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DX11 [DirectX] Beginning DX Learning - SwapChain::Present crashes program and driver

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Hello, I am just starting out with Direct X 11. I have been following these tutorials but I am stuck at the first lesson with actual rendering (drawing a triangle). Specifically, my program crashes when I reach the present line. Actually, it doesn't crash but my computer freezes up, then the screen goes blank, then comes back on with a message saying my display driver has crashed and my program doesn't do anything more. I have updated my drivers and my graphics card is running Direct X 11. Heres the code

#include <Windows.h>
#include <WindowsX.h>
#include <d3d11.h>
#include <d3dx11.h>
#include <d3dx10.h>

#pragma comment (lib, "d3d11.lib")
#pragma comment (lib, "d3dx11.lib")
#pragma comment (lib, "d3dx10.lib")

#define ScreenWidth 800
#define ScreenHeight 600

IDXGISwapChain *swapChain;
ID3D11Device *device;
ID3D11DeviceContext *devcon;
ID3D11RenderTargetView *backBuffer;

ID3D11VertexShader *mVertexShader;
ID3D11PixelShader *mPixelShader;

ID3D11Buffer *mVideoBuffer;
ID3D11InputLayout *mInputLayout;

struct Vertex
{
float x, y, z;
D3DXCOLOR Color;
};


void Init3D(HWND windowHandle);
void RenderFrame();
void Clean3D();
void InitGraphics();
void InitPipeline();

LRESULT CALLBACK WindowProc(HWND hWnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam);

int WINAPI WinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance, HINSTANCE hPrevInstance, LPSTR lpCmdLine, int nCmdShow)
{
//MessageBox(NULL, "Hello world","My Window", MB_OK);
HWND windowHandle;
WNDCLASSEX windowClass;

ZeroMemory(&windowClass, sizeof(WNDCLASSEX));

windowClass.cbSize = sizeof(WNDCLASSEX);
windowClass.style = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW;
windowClass.lpfnWndProc = WindowProc;
windowClass.hInstance = hInstance;
windowClass.hCursor = LoadCursor(NULL,IDC_ARROW);
//windowClass.hbrBackground = (HBRUSH)COLOR_WINDOW;
windowClass.lpszClassName = "WindowClass1";

RegisterClassEx(&windowClass);

RECT desiredSize = {0,0,500,400};
AdjustWindowRect(&desiredSize,WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW, FALSE);

windowHandle = CreateWindowEx(NULL,"WindowClass1","TK Program", WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW,0,0,ScreenWidth,ScreenHeight,NULL, NULL, hInstance, NULL);

ShowWindow(windowHandle, nCmdShow);

Init3D(windowHandle);

MSG msg = {0};

while(true)
{
if(PeekMessage(&msg, NULL, 0, 0, PM_REMOVE))
{
TranslateMessage(&msg);
DispatchMessage(&msg);

if(msg.message == WM_QUIT)
{
break;
}

//do some game related stuff
}
RenderFrame();
}
Clean3D();
return msg.wParam;
}

LRESULT CALLBACK WindowProc (HWND hWnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)
{
switch(message)
{
case WM_DESTROY:
{
PostQuitMessage(0);
return 0;

}break;
}

return DefWindowProc (hWnd, message,wParam,lParam);
}

void Init3D(HWND windowHandle)
{
DXGI_SWAP_CHAIN_DESC swapChainDescription;
ZeroMemory(&swapChainDescription, sizeof(DXGI_SWAP_CHAIN_DESC));

swapChainDescription.BufferCount = 1;
swapChainDescription.BufferDesc.Format = DXGI_FORMAT_R8G8B8A8_UNORM;
swapChainDescription.BufferUsage = DXGI_USAGE_RENDER_TARGET_OUTPUT;
swapChainDescription.BufferDesc.Width = ScreenWidth;
swapChainDescription.BufferDesc.Height = ScreenHeight;
swapChainDescription.OutputWindow = windowHandle;
swapChainDescription.SampleDesc.Count = 4;
swapChainDescription.Windowed = true;
swapChainDescription.Flags = DXGI_SWAP_CHAIN_FLAG_ALLOW_MODE_SWITCH;

