader to generate the triangles.

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I was thinking of using 2D metaballs, but not triangulating them, but using the GPU to calculate the "charges".

1. Drawing precalculated textures with the "charges" of one metaball on a rendersurface with additive alpha blending. The "charges" will rise.
2. Using a post-processing effect to calculate threshold.

Using this method calculates the iso-surface with pixel-precision. I don't know if this method has any major flaws. I hope someone else can comment on that.

Edit: I found a reference: here.

Emiel1

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Quote:
Original post by taby
Quote:
Original post by Rubicon
Quote:
Original post by taby
Quote:
Original post by Rubicon
Not sure why you're getting too many triangles, but if they're mainly internal then it should be fairly easy to navigate the complex mesh you get and find just the edges, then restitch them using ear clipping.


I think you're probably right, that they're internal. Let's all remember though that the time taken to decimate the mesh on the CPU has to be roughly less than the time it takes to transfer the non-optimized mesh to GPU RAM and render it, otherwise decimation's not even worth it in the first place. I should have made this explicit beforehand.
You're right actually. Even if you're targetting quite old hardware, "too many" triangles is usually many orders of magnitude above "a visually acceptable amount". I'd just run with it as is, but I was trying to help the poster.

This particular problem is going to be pure CPU and I'd suggest getting off it asap.


That's a good idea in and of itself... I assume you mean using a geometry shader to generate the triangles.

Not particularly, just do the verts in the fastest way (ie no edge find and ear clip) and just send em up. However, if you can do this code on a GS and don't mind limiting your market that would be even better for performance, yeah.

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Hey, I'm interested in this type of 2D fluid liquid graphics style that was shown in Pixel Junk Shooter as well. Looking forward to seeing your results, as well as the expansion of this thread with some good info. Thanks.

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Quote:
Original post by emiel1
I was thinking of using 2D metaballs, but not triangulating them, but using the GPU to calculate the "charges".

1. Drawing precalculated textures with the "charges" of one metaball on a rendersurface with additive alpha blending. The "charges" will rise.
2. Using a post-processing effect to calculate threshold.

Using this method calculates the iso-surface with pixel-precision. I don't know if this method has any major flaws. I hope someone else can comment on that.

Edit: I found a reference: here.

Emiel1


That's a pretty ingenious approach, given its simplicity (simple conversion of grayscale data to binary data).

The edges will be aliased, mind you, but that's not really a show stopper. Also, if your field resolution is less than the screen resolution (e.g., you're stretching it out), don't use nearest neighbour interpolation or your result will look like something straight out of Q*Bert.

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