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    • By tj8146
      I am using immediate mode for OpenGL and I am creating a 2D top down car game. I am trying to configure my game loop in order to get my car-like physics working on a square shape. I have working code but it is not doing as I want it to. I am not sure as to whether it is my game loop that is incorrect or my code for the square is incorrect, or maybe both! Could someone help because I have been trying to work this out for over a day now
      I have attached my .cpp file if you wish to run it for yourself.. 
      WinMain code:
      /******************* WIN32 FUNCTIONS ***************************/ int WINAPI WinMain( HINSTANCE hInstance, // Instance HINSTANCE hPrevInstance, // Previous Instance LPSTR lpCmdLine, // Command Line Parameters int nCmdShow) // Window Show State { MSG msg; // Windows Message Structure bool done=false; // Bool Variable To Exit Loop Car car; car.x = 220; car.y = 140; car.dx = 0; car.dy = 0; car.ang = 0; AllocConsole(); FILE *stream; freopen_s(&stream, "CONOUT$", "w", stdout); // Create Our OpenGL Window if (!CreateGLWindow("OpenGL Win32 Example",screenWidth,screenHeight)) { return 0; // Quit If Window Was Not Created } while(!done) // Loop That Runs While done=FALSE { if (PeekMessage(&msg,NULL,0,0,PM_REMOVE)) // Is There A Message Waiting? { if (msg.message==WM_QUIT) // Have We Received A Quit Message? { done=true; // If So done=TRUE break; } else // If Not, Deal With Window Messages { TranslateMessage(&msg); // Translate The Message DispatchMessage(&msg); // Dispatch The Message } } else // If There Are No Messages { if(keys[VK_ESCAPE]) done = true; void processKeys(Car& car); //process keyboard while (game_is_running) { loops = 0; while (GetTickCount() > next_game_tick && loops < MAX_FRAMESKIP) { update(car); // update variables next_game_tick += SKIP_TICKS; loops++; } display(car); // Draw The Scene SwapBuffers(hDC); // Swap Buffers (Double Buffering) } } } // Shutdown KillGLWindow(); // Kill The Window return (int)(msg.wParam); // Exit The Program } //WIN32 Processes function - useful for responding to user inputs or other events. LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc( HWND hWnd, // Handle For This Window UINT uMsg, // Message For This Window WPARAM wParam, // Additional Message Information LPARAM lParam) // Additional Message Information { switch (uMsg) // Check For Windows Messages { case WM_CLOSE: // Did We Receive A Close Message? { PostQuitMessage(0); // Send A Quit Message return 0; // Jump Back } break; case WM_SIZE: // Resize The OpenGL Window { reshape(LOWORD(lParam),HIWORD(lParam)); // LoWord=Width, HiWord=Height return 0; // Jump Back } break; case WM_LBUTTONDOWN: { mouse_x = LOWORD(lParam); mouse_y = screenHeight - HIWORD(lParam); LeftPressed = true; } break; case WM_LBUTTONUP: { LeftPressed = false; } break; case WM_MOUSEMOVE: { mouse_x = LOWORD(lParam); mouse_y = screenHeight - HIWORD(lParam); } break; case WM_KEYDOWN: // Is A Key Being Held Down? { keys[wParam] = true; // If So, Mark It As TRUE return 0; // Jump Back } break; case WM_KEYUP: // Has A Key Been Released? { keys[wParam] = false; // If So, Mark It As FALSE return 0; // Jump Back } break; } // Pass All Unhandled Messages To DefWindowProc return DefWindowProc(hWnd,uMsg,wParam,lParam); }  