D3D11CreateDeviceAndSwapChain(NULL,D3D_DRIVER_TYPE_HARDWARE,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL, D3D11_SDK_VERSION,&swapChainDescription, &swapChain,&device,NULL,&devcon);

ID3D11Texture2D *pBackBuffer = NULL;
swapChain->GetBuffer(0,__uuidof(ID3D11Texture2D),(LPVOID*)&pBackBuffer);
device->CreateRenderTargetView(pBackBuffer, NULL, &backBuffer);
pBackBuffer->Release();

devcon->OMSetRenderTargets(1, &backBuffer,NULL);

D3D11_VIEWPORT viewport;
ZeroMemory(&viewport, sizeof(D3D11_VIEWPORT));

viewport.TopLeftX = 0;
viewport.TopLeftY = 0;
viewport.Width = ScreenWidth;
viewport.Height = ScreenHeight;

devcon->RSSetViewports(1,&viewport);

InitGraphics();
InitPipeline();
}

void InitPipeline()
{
ID3D10Blob *vertexShader, *pixelShader;
D3DX11CompileFromFile("Shaders.hlsl",0,0,"VShader","vs_5_0",0,0,0,&vertexShader,0,0);
D3DX11CompileFromFile("Shaders.hlsl",0,0,"PShader","ps_5_0",0,0,0,&pixelShader,0,0);

device->CreateVertexShader(vertexShader->GetBufferPointer(),vertexShader->GetBufferSize(),NULL,&mVertexShader);
device->CreatePixelShader(pixelShader->GetBufferPointer(),pixelShader->GetBufferSize(),NULL,&mPixelShader);

devcon->VSSetShader(mVertexShader,0,0);
devcon->PSSetShader(mPixelShader,0,0);

D3D11_INPUT_ELEMENT_DESC inputElementDesc[] =
{
{"POSITION",0, DXGI_FORMAT_R32G32B32_FLOAT, 0, 0, D3D11_INPUT_PER_VERTEX_DATA,0},
{"COLOR",0,DXGI_FORMAT_R32G32B32_FLOAT, 0,12,D3D11_INPUT_PER_VERTEX_DATA,0},
};

device->CreateInputLayout(inputElementDesc,2,vertexShader->GetBufferPointer(),vertexShader->GetBufferSize(),&mInputLayout);
devcon->IASetInputLayout(mInputLayout);
}

void InitGraphics()
{
Vertex OurVertices[] = {{0.0f, 0.5f, 0.0f, D3DXCOLOR(1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f)},
{0.45f, -0.5, 0.0f, D3DXCOLOR(0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f)},
{-0.45f, -0.5f, 0.0f, D3DXCOLOR(0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f)},
{0.7f,0.6f,0.3f,D3DXCOLOR(1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f)}
};
D3D11_BUFFER_DESC bufferDescription;
ZeroMemory(&bufferDescription,sizeof(D3D11_BUFFER_DESC));

bufferDescription.Usage = D3D11_USAGE_DYNAMIC;
bufferDescription.ByteWidth = 3 * sizeof(Vertex);
bufferDescription.BindFlags = D3D11_BIND_VERTEX_BUFFER;
bufferDescription.CPUAccessFlags = D3D11_CPU_ACCESS_WRITE;

device->CreateBuffer(&bufferDescription,NULL,&mVideoBuffer);

D3D11_MAPPED_SUBRESOURCE mappedSubResource;
devcon->Map(mVideoBuffer,NULL,D3D11_MAP_WRITE_DISCARD,NULL, &mappedSubResource);
memcpy(mappedSubResource.pData,OurVertices,sizeof(OurVertices));
devcon->Unmap(mVideoBuffer,NULL);
}

void RenderFrame()
{
devcon->ClearRenderTargetView(backBuffer, D3DXCOLOR(0.0f,0.2f,0.4f,1.0f));

