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DX11 DirectX Fullscreen crash

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Hello everyone, I've been following a tutorial over at http://www.directxtutorial.com as well as through many different books but have been coming across the same problem every time. Whenever I try to launch a window through directX in fullscreen mode, it always crashes and windows pops up saying "We're searching for an answer to this problem", ect.

Here is the code:

(Sorry, I'm not sure if gamedev.net has a tag for posting code or not)

// include the basic windows header files and the Direct3D header files
#include <windows.h>
#include <windowsx.h>
#include <d3d11.h>
#include <d3dx11.h>
#include <d3dx10.h>

// include the Direct3D Library file
#pragma comment (lib, "d3d11.lib")
#pragma comment (lib, "d3dx11.lib")
#pragma comment (lib, "d3dx10.lib")

// define the screen resolution
#define SCREEN_WIDTH 800
#define SCREEN_HEIGHT 600

// global declarations
IDXGISwapChain *swapchain; // the pointer to the swap chain interface
ID3D11Device *dev; // the pointer to our Direct3D device interface
ID3D11DeviceContext *devcon; // the pointer to our Direct3D device context
ID3D11RenderTargetView *backbuffer; // the pointer to our back buffer

// function prototypes
void InitD3D(HWND hWnd); // sets up and initializes Direct3D
void RenderFrame(void); // renders a single frame
void CleanD3D(void); // closes Direct3D and releases memory

// the WindowProc function prototype
LRESULT CALLBACK WindowProc(HWND hWnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam);


// the entry point for any Windows program
int WINAPI WinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance,
HINSTANCE hPrevInstance,
LPSTR lpCmdLine,
int nCmdShow)
{
HWND hWnd;
WNDCLASSEX wc;

ZeroMemory(&wc, sizeof(WNDCLASSEX));

wc.cbSize = sizeof(WNDCLASSEX);
wc.style = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW;
wc.lpfnWndProc = WindowProc;
wc.hInstance = hInstance;
wc.hCursor = LoadCursor(NULL, IDC_ARROW);
// wc.hbrBackground = (HBRUSH)COLOR_WINDOW; // no longer needed
wc.lpszClassName = L"WindowClass";

RegisterClassEx(&wc);

RECT wr = {0, 0, SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT};
AdjustWindowRect(&wr, WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW, FALSE);

hWnd = CreateWindowEx(NULL,
L"WindowClass",
L"Our First Direct3D Program",
WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW,
300,
300,
wr.right - wr.left,
wr.bottom - wr.top,
NULL,
NULL,
hInstance,
NULL);

ShowWindow(hWnd, nCmdShow);

// set up and initialize Direct3D
InitD3D(hWnd);

// enter the main loop:

MSG msg;

while(TRUE)
{
if(PeekMessage(&msg, NULL, 0, 0, PM_REMOVE))
{
TranslateMessage(&msg);
DispatchMessage(&msg);

if(msg.message == WM_QUIT)
break;
}

RenderFrame();
}

// clean up DirectX and COM
CleanD3D();

return msg.wParam;
}


// this is the main message handler for the program
LRESULT CALLBACK WindowProc(HWND hWnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)
{
switch(message)
{
case WM_DESTROY:
{
PostQuitMessage(0);
return 0;
} break;
}

return DefWindowProc (hWnd, message, wParam, lParam);
}


// this function initializes and prepares Direct3D for use
void InitD3D(HWND hWnd)
{
// create a struct to hold information about the swap chain
DXGI_SWAP_CHAIN_DESC scd;

// clear out the struct for use
ZeroMemory(&scd, sizeof(DXGI_SWAP_CHAIN_DESC));

// fill the swap chain description struct
scd.BufferCount = 1; // one back buffer
scd.BufferDesc.Format = DXGI_FORMAT_R8G8B8A8_UNORM; // use 32-bit color
scd.BufferDesc.Width = SCREEN_WIDTH; // set the back buffer width
scd.BufferDesc.Height = SCREEN_HEIGHT; // set the back buffer height
scd.BufferUsage = DXGI_USAGE_RENDER_TARGET_OUTPUT; // how swap chain is to be used
scd.OutputWindow = hWnd; // the window to be used
scd.SampleDesc.Count = 4; // how many multisamples
scd.Windowed = TRUE; // windowed/full-screen mode
scd.Flags = DXGI_SWAP_CHAIN_FLAG_ALLOW_MODE_SWITCH; // allow full-screen switching

// create a device, device context and swap chain using the information in the scd struct
D3D11CreateDeviceAndSwapChain(NULL,
D3D_DRIVER_TYPE_HARDWARE,
NULL,
NULL,
NULL,
NULL,
D3D11_SDK_VERSION,
&scd,
&swapchain,
&dev,
NULL,
&devcon);