      C++ and OpenGL code:
      int mouse_x=0, mouse_y=0; bool LeftPressed = false; int screenWidth=1080, screenHeight=960; bool keys[256]; float radiansFromDegrees(float deg) { return deg * (M_PI / 180.0f); } float degreesFromRadians(float rad) { return rad / (M_PI / 180.0f); } bool game_is_running = true; const int TICKS_PER_SECOND = 50; const int SKIP_TICKS = 1000 / TICKS_PER_SECOND; const int MAX_FRAMESKIP = 10; DWORD next_game_tick = GetTickCount(); int loops; typedef struct { float x, y; float dx, dy; float ang; }Car; //OPENGL FUNCTION PROTOTYPES void display(const Car& car); //called in winmain to draw everything to the screen void reshape(int width, int height); //called when the window is resized void init(); //called in winmain when the program starts. void processKeys(Car& car); //called in winmain to process keyboard input void update(Car& car); //called in winmain to update variables /************* START OF OPENGL FUNCTIONS ****************/ void display(const Car& car) { const float w = 50.0f; const float h = 50.0f; glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT); glLoadIdentity(); glTranslatef(100, 100, 0); glBegin(GL_POLYGON); glVertex2f(car.x, car.y); glVertex2f(car.x + w, car.y); glVertex2f(car.x + w, car.y + h); glVertex2f(car.x, car.y + h); glEnd(); glFlush(); } void reshape(int width, int height) // Resize the OpenGL window { screenWidth = width; screenHeight = height; // to ensure the mouse coordinates match // we will use these values to set the coordinate system glViewport(0, 0, width, height); // Reset the current viewport glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); // select the projection matrix stack glLoadIdentity(); // reset the top of the projection matrix to an identity matrix gluOrtho2D(0, screenWidth, 0, screenHeight); // set the coordinate system for the window glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW); // Select the modelview matrix stack glLoadIdentity(); // Reset the top of the modelview matrix to an identity matrix } void init() { glClearColor(1.0, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0); //sets the clear colour to yellow //glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT) in the display function //will clear the buffer to this colour. } void processKeys(Car& car) { if (keys[VK_UP]) { float cdx = sinf(radiansFromDegrees(car.ang)); float cdy = -cosf(radiansFromDegrees(car.ang)); car.dx += cdx; car.dy += cdy; } if (keys[VK_DOWN]) { float cdx = sinf(radiansFromDegrees(car.ang)); float cdy = -cosf(radiansFromDegrees(car.ang)); car.dx += -cdx; car.dy += -cdy; } if (keys[VK_LEFT]) { car.ang -= 2; } if (keys[VK_RIGHT]) { car.ang += 2; } } void update(Car& car) { car.x += car.dx*next_game_tick; }  
      game.cpp
    • By tj8146
      I am using immediate mode for OpenGL and I am creating a 2D top down car game. I am trying to configure my game loop in order to get my car-like physics working on a square shape. I have working code but it is not doing as I want it to. I am not sure as to whether it is my game loop that is incorrect or my code for the square is incorrect, or maybe both! Could someone help because I have been trying to work this out for over a day now
      I have attached my .cpp file if you wish to run it for yourself.. 
       
