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cpatuzzo

OpenGL glm - displaying vertices, but no textures

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Hey there,

I can successfully load objects into OpenGL using this code:

//Loading the model
GLMModel* model;
model=glmReadOBJ("glm-data/f-16.obj");
glmVertexNormals(model,180.0,false);//Optional-recalculates and smooths the normals

//Drawing the model
glPushMatrix();
//transformations here...
glmDraw(model,GLM_SMOOTH|GLM_TEXTURE|GLM_MATERIAL);
glPopMatrix();



However, textures are not loading - all objects are shaded white. The object I am trying to load contains a line for material loading and that is in the same folder.

I am using glm and the object & texture data from here.

Am I missing something like glEnable(GL_TEXTURES), or along those lines? I can provide the source for my initialisation function if needed. I'd rather not have to write my own texture loader.

I am using OpenGL 2.0 and SDL 1.2 running on Ubuntu 10.10 x86 (32-bit).

Many thanks,
Chris Patuzzo

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/* glmReadOBJ: Reads a model description from a Wavefront .OBJ file.
* Returns a pointer to the created object which should be free'd with
* glmDelete().
*
* filename - name of the file containing the Wavefront .OBJ format data.
*/

GLMmodel*
glmReadOBJ(const char* filename)
{
GLMmodel* model;
FILE* file;
int i, j;

/* open the file */
file = fopen(filename, "r");
if (!file) {
__glmFatalError( "glmReadOBJ() failed: can't open data file \"%s\".",
filename);
}

/* allocate a new model */
model = (GLMmodel*)malloc(sizeof(GLMmodel));
model->pathname = __glmStrdup(filename);
model->mtllibname = NULL;
model->numvertices = 0;
model->vertices = NULL;
model->numnormals = 0;
model->normals = NULL;
model->numtexcoords = 0;
model->texcoords = NULL;
model->numfacetnorms = 0;
model->facetnorms = NULL;
model->numtriangles = 0;
model->triangles = NULL;
model->nummaterials = 0;
model->materials = NULL;
model->numtextures = 0;
model->textures = NULL;
model->numgroups = 0;
model->groups = NULL;
model->position[0] = 0.0;
model->position[1] = 0.0;
model->position[2] = 0.0;

/* make a first pass through the file to get a count of the number
of vertices, normals, texcoords & triangles */

glmFirstPass(model, file);

/* allocate memory */
model->vertices = (GLfloat*)malloc(sizeof(GLfloat) *
3 * (model->numvertices + 1));
model->triangles = (GLMtriangle*)malloc(sizeof(GLMtriangle) *
model->numtriangles);
if (model->numnormals) {
model->normals = (GLfloat*)malloc(sizeof(GLfloat) *
3 * (model->numnormals + 1));
}
if (model->numtexcoords) {
model->texcoords = (GLfloat*)malloc(sizeof(GLfloat) *
2 * (model->numtexcoords + 1));
}

/* rewind to beginning of file and read in the data this pass */
rewind(file);

glmSecondPass(model, file);

/* facet normals are not in the file, we have to compute them anyway */
glmFacetNormals(model);

/* verify the indices */
for (i = 0; i < model->numtriangles; i++) {
if (T(i).findex != -1)
if (T(i).findex <= 0 || T(i).findex > model->numfacetnorms)
__glmFatalError("facet index for triangle %d out of bounds (%d > %d)\n", i, T(i).findex, model->numfacetnorms);
for (j=0; j<3; j++) {
if (T(i).nindices[j] != -1)
if (T(i).nindices[j] <= 0 || T(i).nindices[j] > model->numnormals)
__glmFatalError("normal index for triangle %d out of bounds (%d > %d)\n", i, T(i).nindices[j], model->numnormals);
if (T(i).vindices[j] != -1)
if (T(i).vindices[j] <= 0 || T(i).vindices[j] > model->numvertices)
__glmFatalError("vertex index for triangle %d out of bounds (%d > %d)\n", i, T(i).vindices[j], model->numvertices);
}
}

/* close the file */
fclose(file);

return model;
}

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I really appreciate the help so far, thanks.

I have just noticed that my alias to compile and run my opengl was suppressing error output. I'm constantly getting this error:

GLM: Warning: glmDraw() warning: texture render mode requested with no texture coordinates defined.





The object I am trying to load does seem to have a texture though:

# Mon Jun 17 10:04:54 1996
#
#

mtllib f-16.mtl

g
v -1.896410 3.055388 0.729943
v -1.912970 2.997458 0.729941
v -1.896410 2.994088 0.729943
...