UINT stride = sizeof(Vertex);
UINT offset = 0;
devcon->IASetVertexBuffers(0,1,&mVideoBuffer,&stride,&offset);
devcon->IASetPrimitiveTopology(D3D10_PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLELIST);
devcon->Draw(3,0);

swapChain->Present(0,0);
}

void Clean3D()
{
swapChain->SetFullscreenState(false,NULL);

mPixelShader->Release();
mVertexShader->Release();
swapChain->Release();
backBuffer->Release();
device->Release();
devcon->Release();
}

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Use the flag D3D11_CREATE_DEVICE_DEBUG for the flags in D3D11CreateDeviceAndSwapChain, and then run with the debugger. You should get debug output if anything is wrong. Overall your code is unsafe as you don't seem to be checking any return values at all. D3D11 functions usually return a HRESULT value which will tell you if they failed.

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Use the flag D3D11_CREATE_DEVICE_DEBUG for the flags in D3D11CreateDeviceAndSwapChain, and then run with the debugger. You should get debug output if anything is wrong. Overall your code is unsafe as you don't seem to be checking any return values at all. D3D11 functions usually return a HRESULT value which will tell you if they failed.


Ok so I put in HRESULT results in front of all the methods that return HRESULT and the problem appear to be with the shader creation which returns "E_INVALIDARG". If I'm honest, the shader part was something the tutorial glossed over. What I did to incorporate the shader was add a file called "Shaders.hlsl" in to the source folder of the solution containing:

struct VOut
{
float4 position : SV_POSITION;
float4 color : COLOR;
};

VOut VShader(float4 position : POSITION, float4 color : COLOR)
{
VOut output;

output.position = position;
output.color = color;

return output;
}


float4 PShader(float4 position : SV_POSITION, float4 color : COLOR) : SV_TARGET
{
return color;
}


The shader loading code is:

ID3D10Blob *vertexShader, *pixelShader;
D3DX11CompileFromFile("Shaders.hlsl",0,0,"VShader","vs_5_0",0,0,0,&vertexShader,0,0);
D3DX11CompileFromFile("Shaders.hlsl",0,0,"PShader","ps_5_0",0,0,0,&pixelShader,0,0);
LPVOID vertexBufferPointer = vertexShader->GetBufferPointer();
SIZE_T vertexBufferSize = vertexShader->GetBufferSize();
//HRESULT result = device->CreateVertexShader(vertexShader->GetBufferPointer(),vertexShader->GetBufferSize(),NULL,&mVertexShader);
HRESULT result = device->CreateVertexShader(vertexBufferPointer, vertexBufferSize,NULL,&mVertexShader);
result = device->CreatePixelShader(pixelShader->GetBufferPointer(),pixelShader->GetBufferSize(),NULL,&mPixelShader);


Is this where I am going wrong? Also, on a more general note, At each of the HRESULT points, should I be checking that they're ok before continuing? Would hate to be picking up bad practices when I have hardly begun!

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Yes, generally you want to check as much as possible, or at least methods that are somewhat likely to fail. Compiling shaders is one of those. Does it fail at CreateVertexShader or CreatePixelShader?
If you have a DX11 capable card that is somewhat strange, if D3DX11CompileFromFile succeeds. D3DX11CompileFromFile also returns a HRESULT, and the last parameter can give you compile errors for the shader.

Did you use the debug flag when creating your device?
If you try to call a D3D11 method and have some invalid parameters you will get debug output in the 'Output' window when running with the debugger, which will tell you what's wrong. In VC++, just press F5 to run with the debugger, and make sure to select Debug in the target menu, which should be the default if you didn't change it to Release.