      This is my C++ and OpenGL code:
      int mouse_x=0, mouse_y=0; bool LeftPressed = false; int screenWidth=1080, screenHeight=960; bool keys[256]; float radiansFromDegrees(float deg) { return deg * (M_PI / 180.0f); } float degreesFromRadians(float rad) { return rad / (M_PI / 180.0f); } bool game_is_running = true; const int TICKS_PER_SECOND = 50; const int SKIP_TICKS = 1000 / TICKS_PER_SECOND; const int MAX_FRAMESKIP = 10; DWORD next_game_tick = GetTickCount(); int loops; typedef struct { float x, y; float dx, dy; float ang; }Car; //OPENGL FUNCTION PROTOTYPES void display(const Car& car); //called in winmain to draw everything to the screen void reshape(int width, int height); //called when the window is resized void init(); //called in winmain when the program starts. void processKeys(Car& car); //called in winmain to process keyboard input void update(Car& car); //called in winmain to update variables /************* START OF OPENGL FUNCTIONS ****************/ void display(const Car& car) { const float w = 50.0f; const float h = 50.0f; glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT); glLoadIdentity(); glTranslatef(100, 100, 0); glBegin(GL_POLYGON); glVertex2f(car.x, car.y); glVertex2f(car.x + w, car.y); glVertex2f(car.x + w, car.y + h); glVertex2f(car.x, car.y + h); glEnd(); glFlush(); } void reshape(int width, int height) // Resize the OpenGL window { screenWidth = width; screenHeight = height; // to ensure the mouse coordinates match // we will use these values to set the coordinate system glViewport(0, 0, width, height); // Reset the current viewport glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); // select the projection matrix stack glLoadIdentity(); // reset the top of the projection matrix to an identity matrix gluOrtho2D(0, screenWidth, 0, screenHeight); // set the coordinate system for the window glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW); // Select the modelview matrix stack glLoadIdentity(); // Reset the top of the modelview matrix to an identity matrix } void init() { glClearColor(1.0, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0); //sets the clear colour to yellow //glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT) in the display function //will clear the buffer to this colour. } void processKeys(Car& car) { if (keys[VK_UP]) { float cdx = sinf(radiansFromDegrees(car.ang)); float cdy = -cosf(radiansFromDegrees(car.ang)); car.dx += cdx; car.dy += cdy; } if (keys[VK_DOWN]) { float cdx = sinf(radiansFromDegrees(car.ang)); float cdy = -cosf(radiansFromDegrees(car.ang)); car.dx += -cdx; car.dy += -cdy; } if (keys[VK_LEFT]) { car.ang -= 2; } if (keys[VK_RIGHT]) { car.ang += 2; } } void update(Car& car) { car.x += car.dx*next_game_tick; } My WinMain code:
      /******************* WIN32 FUNCTIONS ***************************/ int WINAPI WinMain( HINSTANCE hInstance, // Instance HINSTANCE hPrevInstance, // Previous Instance LPSTR lpCmdLine, // Command Line Parameters int nCmdShow) // Window Show State { MSG msg; // Windows Message Structure bool done=false; // Bool Variable To Exit Loop Car car; car.x = 220; car.y = 140; car.dx = 0; car.dy = 0; car.ang = 0; AllocConsole(); FILE *stream; freopen_s(&stream, "CONOUT$", "w", stdout); // Create Our OpenGL Window if (!CreateGLWindow("OpenGL Win32 Example",screenWidth,screenHeight)) { return 0; // Quit If Window Was Not Created } while(!done) // Loop That Runs While done=FALSE { if (PeekMessage(&msg,NULL,0,0,PM_REMOVE)) // Is There A Message Waiting? { if (msg.message==WM_QUIT) // Have We Received A Quit Message? { done=true; // If So done=TRUE break; } else // If Not, Deal With Window Messages { TranslateMessage(&msg); // Translate The Message DispatchMessage(&msg); // Dispatch The Message } } else // If There Are No Messages { if(keys[VK_ESCAPE]) done = true; void processKeys(Car& car); //process keyboard while (game_is_running) { loops = 0; while (GetTickCount() > next_game_tick && loops < MAX_FRAMESKIP) { update(car); // update variables next_game_tick += SKIP_TICKS; loops++; } display(car); // Draw The Scene SwapBuffers(hDC); // Swap Buffers (Double Buffering) } } } // Shutdown KillGLWindow(); // Kill The Window return (int)(msg.wParam); // Exit The Program } //WIN32 Processes function - useful for responding to user inputs or other events. LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc( HWND hWnd, // Handle For This Window UINT uMsg, // Message For This Window WPARAM wParam, // Additional Message Information LPARAM lParam) // Additional Message Information { switch (uMsg) // Check For Windows Messages { case WM_CLOSE: // Did We Receive A Close Message? { PostQuitMessage(0); // Send A Quit Message return 0; // Jump Back } break; case WM_SIZE: // Resize The OpenGL Window { reshape(LOWORD(lParam),HIWORD(lParam)); // LoWord=Width, HiWord=Height return 0; // Jump Back } break; case WM_LBUTTONDOWN: { mouse_x = LOWORD(lParam); mouse_y = screenHeight - HIWORD(lParam); LeftPressed = true; } break; case WM_LBUTTONUP: { LeftPressed = false; } break; case WM_MOUSEMOVE: { mouse_x = LOWORD(lParam); mouse_y = screenHeight - HIWORD(lParam); } break; case WM_KEYDOWN: // Is A Key Being Held Down? { keys[wParam] = true; // If So, Mark It As TRUE return 0; // Jump Back } break; case WM_KEYUP: // Has A Key Been Released? { keys[wParam] = false; // If So, Mark It As FALSE return 0; // Jump Back } break; } // Pass All Unhandled Messages To DefWindowProc return DefWindowProc(hWnd,uMsg,wParam,lParam); }  
      game.cpp
    • By lxjk
      Hi guys,
      There are many ways to do light culling in tile-based shading. I've been playing with this idea for a while, and just want to throw it out there.
      Because tile frustums are general small compared to light radius, I tried using cone test to reduce false positives introduced by commonly used sphere-frustum test.
      On top of that, I use distance to camera rather than depth for near/far test (aka. sliced by spheres).
      This method can be naturally extended to clustered light culling as well.
      The following image shows the general ideas