And here's the code for the f-16.mtl file, in the same folder (which has standard 644 access)

newmtl glass
Ka 0.4000 0.4000 0.4000
Kd 0.3000 0.2302 0.2302
Ks 0.3000 0.3000 0.3000
illum 2
d 0.2100
Ns 117.0500


newmtl gray
Ka 0.4000 0.4000 0.4000
Kd 0.3000 0.2302 0.2302
Ks 0.3000 0.3000 0.3000
illum 2
Ns 60.0000


newmtl red
Ka 0.4000 0.4000 0.4000
Kd 0.3000 0.0343 0.0343
Ks 0.3000 0.3000 0.3000
illum 2
Ns 60.0000


newmtl blue
Ka 0.4000 0.4000 0.4000
Kd 0.0343 0.1861 0.3000
Ks 0.3000 0.3000 0.3000
illum 2
Ns 60.0000


newmtl black
Ka 0.4000 0.4000 0.4000
Kd 0.0019 0.0101 0.0163
Ks 0.3000 0.3000 0.3000
illum 2
Ns 60.0000





First pass is defined as:

/* glmFirstPass: first pass at a Wavefront OBJ file that gets all the
* statistics of the model (such as #vertices, #normals, etc)
*
* model - properly initialized GLMmodel structure
* file - (fopen'd) file descriptor
*/

static GLvoid
glmFirstPass(GLMmodel* model, FILE* file)
{
GLuint numvertices; /* number of vertices in model */
GLuint numnormals; /* number of normals in model */
GLuint numtexcoords; /* number of texcoords in model */
GLuint numtriangles; /* number of triangles in model */
GLMgroup* group; /* current group */
unsigned v, n, t;
char buf[128];

/* make a default group */
group = glmAddGroup(model, "default");

numvertices = numnormals = numtexcoords = numtriangles = 0;
while(fscanf(file, "%s", buf) != EOF) {
switch(buf[0]) {
case '#': /* comment */
/* eat up rest of line */
fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), file);
break;
case 'v': /* v, vn, vt */
switch(buf[1]) {
case '\0': /* vertex */
/* eat up rest of line */
fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), file);
numvertices++;
break;
case 'n': /* normal */
/* eat up rest of line */
fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), file);
numnormals++;
break;
case 't': /* texcoord */
/* eat up rest of line */
fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), file);
numtexcoords++;
break;
default:
__glmFatalError("glmFirstPass(): Unknown token \"%s\".", buf);
break;
}
break;
case 'm':
if(strncmp(buf, "mtllib", 6) != 0)
__glmFatalError("glmReadOBJ: Got \"%s\" instead of \"mtllib\"", buf);
fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), file);
sscanf(buf, "%s %s", buf, buf);
model->mtllibname = __glmStrStrip((char*)buf);
glmReadMTL(model, model->mtllibname);
break;
case 'u':
if(strncmp(buf, "usemtl", 6) != 0)
__glmFatalError("glmReadOBJ: Got \"%s\" instead of \"usemtl\"", buf);
/* eat up rest of line */
fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), file);
break;
case 'g': /* group */
/* eat up rest of line */
fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), file);
#if SINGLE_STRING_GROUP_NAMES
sscanf(buf, "%s", buf);
#else
buf[strlen(buf)-1] = '\0'; /* nuke '\n' */
#endif
group = glmAddGroup(model, buf);
break;
case 'f': /* face */
v = n = t = 0;
fscanf(file, "%s", buf);
/* can be one of %d, %d//%d, %d/%d, %d/%d/%d %d//%d */
if (strstr(buf, "//")) {
/* v//n */
sscanf(buf, "%d//%d", &v, &n);
fscanf(file, "%d//%d", &v, &n);
fscanf(file, "%d//%d", &v, &n);
numtriangles++;
group->numtriangles++;
while(fscanf(file, "%d//%d", &v, &n) > 0) {
numtriangles++;
group->numtriangles++;
}
} else if (sscanf(buf, "%d/%d/%d", &v, &t, &n) == 3) {
/* v/t/n */
fscanf(file, "%d/%d/%d", &v, &t, &n);
fscanf(file, "%d/%d/%d", &v, &t, &n);
numtriangles++;
group->numtriangles++;
while(fscanf(file, "%d/%d/%d", &v, &t, &n) > 0) {
numtriangles++;
group->numtriangles++;
}
} else if (sscanf(buf, "%d/%d", &v, &t) == 2) {
/* v/t */
fscanf(file, "%d/%d", &v, &t);
fscanf(file, "%d/%d", &v, &t);
numtriangles++;
group->numtriangles++;
while(fscanf(file, "%d/%d", &v, &t) > 0) {
numtriangles++;
group->numtriangles++;
}
} else {
/* v */
fscanf(file, "%d", &v);
fscanf(file, "%d", &v);
numtriangles++;
group->numtriangles++;
while(fscanf(file, "%d", &v) > 0) {
numtriangles++;
group->numtriangles++;
}
}
break;

default:
/* eat up rest of line */
fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), file);
break;
}
}