Anyway, to correctly check for errors when compiling the shader, do something like this:

HRESULT hResult;

ID3DBlob *pCompiledCode = NULL;
ID3DBlob *pErrorMsgs = NULL;
hResult = D3DX11CompileFromFile(TEXT("Shaders.hlsl"), NULL, NULL, "VShader", "vs_5_0", 0, 0, NULL, &pCompiledCode, &pErrorMsgs, NULL);
if(FAILED(hResult)) {
MessageBoxA(NULL, (char*)pErrorMsgs->GetBufferPointer(), "D3DX11CompileFromFile failed", MB_OK);
}

ID3D11VertexShader *pVertexShader;
hResult = pDevice->CreateVertexShader(pCompiledCode->GetBufferPointer(), pCompiledCode->GetBufferSize(), NULL, &pVertexShader);
if(FAILED(hResult)) {
asdf; // Add breakpoint here
}

if(pErrorMsgs != NULL)
pErrorMsgs->Release();

pCompiledCode->Release();


Couple that with D3D11_CREATE_DEVICE_DEBUG and you will be able to identify most errors easily.


From what I've heard directxtutorial.com has never been very good at any of this, and skips many things that are important to write safe and stable code. Then again there's not that many D3D11 tutorials I know about.. but you should definitely keep in mind that many functions can fail, and will fail, especially during development when you're changing things around. It's very easy to get a mistake into a shader, and without proper debug output you have no way of knowing which call failed.

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...
From what I've heard directxtutorial.com has never been very good at any of this, and skips many things that are important to write safe and stable code. Then again there's not that many D3D11 tutorials I know about.. but you should definitely keep in mind that many functions can fail, and will fail, especially during development when you're changing things around. It's very easy to get a mistake into a shader, and without proper debug output you have no way of knowing which call failed.


Thank you so much for you help. The problem was the version number, apparently has to be 4 not 5? Thanks for the heads up about safety, will now make sure pointers point to null and I am actually handling error messages :P

Thanks,

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If it has to be 4, then that probably means you're running at feature level 10.0. What graphics card do you have?

You can check your feature level with pDevice->GetFeatureLevel(). The following values are valid, and depend on your graphics card:

D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL featureLevel = pDevice->GetFeatureLevel();

D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL_9_1;
D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL_9_2;
D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL_9_3;
D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL_10_0;
D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL_10_1;
D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL_11_0;


Shader version 5.0 only works with feature level 11.0.