// get the address of the back buffer
ID3D11Texture2D *pBackBuffer;
swapchain->GetBuffer(0, __uuidof(ID3D11Texture2D), (LPVOID*)&pBackBuffer);

// use the back buffer address to create the render target
dev->CreateRenderTargetView(pBackBuffer, NULL, &backbuffer);
pBackBuffer->Release();

// set the render target as the back buffer
devcon->OMSetRenderTargets(1, &backbuffer, NULL);


// Set the viewport
D3D11_VIEWPORT viewport;
ZeroMemory(&viewport, sizeof(D3D11_VIEWPORT));

viewport.TopLeftX = 0;
viewport.TopLeftY = 0;
viewport.Width = SCREEN_WIDTH;
viewport.Height = SCREEN_HEIGHT;

devcon->RSSetViewports(1, &viewport);
}


// this is the function used to render a single frame
void RenderFrame(void)
{
// clear the back buffer to a deep blue
devcon->ClearRenderTargetView(backbuffer, D3DXCOLOR(0.0f, 0.2f, 0.4f, 1.0f));

// do 3D rendering on the back buffer here

// switch the back buffer and the front buffer
swapchain->Present(0, 0);
}


// this is the function that cleans up Direct3D and COM
void CleanD3D(void)
{
swapchain->SetFullscreenState(FALSE, NULL); // switch to windowed mode

// close and release all existing COM objects
swapchain->Release();
backbuffer->Release();
dev->Release();
devcon->Release();
}

I am have the newest DirectX SDK downloaded and am using Microsoft's Visual C++ 2010 Express edition. If anyone knows what the problem might be, please let me know.

Thanks

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Argh, I hoped that the author would have finally got around to doing some error checking in his code, apparently not...

You're not checking if any functions fail. Most D3D functions return a HRESULT value, which you should be checking with the SUCCEEDED or FAILED macro to determine if the function failed.

In your code, if D3D11CreateDeviceAndSwapChain fails, you go on to use the swapchain variable, which is a null or uninitialised pointer, which will cause the crash.

You should also be running your code in the debugger, so it'll break to the debugger when it crashes, let you see what line of code caused the crash, and examine the variables to determine the cause. Here is a good tutorial on using Visual Studio's debugger.

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I think a CTD on switch to full screen, or a BSoD from who knows is more of a performance issue than a few frames...

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Quote:
Original post by ProgrammerDX
Doesn't checking the HRESULT return value for each function cause a performance hit on your program?
Not in any noticeable way, no. It's about 3 assembly instructions, and the simplest DirectX call will be several hundred or thousand.

And besides, you have to do the check, unless you want your app to crash.

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Hiding the border and maximizing the window is 100% stable and much faster to activate. You can't change the screen resolution in this method but you can answer IM calls without terminating the application.

http://www.codeguru.com/forum/showthread.php?t=500867

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Thank you for the replies everyone. I'm having trouble figuring out exactly where and how I'm supposed to use HRESULT, though. I've searched around but can't find where in this code it should go. I attempted to use it below in the bolded areas, but I'm sure it's incorrect.

Any more information would be greatly appreciated.

Thanks.

(note, I declared HRESULT hr at the beginning of the program.)


// create a device, device context and swap chain using the information in the scd struct
hr = D3D11CreateDeviceAndSwapChain(NULL,
D3D_DRIVER_TYPE_HARDWARE,
NULL,
NULL,
NULL,
NULL,
D3D11_SDK_VERSION,
&scd,
&swapchain,
&dev,
NULL,
&devcon);


// get the address of the back buffer
ID3D11Texture2D *pBackBuffer;
swapchain->GetBuffer(0, __uuidof(ID3D11Texture2D), (LPVOID*)&pBackBuffer);

// use the back buffer address to create the render target
dev->CreateRenderTargetView(pBackBuffer, NULL, &backbuffer);
pBackBuffer->Release();

// set the render target as the back buffer
devcon->OMSetRenderTargets(1, &backbuffer, NULL);


// Set the viewport
D3D11_VIEWPORT viewport;
ZeroMemory(&viewport, sizeof(D3D11_VIEWPORT));

viewport.TopLeftX = 0;
viewport.TopLeftY = 0;
viewport.Width = SCREEN_WIDTH;
viewport.Height = SCREEN_HEIGHT;

devcon->RSSetViewports(1, &viewport);

InitPipeline();
InitGraphics();

if(FAILED(hr)){
// Handle error
}


}

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It's quite easy. Every time you call a DX API function that returns an HRESULT, you check it ASAP. This means right after calling this function. In the example you gave us, you tried to create a swap chain then used it and verified afterwards if it has been created: this is clearly the wrong way and will make your program crash.