/* set the stats in the model structure */
model->numvertices = numvertices;
model->numnormals = numnormals;
model->numtexcoords = numtexcoords;
model->numtriangles = numtriangles;

/* allocate memory for the triangles in each group */
group = model->groups;
while(group) {
group->triangles = (GLuint*)malloc(sizeof(GLuint) * group->numtriangles);
group->numtriangles = 0;
group = group->next;
}
}





Second pass is defined as:

/* glmSecondPass: second pass at a Wavefront OBJ file that gets all
* the data.
*
* model - properly initialized GLMmodel structure
* file - (fopen'd) file descriptor
*/

static GLvoid
glmSecondPass(GLMmodel* model, FILE* file)
{
GLuint numvertices; /* number of vertices in model */
GLuint numnormals; /* number of normals in model */
GLuint numtexcoords; /* number of texcoords in model */
GLuint numtriangles; /* number of triangles in model */
GLfloat* vertices; /* array of vertices */
GLfloat* normals; /* array of normals */
GLfloat* texcoords; /* array of texture coordinates */
GLMgroup* group; /* current group pointer */
GLuint material; /* current material */
unsigned int v, n, t;
char buf[128];

/* set the pointer shortcuts */
vertices = model->vertices;
normals = model->normals;
texcoords = model->texcoords;
group = model->groups;

/* on the second pass through the file, read all the data into the
allocated arrays */