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DXGI_RATIONAL{ 1, 60 } : DXGI_RATIONAL{ 0, 1 }; DXGI_SWAP_CHAIN_DESC swapChainDesc{}; swapChainDesc.BufferDesc.Width = clientWidth; swapChainDesc.BufferDesc.Height = clientHeight; swapChainDesc.BufferDesc.RefreshRate = refreshRate; swapChainDesc.BufferDesc.Format = DXGI_FORMAT_R8G8B8A8_UNORM; swapChainDesc.BufferDesc.Scaling = DXGI_MODE_SCALING_CENTERED; swapChainDesc.SampleDesc.Count = 1; swapChainDesc.SampleDesc.Quality = 0; swapChainDesc.BufferUsage = DXGI_USAGE_RENDER_TARGET_OUTPUT; swapChainDesc.BufferCount = 1; swapChainDesc.OutputWindow = g_WinHnd; swapChainDesc.Windowed = true; swapChainDesc.SwapEffect = DXGI_SWAP_EFFECT_DISCARD; UINT createDeviceFlags{}; #if _DEBUG createDeviceFlags = D3D11_CREATE_DEVICE_DEBUG; #endif //Feature levels const D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL features[]{ D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL_11_0 }; D3D_FEATURE_LEVEL featureLevel; hr = D3D11CreateDeviceAndSwapChain( nullptr, D3D_DRIVER_TYPE_HARDWARE, nullptr, createDeviceFlags, features, _countof(features), D3D11_SDK_VERSION, &swapChainDesc, &g_d3dSwapChain, &g_d3dDevice, &featureLevel, &g_d3dDeviceContext ); if (FAILED(hr)) { return -1; } //Render Target View ID3D11Texture2D* backBuffer; hr = g_d3dSwapChain->GetBuffer(0, __uuidof(ID3D11Texture2D), reinterpret_cast<void**>(&backBuffer)); if (FAILED(hr)) { return -1; } hr = g_d3dDevice->CreateRenderTargetView(backBuffer, nullptr, &g_d3dRenderTargerView); if (FAILED(hr)) { return -1; } SafeRelease(backBuffer); //Depth Stencil View D3D11_TEXTURE2D_DESC depthStencilBufferDesc{}; depthStencilBufferDesc.Width = clientWidth; depthStencilBufferDesc.Height = clientHeight; depthStencilBufferDesc.MipLevels = 1; depthStencilBufferDesc.ArraySize = 1; depthStencilBufferDesc.Format = DXGI_FORMAT_D24_UNORM_S8_UINT; depthStencilBufferDesc.SampleDesc.Count = 1; depthStencilBufferDesc.SampleDesc.Quality = 0; depthStencilBufferDesc.Usage = D3D11_USAGE_DEFAULT; depthStencilBufferDesc.BindFlags = D3D11_BIND_DEPTH_STENCIL; hr = g_d3dDevice->CreateTexture2D(&depthStencilBufferDesc, nullptr, &g_d3dDepthStencilBuffer); if (FAILED(hr)) { return -1; } hr = g_d3dDevice->CreateDepthStencilView(g_d3dDepthStencilBuffer, nullptr, &g_d3dDepthStencilView); if (FAILED(hr)) { return -1; } //Set States D3D11_DEPTH_STENCIL_DESC depthStencilStateDesc{}; depthStencilStateDesc.DepthEnable = true; depthStencilStateDesc.DepthWriteMask = D3D11_DEPTH_WRITE_MASK_ALL; depthStencilStateDesc.DepthFunc = D3D11_COMPARISON_LESS; depthStencilStateDesc.StencilEnable = false; hr = g_d3dDevice->CreateDepthStencilState(&depthStencilStateDesc, &g_d3dDepthStencilState); if (FAILED(hr)) { return -1; } D3D11_RASTERIZER_DESC rasterizerStateDesc{}; rasterizerStateDesc.FillMode = D3D11_FILL_SOLID; rasterizerStateDesc.CullMode = D3D11_CULL_BACK; rasterizerStateDesc.FrontCounterClockwise = FALSE; rasterizerStateDesc.DepthClipEnable = TRUE; rasterizerStateDesc.ScissorEnable = FALSE;; rasterizerStateDesc.MultisampleEnable = FALSE; hr = g_d3dDevice->CreateRasterizerState(&rasterizerStateDesc, &g_d3dRasterizerState); if (FAILED(hr)) { return -1; } //Set Viewport g_Viewport.Width = static_cast<float>(clientWidth); g_Viewport.Height = static_cast<float>(clientHeight); g_Viewport.TopLeftX = 0.0f; g_Viewport.TopLeftY = 0.0f; g_Viewport.MinDepth = 0.0f; g_Viewport.MaxDepth = 1.0f; return 0; } bool LoadContent() { //Load