       
      Performance-wise I get around 15% improvement over sphere-frustum test. You can also see how a single light performs as the following: from left to right (1) standard rendering of a point light; then tiles passed the test of (2) sphere-frustum test; (3) cone test; (4) spherical-sliced cone test
       

       
      I put the details in my blog post (https://lxjk.github.io/2018/03/25/Improve-Tile-based-Light-Culling-with-Spherical-sliced-Cone.html), GLSL source code included!
       
      Eric
    • By Fadey Duh
      Good evening everyone!

      I was wondering if there is something equivalent of  GL_NV_blend_equation_advanced for AMD?
      Basically I'm trying to find more compatible version of it.

      Thank you!
    • By Jens Eckervogt
      Hello guys, 
       
      Please tell me! 
      How do I know? Why does wavefront not show for me?
      I already checked I have non errors yet.
      using OpenTK; using System.Collections.Generic; using System.IO; using System.Text; namespace Tutorial_08.net.sourceskyboxer { public class WaveFrontLoader { private static List<Vector3> inPositions; private static List<Vector2> inTexcoords; private static List<Vector3> inNormals; private static List<float> positions; private static List<float> texcoords; private static List<int> indices; public static RawModel LoadObjModel(string filename, Loader loader) { inPositions = new List<Vector3>(); inTexcoords = new List<Vector2>(); inNormals = new List<Vector3>(); positions = new List<float>(); texcoords = new List<float>(); indices = new List<int>(); int nextIdx = 0; using (var reader = new StreamReader(File.Open("Contents/" + filename + ".obj", FileMode.Open), Encoding.UTF8)) { string line = reader.ReadLine(); int i = reader.Read(); while (true) { string[] currentLine = line.Split(); if (currentLine[0] == "v") { Vector3 pos = new Vector3(float.Parse(currentLine[1]), float.Parse(currentLine[2]), float.Parse(currentLine[3])); inPositions.Add(pos); if (currentLine[1] == "t") { Vector2 tex = new Vector2(float.Parse(currentLine[1]), float.Parse(currentLine[2])); inTexcoords.Add(tex); } if (currentLine[1] == "n") { Vector3 nom = new Vector3(float.Parse(currentLine[1]), float.Parse(currentLine[2]), float.Parse(currentLine[3])); inNormals.Add(nom); } } if (currentLine[0] == "f") { Vector3 pos = inPositions[0]; positions.Add(pos.X); positions.Add(pos.Y); positions.Add(pos.Z); Vector2 tc = inTexcoords[0]; texcoords.Add(tc.X); texcoords.Add(tc.Y); indices.Add(nextIdx); ++nextIdx; } reader.Close(); return loader.loadToVAO(positions.ToArray(), texcoords.ToArray(), indices.ToArray()); } } } } } And It have tried other method but it can't show for me.  I am mad now. Because any OpenTK developers won't help me.
      Please help me how do I fix.

      And my download (mega.nz) should it is original but I tried no success...
      - Add blend source and png file here I have tried tried,.....  
       
      PS: Why is our community not active? I wait very longer. Stop to lie me!
      Thanks !
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OpenGL OpenGL & win32 - My code doesn't draw with glBegin

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Hi, I'm trying to draw a triangle centered where I left clicked with the mouse.

When I click in the window I created, no drawing takes place.

(see below for my OpenGL class code and my WndProc)
In my WndProc message loop, I use case WM_LBUTTONDOWN and I verified that it gets the message correctly with a breakpoint, so I know this is not the problem.
I also checked glGetError() after calling my DrawTriangle function and it returns 0.

Seems like I can't draw in the WM_LBUTTONDOWN case or perhaps my API calls are incorectly ordered?

Basically I have a class for opengl, it has a protected hWnd, HGLRC and hdc.
On WM_CREATE, I get the hWnd, then I get a hdc with GetDC(hWnd), I set the pfd structure, call ChoosePixelFormat and SetPixelFormat then I get the rendering context with wglCreateContext and I make it current with wglMakeCurrent.

With that I get a OpenGL 3.3 context.
After that I call glClearColor(blue) and it works.

In WM_PAINT, I have

glViewport(0, 0, windowWidth, windowHeight);
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);
SwapBuffers(hdc);




and in WM_LBUTTONDOWN (I call oRender.DrawTriangle(0.0f,0.0f) which is:)

glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

glBegin(GL_TRIANGLES);
glColor3f(1.0,0.0,0.0);

glVertex3f(0.0,0.0,0.0);
glVertex3f(150.0,0.0,0.0);
glVertex3f(75.0,100.0,0.0);

glEnd();
//-- then I post message so that windowsOS calls WM_PAINT (for SwapBuffers())
PostMessage(hWnd, WM_PAINT, 0, 0);






For more info, here is the source of my class:

GLRenderer::GLRenderer(void) { state = 0; }

// CreateGLContext creates an OpenGL context and attaches it to the window defined by hwnd.
void GLRenderer::CreateContext(HWND hwnd) {
this->hwnd = hwnd;
hdc = GetDC(hwnd); // Get the device context for our window

PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR pfd;
memset(&pfd, 0, sizeof(PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR));
pfd.nSize = sizeof(PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR);
pfd.dwFlags = PFD_DOUBLEBUFFER | PFD_SUPPORT_OPENGL | PFD_DRAW_TO_WINDOW;
pfd.iPixelType = PFD_TYPE_RGBA;
pfd.cColorBits = 32;
pfd.cDepthBits = 32;
pfd.iLayerType = PFD_MAIN_PLANE;

int nPixelFormat = ChoosePixelFormat(hdc, &pfd);

if (nPixelFormat == 0)
MessageBox(NULL, _T("Call to ChoosePixelFormat failed."), _T("OpenGL Error"), NULL);

bool bResult = SetPixelFormat(hdc, nPixelFormat, &pfd);

if (!bResult)
MessageBox(NULL, _T("Call to SetPixelFormat failed."), _T("OpenGL Error"), NULL);

hrc = wglCreateContext(hdc);
wglMakeCurrent(hdc, hrc); // Makes the context current and active

GLenum error = glewInit(); // Enables GLEW
if (error != GLEW_OK)
MessageBox(NULL, _T("Failed to enable GLEW."), _T("OpenGL Error"), NULL);

}

void GLRenderer::Reshape(int w, int h) {
windowWidth = w;
windowHeight = h;
}

void GLRenderer::PrepareScene(void) {
glClearColor(0.4f, 0.6f, 0.9f, 0.0f);
}

void GLRenderer::RenderScene(void) {
glViewport(0, 0, windowWidth, windowHeight);
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

SwapBuffers(hdc);
}

//I simplified this function to verify that the problem was not cause by the params
void GLRenderer::DrawTriangle(GLfloat x, GLfloat y) {
wglMakeCurrent(hdc, hrc);

glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

//glTranslatef(0.0f, 0.0f, -5.0f);

glBegin(GL_TRIANGLES);
glColor3f(1.0,0.0,0.0);

glVertex3f(0.0,0.0,0.0);
glVertex3f(150.0,0.0,0.0);
glVertex3f(75.0,100.0,0.0);

glEnd();

}

void GLRenderer::Cleanup(void) {
wglMakeCurrent(hdc, 0); // Remove the rendering context from the device context
wglDeleteContext(hrc); // Delete the rendering context

ReleaseDC(hwnd, hdc); // Release the device context from the window
}

GLRenderer::~GLRenderer() {}





and here is my WndProc:

LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc(HWND hWnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam) {

switch (message) {

case WM_CREATE:
oRender.CreateContext(hWnd);
oRender.PrepareScene();
break;

case WM_PAINT:
oRender.RenderScene();

break;

case WM_SIZE:
oRender.Reshape(LOWORD(lParam), HIWORD(lParam));
break;

/* I/O Handlers - Start */
case WM_LBUTTONDOWN: {
//Not using this, just testing with 0.0, 0.0 to simplify
GLfloat x = LOWORD(lParam);
GLfloat y = HIWORD(lParam);

oRender.DrawTriangle(0.0f,0.0f);
int error = glGetError();
std::cout << "OpenGL error number is : " << error << "." << std::endl;
PostMessage(hWnd, WM_PAINT, 0, 0);
}
break;

/* I/O Handlers - End */

case WM_DESTROY:
oRender.Cleanup();
PostQuitMessage(0);
break;

default:
return DefWindowProc(hWnd, message, wParam, lParam);
}

return 0;
}





I tried to remove the class and inline everything with a static hdc and hrc but this does not work either. I was thinking maybe there's a problem with my viewpoint? I also tried to use glFlush() after glEnd() but this doesn't help.

I used GLEW and oRender is global.

I hope someone will be able to quickly spot my beginner's mistake!
Thanks a lot!!

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You don't appear to have any projection matrices set anywhere, and I don't think the default one will actually render anything.

I'm guessing that you expect your coordinates to map to pixels on the screen (they don't by default).

Try this in your OpenGL setup/resize method:

glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION);
glOrtho(0,WINDOW_WIDTH,0,WINDOW_HEIGHT, -1, 1);


This should map your vertex locations to screen pixels.

Also I'm not sure what you think clearing the color buffer does, but you're clearing the screen right before you swap buffers, so even if your triangle did draw it would be erased as soon as you tried to render the scene.


void GLRenderer::RenderScene(void) {
glViewport(0, 0, windowWidth, windowHeight);
---> glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

SwapBuffers(hdc);
}



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If you clear then swap buffers without drawing anything in between you will get nothing drawn.

Also I believe his triangle will still draw in clip space even if you don't specify anything.

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If you don't set the projection matrix, then you assume your vertices are in normalized device coordinates, which go from -1 to 1 on all three axes. So his triangle might still draw something to the screen since it has a vertex at (0,0,0), but not anything like what he expects.

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