numvertices = numnormals = numtexcoords = 1;
numtriangles = 0;
material = 0;
while(fscanf(file, "%s", buf) != EOF) {
switch(buf[0]) {
case '#': /* comment */
/* eat up rest of line */
fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), file);
break;
case 'v': /* v, vn, vt */
switch(buf[1]) {
case '\0': /* vertex */
fscanf(file, "%f %f %f",
&vertices[3 * numvertices + 0],
&vertices[3 * numvertices + 1],
&vertices[3 * numvertices + 2]);
numvertices++;
break;
case 'n': /* normal */
fscanf(file, "%f %f %f",
&normals[3 * numnormals + 0],
&normals[3 * numnormals + 1],
&normals[3 * numnormals + 2]);
numnormals++;
break;
case 't': /* texcoord */
fscanf(file, "%f %f",
&texcoords[2 * numtexcoords + 0],
&texcoords[2 * numtexcoords + 1]);
numtexcoords++;
break;
}
break;
case 'u':
fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), file);
sscanf(buf, "%s %s", buf, buf);
material = glmFindMaterial(model, buf);
#ifdef MATERIAL_BY_FACE
if(!group->material && group->numtriangles)
group->material = material;
#else
group->material = material;
#endif
break;
case 'g': /* group */
/* eat up rest of line */
fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), file);
#if SINGLE_STRING_GROUP_NAMES
sscanf(buf, "%s", buf);
#else
buf[strlen(buf)-1] = '\0'; /* nuke '\n' */
#endif
group = glmFindGroup(model, buf);
#ifndef MATERIAL_BY_FACE
group->material = material;
#endif
break;
case 'f': /* face */
v = n = t = 0;
T(numtriangles).findex = -1;
#ifdef MATERIAL_BY_FACE
if(group->material == 0)
group->material = material;
T(numtriangles).material = material;
#endif
fscanf(file, "%s", buf);
/* can be one of %d, %d//%d, %d/%d, %d/%d/%d %d//%d */
if (strstr(buf, "//")) {
/* v//n */
sscanf(buf, "%u//%u", &v, &n);
T(numtriangles).vindices[0] = v;
T(numtriangles).tindices[0] = -1;
T(numtriangles).nindices[0] = n;
fscanf(file, "%u//%u", &v, &n);
T(numtriangles).vindices[1] = v;
T(numtriangles).tindices[1] = -1;
T(numtriangles).nindices[1] = n;
fscanf(file, "%u//%u", &v, &n);
T(numtriangles).vindices[2] = v;
T(numtriangles).tindices[2] = -1;
T(numtriangles).nindices[2] = n;
group->triangles[group->numtriangles++] = numtriangles;
numtriangles++;
while(fscanf(file, "%u//%u", &v, &n) > 0) {
#ifdef MATERIAL_BY_FACE
T(numtriangles).material = material;
#endif
T(numtriangles).vindices[0] = T(numtriangles-1).vindices[0];
T(numtriangles).tindices[0] = T(numtriangles-1).tindices[0];
T(numtriangles).nindices[0] = T(numtriangles-1).nindices[0];
T(numtriangles).vindices[1] = T(numtriangles-1).vindices[2];
T(numtriangles).tindices[1] = T(numtriangles-1).tindices[2];
T(numtriangles).nindices[1] = T(numtriangles-1).nindices[2];
T(numtriangles).vindices[2] = v;
T(numtriangles).tindices[2] = -1;
T(numtriangles).nindices[2] = n;
group->triangles[group->numtriangles++] = numtriangles;
numtriangles++;
}
} else if (sscanf(buf, "%u/%u/%u", &v, &t, &n) == 3) {
/* v/t/n */
T(numtriangles).vindices[0] = v;
T(numtriangles).tindices[0] = t;
T(numtriangles).nindices[0] = n;
fscanf(file, "%u/%u/%u", &v, &t, &n);
T(numtriangles).vindices[1] = v;
T(numtriangles).tindices[1] = t;
T(numtriangles).nindices[1] = n;