Shaders HRESULT hr; assert(g_d3dDevice); //VS ID3DBlob* vsBlob = nullptr; D3DReadFileToBlob(L"../Shaders/SimpleVertexShader.cso", &vsBlob); assert(vsBlob); hr = g_d3dDevice->CreateVertexShader(vsBlob->GetBufferPointer(), vsBlob->GetBufferSize(), nullptr, &g_d3dVertexShader); if (FAILED(hr)) { SafeRelease(vsBlob); return false; } //Create VS Input Layout D3D11_INPUT_ELEMENT_DESC vertexLayoutDesc[] = { { "POSITION", 0, DXGI_FORMAT_R32G32B32A32_FLOAT, 0, offsetof(VertexPosColor, Position), D3D11_INPUT_PER_VERTEX_DATA ,0 }, { "COLOR", 0, DXGI_FORMAT_R32G32B32A32_FLOAT, 0, offsetof(VertexPosColor, Color), D3D11_INPUT_PER_VERTEX_DATA ,0 } }; hr = g_d3dDevice->CreateInputLayout(vertexLayoutDesc, _countof(vertexLayoutDesc), vsBlob->GetBufferPointer(), vsBlob->GetBufferSize(), &g_d3dInputLayout); if (FAILED(hr)) { SafeRelease(vsBlob); return false; } SafeRelease(vsBlob); //PS ID3DBlob* psBlob = nullptr; D3DReadFileToBlob(L"../Shaders/SimplePixelShader.cso", &psBlob); assert(psBlob); hr = g_d3dDevice->CreatePixelShader(psBlob->GetBufferPointer(), psBlob->GetBufferSize(), nullptr, &g_d3dPixelShader); SafeRelease(psBlob); if (FAILED(hr)) { return false; } //Load Vertex Buffer D3D11_BUFFER_DESC vertexBufferDesc{}; vertexBufferDesc.ByteWidth = sizeof(VertexPosColor) * _countof(g_Vertices); vertexBufferDesc.Usage = D3D11_USAGE_DEFAULT; vertexBufferDesc.BindFlags = D3D11_BIND_VERTEX_BUFFER; D3D11_SUBRESOURCE_DATA resourceData{}; resourceData.pSysMem = g_Vertices; hr = g_d3dDevice->CreateBuffer(&vertexBufferDesc, &resourceData, &g_d3dVertexBuffer); if (FAILED(hr)) { return false; } //Load Index Buffer D3D11_BUFFER_DESC indexBufferDesc{}; indexBufferDesc.ByteWidth = sizeof(WORD) * _countof(g_Indicies); indexBufferDesc.Usage = D3D11_USAGE_DEFAULT; indexBufferDesc.BindFlags = D3D11_BIND_INDEX_BUFFER; resourceData.pSysMem = g_Indicies; hr = g_d3dDevice->CreateBuffer(&indexBufferDesc, &resourceData, &g_d3dIndexBuffer); if (FAILED(hr)) { return false; } //Load Constant Buffers D3D11_BUFFER_DESC cBufferDesc{}; cBufferDesc.ByteWidth = sizeof(XMMATRIX); cBufferDesc.Usage = D3D11_USAGE_DEFAULT; cBufferDesc.BindFlags = D3D11_BIND_CONSTANT_BUFFER; for (size_t bufferID = 0; bufferID < NumConstantBuffers; bufferID++) { hr = g_d3dDevice->CreateBuffer(&cBufferDesc, nullptr, &g_d3dConstantBuffers[bufferID]); if (FAILED(hr)) { return false; } } //Setup Projection Matrix RECT client{}; GetClientRect(g_WinHnd, &client); float clientWidth = static_cast<float>(client.right - client.left); float clientHeight = static_cast<float>(client.bottom - client.top); g_ProjectionMatrix = DirectX::XMMatrixPerspectiveFovLH(XMConvertToRadians(45.0f), clientWidth / clientHeight, 0.1f, 100.0f); g_d3dDeviceContext->UpdateSubresource(g_d3dConstantBuffers[CB_Application], 0, nullptr, &g_ProjectionMatrix, 0, 0); return true; } void Update(float deltaTime) { XMVECTOR eyePosition = XMVectorSet(0, 0, -10, 1); XMVECTOR focusPoint = XMVectorSet(0, 0, 0, 1); XMVECTOR upDirection = XMVectorSet(0, 1, 0, 0); g_ViewMatrix = DirectX::XMMatrixLookAtLH(eyePosition, focusPoint, upDirection); g_d3dDeviceContext->UpdateSubresource(g_d3dConstantBuffers[CB_Frame], 0, nullptr, &g_ViewMatrix, 0, 0); static float angle = 0.0f; angle += 90.0f * deltaTime; XMVECTOR rotationAxis = XMVectorSet(0, 1, 1, 0); g_WorldMatrix = DirectX::XMMatrixRotationAxis(rotationAxis, XMConvertToRadians(angle)); g_d3dDeviceContext->UpdateSubresource(g_d3dConstantBuffers[CB_Object], 