Examples:

if(FAILED(D3D11CreateDeviceAndSwapChain(...)))
throw std::exception("Something failed");

if(FAILED(swapchain->GetBuffer(...)))
throw std::exception("Something failed");




I wrote a function & macro just for that code. Throwing an exception is acceptable if the function is not supposed to fail that often (which is the case in 99.99% of dx calls). Please don't buy into the myth that checking error states or throwing exceptions will make your code considerably slower. The latter might have a bigger performance hit, if you use it in the wrong way. Notifying about exceptional states that shouldn't happen (for example an API call failing that shouldn't, a resource not being able to load) is the prime purpose of exceptions, combined with the fact that you don't deal with errors at the throw side, but the catch side.


typedef boost::error_info<struct file_, std::string> file;
typedef boost::error_info<struct file_, std::string> api_message;
typedef boost::error_info<struct file_, std::string> api_function;
typedef boost::error_info<struct tag_api_call,std::string> api_call;
typedef boost::error_info<struct tag_d3d11_hresult,HRESULT> d3d11_result;

class d3d11_exception : virtual public std::exception, virtual public boost::exception
{
public:

d3d11_exception(const std::string& what) : std::exception(what) {}

HRESULT getAPIResult() const
{
if(const HRESULT* err = boost::get_error_info<d3d11_result>(*this))
return *err;
else
return D3D_OK;
}



/**
* Verifies the given result from a D3D11 API call and throws an exception in case the it failed.
*/

static void verify_call(HRESULT hr, const char* call, const char* file, const char* function, int line)
{
if(FAILED(hr))
{
throw d3d11_exception(format("A D3D11 API call failed: %1%(%2%)") % readableResult(hr) % hr)
<< debug_info_m(file, function, line)
<< d3d11_result(hr)
<< api_call(call)
;
}
}



/**
* This function returns a readable result string for the given HRESULT.
* Currently, all DXGI error codes are known
*/

static const char* readableResult(HRESULT hr)
{
switch(hr)
{
case DXGI_ERROR_DEVICE_HUNG: return __STR__(DXGI_ERROR_DEVICE_HUNG);
case DXGI_ERROR_DEVICE_REMOVED: return __STR__(DXGI_ERROR_DEVICE_REMOVED);
case DXGI_ERROR_DEVICE_RESET: return __STR__(DXGI_ERROR_DEVICE_RESET);
case DXGI_ERROR_DRIVER_INTERNAL_ERROR: return __STR__(DXGI_ERROR_DRIVER_INTERNAL_ERROR);
case DXGI_ERROR_FRAME_STATISTICS_DISJOINT: return __STR__(DXGI_ERROR_FRAME_STATISTICS_DISJOINT);
case DXGI_ERROR_GRAPHICS_VIDPN_SOURCE_IN_USE: return __STR__(DXGI_ERROR_GRAPHICS_VIDPN_SOURCE_IN_USE);
case DXGI_ERROR_INVALID_CALL: return __STR__(DXGI_ERROR_INVALID_CALL);
case DXGI_ERROR_MORE_DATA: return __STR__(DXGI_ERROR_MORE_DATA);
case DXGI_ERROR_NONEXCLUSIVE: return __STR__(DXGI_ERROR_NONEXCLUSIVE);
case DXGI_ERROR_NOT_CURRENTLY_AVAILABLE: return __STR__(DXGI_ERROR_NOT_CURRENTLY_AVAILABLE);
case DXGI_ERROR_NOT_FOUND: return __STR__(DXGI_ERROR_NOT_FOUND);
case DXGI_ERROR_REMOTE_CLIENT_DISCONNECTED: return __STR__(DXGI_ERROR_REMOTE_CLIENT_DISCONNECTED);
case DXGI_ERROR_REMOTE_OUTOFMEMORY: return __STR__(DXGI_ERROR_REMOTE_OUTOFMEMORY);
case DXGI_ERROR_WAS_STILL_DRAWING: return __STR__(DXGI_ERROR_WAS_STILL_DRAWING);
case DXGI_ERROR_UNSUPPORTED: return __STR__(DXGI_ERROR_UNSUPPORTED);
case S_OK: return __STR__(S_OK);
default: return "Unknown hresult";
}
}
};
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

/**
* This macro executes the given D3D11 call and tests if it returned an error code.
* (Tested via the FAILED macro from Microsoft).
*/

#define D3D11_API(x) d3d11_exception::verify_call((x), #x, __FILE__, __FUNCTION__, __LINE__)


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