fscanf(file, "%u/%u/%u", &v, &t, &n);
T(numtriangles).vindices[2] = v;
T(numtriangles).tindices[2] = t;
T(numtriangles).nindices[2] = n;
group->triangles[group->numtriangles++] = numtriangles;
numtriangles++;
while(fscanf(file, "%u/%u/%u", &v, &t, &n) > 0) {
#ifdef MATERIAL_BY_FACE
T(numtriangles).material = material;
#endif
T(numtriangles).vindices[0] = T(numtriangles-1).vindices[0];
T(numtriangles).tindices[0] = T(numtriangles-1).tindices[0];
T(numtriangles).nindices[0] = T(numtriangles-1).nindices[0];
T(numtriangles).vindices[1] = T(numtriangles-1).vindices[2];
T(numtriangles).tindices[1] = T(numtriangles-1).tindices[2];
T(numtriangles).nindices[1] = T(numtriangles-1).nindices[2];
T(numtriangles).vindices[2] = v;
T(numtriangles).tindices[2] = t;
T(numtriangles).nindices[2] = n;
group->triangles[group->numtriangles++] = numtriangles;
numtriangles++;
}
} else if (sscanf(buf, "%u/%u", &v, &t) == 2) {
/* v/t */
T(numtriangles).vindices[0] = v;
T(numtriangles).tindices[0] = t;
T(numtriangles).nindices[0] = -1;
fscanf(file, "%u/%u", &v, &t);
T(numtriangles).vindices[1] = v;
T(numtriangles).tindices[1] = t;
T(numtriangles).nindices[1] = -1;
fscanf(file, "%u/%u", &v, &t);
T(numtriangles).vindices[2] = v;
T(numtriangles).tindices[2] = t;
T(numtriangles).nindices[2] = -1;
group->triangles[group->numtriangles++] = numtriangles;
numtriangles++;
while(fscanf(file, "%u/%u", &v, &t) > 0) {
#ifdef MATERIAL_BY_FACE
T(numtriangles).material = material;
#endif
T(numtriangles).vindices[0] = T(numtriangles-1).vindices[0];
T(numtriangles).tindices[0] = T(numtriangles-1).tindices[0];
T(numtriangles).nindices[0] = T(numtriangles-1).nindices[0];
T(numtriangles).vindices[1] = T(numtriangles-1).vindices[2];
T(numtriangles).tindices[1] = T(numtriangles-1).tindices[2];
T(numtriangles).nindices[1] = T(numtriangles-1).nindices[2];
T(numtriangles).vindices[2] = v;
T(numtriangles).tindices[2] = t;
T(numtriangles).nindices[2] = -1;
group->triangles[group->numtriangles++] = numtriangles;
numtriangles++;
}
} else {
/* v */
sscanf(buf, "%u", &v);
T(numtriangles).vindices[0] = v;
T(numtriangles).tindices[0] = -1;
T(numtriangles).nindices[0] = -1;
fscanf(file, "%u", &v);
T(numtriangles).vindices[1] = v;
T(numtriangles).tindices[1] = -1;
T(numtriangles).nindices[1] = -1;
fscanf(file, "%u", &v);
T(numtriangles).vindices[2] = v;
T(numtriangles).tindices[2] = -1;
T(numtriangles).nindices[2] = -1;
group->triangles[group->numtriangles++] = numtriangles;
numtriangles++;
while(fscanf(file, "%u", &v) > 0) {
#ifdef MATERIAL_BY_FACE
T(numtriangles).material = material;
#endif
T(numtriangles).vindices[0] = T(numtriangles-1).vindices[0];
T(numtriangles).tindices[0] = T(numtriangles-1).tindices[0];
T(numtriangles).nindices[0] = T(numtriangles-1).nindices[0];
T(numtriangles).vindices[1] = T(numtriangles-1).vindices[2];
T(numtriangles).tindices[1] = T(numtriangles-1).tindices[2];
T(numtriangles).nindices[1] = T(numtriangles-1).nindices[2];
T(numtriangles).vindices[2] = v;
T(numtriangles).tindices[2] = -1;
T(numtriangles).nindices[2] = -1;
group->triangles[group->numtriangles++] = numtriangles;
numtriangles++;
}
}
break;

default:
/* eat up rest of line */
fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), file);
break;
}
}

#if 0
/* announce the memory requirements */
__glmWarning(" Memory: %d bytes",
numvertices * 3*sizeof(GLfloat) +
numnormals * 3*sizeof(GLfloat) * (numnormals ? 1 : 0) +
numtexcoords * 3*sizeof(GLfloat) * (numtexcoords ? 1 : 0) +
numtriangles * sizeof(GLMtriangle));
#endif
}



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The error you're getting is pointing you in the right direction. The OBJ file doesn't have any Texture Coordinates specified in it (unless they're in part of the file that you've cropped).

The material doesn't link to a texture either, it provides a number of properties for a material (actually three), which are used in various formulae for light etc.

OpenGL doesn't automatically take care of this yourself, you need to do it. You can't just through a file at OpenGL and expect it to understand what it needs done with it.

You will need to set up the material properties in OpenGL using the information from the OBJ file. The easiest way to do this would be to use Shaders.

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Ahh thanks, I sorted it. I basically needed to enable lighting and change some images to png's to work with my libraries.

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      Sprite Class
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      #include "Brain.h" #include <glm/gtc/matrix_transform.hpp> #include <vector> struct Sprite::Implementation { //Position. struct pos pos; //Tag. std::string tag; //Texture. Texture *texture; //Model matrix. glm::mat4 model; //Vertex Array Object. VertexArray *vao; //Vertex Buffer Object. VertexBuffer *vbo; //Layout. VertexBufferLayout *layout; //Index Buffer Object. IndexBuffer *ibo; //Shader. Shader *program; //Brains. std::vector<Brain *> brains; //Deconstructor. ~Implementation(); }; Sprite::Sprite(std::string image_path, std::string tag, float x, float y) { //Create Pointer To Implementaion. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Set the Position of the Sprite object. m_Impl->pos.x = x; m_Impl->pos.y = y; //Set the tag. m_Impl->tag = tag; //Create The Texture. m_Impl->texture = new Texture(image_path); //Initialize the model Matrix. m_Impl->model = glm::mat4(1.0f); //Get the Width and the Height of the Texture. int width = m_Impl->texture->GetWidth(); int height = m_Impl->texture->GetHeight(); //Create the Verticies. float verticies[] = { //Positions //Texture Coordinates. x, y, 0.0f, 0.0f, x + width, y, 1.0f, 0.0f, x + width, y + height, 1.0f, 1.0f, x, y + height, 0.0f, 1.0f }; //Create the Indicies. unsigned int indicies[] = { 0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 0 }; //Create Vertex Array. m_Impl->vao = new VertexArray(); //Create the Vertex Buffer. m_Impl->vbo = new VertexBuffer((void *)verticies, sizeof(verticies)); //Create The Layout. m_Impl->layout = new VertexBufferLayout(); m_Impl->layout->PushFloat(2); m_Impl->layout->PushFloat(2); m_Impl->vao->AddBuffer(m_Impl->vbo, m_Impl->layout); //Create the Index Buffer. m_Impl->ibo = new IndexBuffer(indicies, 6); //Create the new shader. m_Impl->program = new Shader("Shaders/SpriteShader.shader"); } //Render. void Sprite::Render(Window * window) { //Create the projection Matrix based on the current window width and height. glm::mat4 proj = glm::ortho(0.0f, (float)window->GetWidth(), 0.0f, (float)window->GetHeight(), -1.0f, 1.0f); //Set the MVP Uniform. m_Impl->program->setUniformMat4f("u_MVP", proj * m_Impl->model); //Run All The Brains (Scripts) of this game object (sprite). for (unsigned int i = 0; i < m_Impl->brains.size(); i++) { //Get Current Brain. Brain *brain = m_Impl->brains[i]; //Call the start function only once! if (brain->GetStart()) { brain->SetStart(false); brain->Start(); } //Call the update function every frame. brain->Update(); } //Render. window->GetRenderer()->Draw(m_Impl->vao, m_Impl->ibo, m_Impl->texture, m_Impl->program); } void Sprite::Move(float speed, bool left, bool right, bool up, bool down) { if (left) { m_Impl->pos.x -= speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(-speed, 0, 0)); } if (right) { m_Impl->pos.x += speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(speed, 0, 0)); } if (up) { m_Impl->pos.y += speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(0, speed, 0)); } if (down) { m_Impl->pos.y -= speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(0, -speed, 0)); } } void Sprite::AddBrain(Brain * brain) { //Push back the brain object. m_Impl->brains.push_back(brain); } pos *Sprite::GetPos() { return &m_Impl->pos; } std::string Sprite::GetTag() { return m_Impl->tag; } int Sprite::GetWidth() { return m_Impl->texture->GetWidth(); } int Sprite::GetHeight() { return m_Impl->texture->GetHeight(); } Sprite::~Sprite() { delete m_Impl; } //Implementation Deconstructor. Sprite::Implementation::~Implementation() { delete texture; delete vao; delete vbo; delete layout; delete ibo; delete program; }  
      Renderer Class
      #include "Renderer.h" #include "Error.h" Renderer::Renderer() { } Renderer::~Renderer() { } void Renderer::Draw(VertexArray * vao, IndexBuffer * ibo, Texture *texture, Shader * program) { vao->Bind(); ibo->Bind(); program->Bind(); if (texture != NULL) texture->Bind(); GLCall(glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, ibo->GetCount(), GL_UNSIGNED_INT, NULL)); } void Renderer::Clear(float r, float g, float b) { GLCall(glClearColor(r, g, b, 1.0)); GLCall(glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT)); } void Renderer::Update(GLFWwindow *window) { /* Swap front and back buffers */ glfwSwapBuffers(window); /* Poll for and process events */ glfwPollEvents(); }  
      Shader Code
      #shader vertex #version 330 core layout(location = 0) in vec4 aPos; layout(location = 1) in vec2 aTexCoord; out vec2 t_TexCoord; uniform mat4 u_MVP; void main() { gl_Position = u_MVP * aPos; t_TexCoord = aTexCoord; } #shader fragment #version 330 core out vec4 aColor; in vec2 t_TexCoord; uniform sampler2D u_Texture; void main() { aColor = texture(u_Texture, t_TexCoord); } Also i'm pretty sure that every time i'm hitting the up, down, left and right arrows on the keyboard, i'm changing the model Matrix of the Player and not the others.
       
      Window Class:
      #include "Window.h" #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include "Error.h" #include "Renderer.h" #include "Scene.h" #include "Input.h" //Global Variables. int screen_width, screen_height; //On Window Resize. void OnWindowResize(GLFWwindow *window, int width, int height); //Implementation Structure. struct Window::Implementation { //GLFW Window. GLFWwindow *GLFW_window; //Renderer. Renderer *renderer; //Delta Time. double delta_time; //Frames Per Second. int fps; //Scene. Scene *scnene; //Input. Input *input; //Deconstructor. ~Implementation(); }; //Window Constructor. Window::Window(std::string title, int width, int height) { //Initializing width and height. screen_width = width; screen_height = height; //Create Pointer To Implementation. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Try initializing GLFW. if (!glfwInit()) { std::cout << "GLFW could not be initialized!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); exit(-1); } //Setting up OpenGL Version 3.3 Core Profile. glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MAJOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MINOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_PROFILE, GLFW_OPENGL_CORE_PROFILE); /* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */ m_Impl->GLFW_window = glfwCreateWindow(width, height, title.c_str(), NULL, NULL); if (!m_Impl->GLFW_window) { std::cout << "GLFW could not create a window!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); glfwTerminate(); exit(-1); } /* Make the window's context current */ glfwMakeContextCurrent(m_Impl->GLFW_window); //Initialize GLEW. if(glewInit() != GLEW_OK) { std::cout << "GLEW could not be initialized!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); glfwTerminate(); exit(-1); } //Enabling Blending. GLCall(glEnable(GL_BLEND)); GLCall(glBlendFunc(GL_SRC_ALPHA, GL_ONE_MINUS_SRC_ALPHA)); //Setting the ViewPort. GLCall(glViewport(0, 0, width, height)); //**********Initializing Implementation**********// m_Impl->renderer = new Renderer(); m_Impl->delta_time = 0.0; m_Impl->fps = 0; m_Impl->input = new Input(this); //**********Initializing Implementation**********// //Set Frame Buffer Size Callback. glfwSetFramebufferSizeCallback(m_Impl->GLFW_window, OnWindowResize); } //Window Deconstructor. Window::~Window() { delete m_Impl; } //Window Main Loop. void Window::MainLoop() { //Time Variables. double start_time = 0, end_time = 0, old_time = 0, total_time = 0; //Frames Counter. int frames = 0; /* Loop until the user closes the window */ while (!glfwWindowShouldClose(m_Impl->GLFW_window)) { old_time = start_time; //Total time of previous frame. start_time = glfwGetTime(); //Current frame start time. //Calculate the Delta Time. m_Impl->delta_time = start_time - old_time; //Get Frames Per Second. if (total_time >= 1) { m_Impl->fps = frames; total_time = 0; frames = 0; } //Clearing The Screen. m_Impl->renderer->Clear(0, 0, 0); //Render The Scene. if (m_Impl->scnene != NULL) m_Impl->scnene->Render(this); //Updating the Screen. m_Impl->renderer->Update(m_Impl->GLFW_window); //Increasing frames counter. frames++; //End Time. end_time = glfwGetTime(); //Total time after the frame completed. total_time += end_time - start_time; } //Terminate GLFW. glfwTerminate(); } //Load Scene. void Window::LoadScene(Scene * scene) { //Set the scene. m_Impl->scnene = scene; } //Get Delta Time. double Window::GetDeltaTime() { return m_Impl->delta_time; } //Get FPS. int Window::GetFPS() { return m_Impl->fps; } //Get Width. int Window::GetWidth() { return screen_width; } //Get Height. int Window::GetHeight() { return screen_height; } //Get Input. Input * Window::GetInput() { return m_Impl->input; } Renderer * Window::GetRenderer() { return m_Impl->renderer; } GLFWwindow * Window::GetGLFWindow() { return m_Impl->GLFW_window; } //Implementation Deconstructor. Window::Implementation::~Implementation() { delete renderer; delete input; } //OnWindowResize void OnWindowResize(GLFWwindow *window, int width, int height) { screen_width = width; screen_height = height; //Updating the ViewPort. GLCall(glViewport(0, 0, width, height)); }  
      Brain Class
      #include "Brain.h" #include "Sprite.h" #include "Window.h" struct Brain::Implementation { //Just A Flag. bool started; //Window Pointer. Window *window; //Sprite Pointer. Sprite *sprite; }; Brain::Brain(Window *window, Sprite *sprite) { //Create Pointer To Implementation. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Initialize Implementation. m_Impl->started = true; m_Impl->window = window; m_Impl->sprite = sprite; } Brain::~Brain() { //Delete Pointer To Implementation. delete m_Impl; } void Brain::Start() { } void Brain::Update() { } Window * Brain::GetWindow() { return m_Impl->window; } Sprite * Brain::GetSprite() { return m_Impl->sprite; } bool Brain::GetStart() { return m_Impl->started; } void Brain::SetStart(bool value) { m_Impl->started = value; } Script Class (Its a Brain Subclass!!!)
      #include "Script.h" Script::Script(Window *window, Sprite *sprite) : Brain(window, sprite) { } Script::~Script() { } void Script::Start() { std::cout << "Game Started!" << std::endl; } void Script::Update() { Input *input = this->GetWindow()->GetInput(); Sprite *sp = this->GetSprite(); //Move this sprite. this->GetSprite()->Move(200 * this->GetWindow()->GetDeltaTime(), input->GetKeyDown("left"), input->GetKeyDown("right"), input->GetKeyDown("up"), input->GetKeyDown("down")); std::cout << sp->GetTag().c_str() << ".x = " << sp->GetPos()->x << ", " << sp->GetTag().c_str() << ".y = " << sp->GetPos()->y << std::endl; }  
      Main:
      #include "SpaceShooterEngine.h" #include "Script.h" int main() { Window w("title", 600,600); Scene *scene = new Scene(); Sprite *player = new Sprite("Resources/Images/player.png", "Player", 100,100); Sprite *other = new Sprite("Resources/Images/cherno.png", "Other", 400, 100); Sprite *other2 = new Sprite("Resources/Images/cherno.png", "Other", 300, 400); Brain *brain = new Script(&w, player); player->AddBrain(brain); scene->AddSprite(player); scene->AddSprite(other); scene->AddSprite(other2); w.LoadScene(scene); w.MainLoop(); return 0; }  
       
      I literally can't find what is wrong. If you need more code, ask me to post it. I will also attach all the source files.
      Brain.cpp
      Error.cpp
      IndexBuffer.cpp
      Input.cpp
      Renderer.cpp
      Scene.cpp
      Shader.cpp
      Sprite.cpp
      Texture.cpp
      VertexArray.cpp
      VertexBuffer.cpp
      VertexBufferLayout.cpp
      Window.cpp
      Brain.h
      Error.h
      IndexBuffer.h
      Input.h
      Renderer.h
      Scene.h
      Shader.h
      SpaceShooterEngine.h
      Sprite.h
      Texture.h
      VertexArray.h
      VertexBuffer.h
      VertexBufferLayout.h
      Window.h
    • By Cristian Decu
      Hello fellow programmers,
      For a couple of days now i've decided to build my own planet renderer just to see how floating point precision issues
      can be tackled. As you probably imagine, i've quickly faced FPP issues when trying to render absurdly large planets.
       
      I have used the classical quadtree LOD approach;
      I've generated my grids with 33 vertices, (x: -1 to 1, y: -1 to 1, z = 0).
      Each grid is managed by a TerrainNode class that, depending on the side it represents (top, bottom, left right, front, back),
      creates a special rotation-translation matrix that moves and rotates the grid away from the origin so that when i finally
      normalize all the vertices on my vertex shader i can get a perfect sphere.
      T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, 1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(180.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[0] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, T * R, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_FRONT)); T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, -1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(0.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[1] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, R * T, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_BACK)); // So on and so forth for the rest of the sides As you can see, for the front side grid, i rotate it 180 degrees to make it face the camera and push it towards the eye;
      the back side is handled almost the same way only that i don't need to rotate it but simply push it away from the eye.
      The same technique is applied for the rest of the faces (obviously, with the proper rotations / translations).
      The matrix that result from the multiplication of R and T (in that particular order) is send to my vertex shader as `r_Grid'.
      // spherify vec3 V = normalize((r_Grid * vec4(r_Vertex, 1.0)).xyz); gl_Position = r_ModelViewProjection * vec4(V, 1.0); The `r_ModelViewProjection' matrix is generated on the CPU in this manner.
      // No the most efficient way, but it works. glm::dmat4 Camera::getMatrix() { // Create the view matrix // Roll, Yaw and Pitch are all quaternions. glm::dmat4 View = glm::toMat4(Roll) * glm::toMat4(Pitch) * glm::toMat4(Yaw); // The model matrix is generated by translating in the oposite direction of the camera. glm::dmat4 Model = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), -Position); // Projection = glm::perspective(fovY, aspect, zNear, zFar); // zNear = 0.1, zFar = 1.0995116e12 return Projection * View * Model; } I managed to get rid of z-fighting by using a technique called Logarithmic Depth Buffer described in this article; it works amazingly well, no z-fighting at all, at least not visible.
      Each frame i'm rendering each node by sending the generated matrices this way.
      // set the r_ModelViewProjection uniform // Sneak in the mRadiusMatrix which is a matrix that contains the radius of my planet. Shader::setUniform(0, Camera::getInstance()->getMatrix() * mRadiusMatrix); // set the r_Grid matrix uniform i created earlier. Shader::setUniform(1, r_Grid); grid->render(); My planet's radius is around 6400000.0 units, absurdly large, but that's what i really want to achieve;
      Everything works well, the node's split and merge as you'd expect, however whenever i get close to the surface
      of the planet the rounding errors start to kick in giving me that lovely stairs effect.
      I've read that if i could render each grid relative to the camera i could get better precision on the surface, effectively
      getting rid of those rounding errors.
       
      My question is how can i achieve this relative to camera rendering in my scenario here?
      I know that i have to do most of the work on the CPU with double, and that's exactly what i'm doing.
      I only use double on the CPU side where i also do most of the matrix multiplications.
      As you can see from my vertex shader i only do the usual r_ModelViewProjection * (some vertex coords).
       
      Thank you for your suggestions!
       
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