0, nullptr, &g_WorldMatrix, 0, 0); } void Clear(const FLOAT clearColor[4], FLOAT clearDepth, UINT8 clearStencil) { g_d3dDeviceContext->ClearRenderTargetView(g_d3dRenderTargerView, clearColor); g_d3dDeviceContext->ClearDepthStencilView(g_d3dDepthStencilView, D3D11_CLEAR_DEPTH | D3D11_CLEAR_STENCIL, clearDepth, clearStencil); } void Present(bool vSync) { if (vSync) { g_d3dSwapChain->Present(1, 0); } else { g_d3dSwapChain->Present(0, 0); } } void Render() { assert(g_d3dDevice); assert(g_d3dDeviceContext); Clear(Colors::CornflowerBlue, 1.0f, 0); //IA const UINT vertexStride = sizeof(VertexPosColor); const UINT offset = 0; g_d3dDeviceContext->IASetVertexBuffers(0, 1, &g_d3dVertexBuffer, &vertexStride, &offset); g_d3dDeviceContext->IASetInputLayout(g_d3dInputLayout); g_d3dDeviceContext->IASetIndexBuffer(g_d3dIndexBuffer, DXGI_FORMAT_R16_UINT, 0); g_d3dDeviceContext->IASetPrimitiveTopology(D3D11_PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLELIST); //VS g_d3dDeviceContext->VSSetShader(g_d3dVertexShader, nullptr, 0); g_d3dDeviceContext->VSGetConstantBuffers(0, NumConstantBuffers, g_d3dConstantBuffers); //RS g_d3dDeviceContext->RSSetState(g_d3dRasterizerState); g_d3dDeviceContext->RSSetViewports(1, &g_Viewport); //PS g_d3dDeviceContext->PSSetShader(g_d3dPixelShader, nullptr, 0); //OM g_d3dDeviceContext->OMSetRenderTargets(1, &g_d3dRenderTargerView, g_d3dDepthStencilView); g_d3dDeviceContext->OMSetDepthStencilState(g_d3dDepthStencilState, 1); //draw g_d3dDeviceContext->DrawIndexed(_countof(g_Indicies), 0, 0); Present(g_EnableVSync); } void CleanUp() { SafeRelease(g_d3dVertexShader); SafeRelease(g_d3dPixelShader); SafeRelease(g_d3dVertexBuffer); SafeRelease(g_d3dIndexBuffer); SafeRelease(g_d3dInputLayout); SafeRelease(g_d3dDepthStencilBuffer); for (size_t bufferID = 0; bufferID < NumConstantBuffers; bufferID++) { SafeRelease(g_d3dConstantBuffers[bufferID]); } SafeRelease(g_d3dDepthStencilState); SafeRelease(g_d3dRasterizerState); SafeRelease(g_d3dRenderTargerView); SafeRelease(g_d3dDepthStencilView); SafeRelease(g_d3dSwapChain); SafeRelease(g_d3dDeviceContext); SafeRelease(g_d3dDevice); }  
    • By MarcusAseth
      Hi guys, I'm trying to learn this stuff but running into some problems 😕
      I've compiled my .hlsl into a header file which contains the global variable with the precompiled shader data:
      //... // Approximately 83 instruction slots used #endif const BYTE g_vs[] = { 68, 88, 66, 67, 143, 82, 13, 236, 152, 133, 219, 113, 173, 135, 18, 87, 122, 208, 124, 76, 1, 0, 0, 0, 16, 76, 0, 0, 6, 0, //.... And now following the "Compiling at build time to header files" example at this msdn link , I've included the header files in my main.cpp and I'm trying to create the vertex shader like this:
      hr = g_d3dDevice->CreateVertexShader(g_vs, sizeof(g_vs), nullptr, &g_d3dVertexShader); if (FAILED(hr)) { return -1; } and this is failing, entering the if and returing -1.
      Can someone point out what I'm doing wrong? 😕 
    • By Toastmastern
      Hello everyone,
      After a few years of break from coding and my planet render game I'm giving it a go again from a different angle. What I'm struggling with now is that I have created a Frustum that works fine for now atleast, it does what it's supose to do alltho not perfect. But with the frustum came very low FPS, since what I'm doing right now just to see if the Frustum worked is to recreate the vertex buffer every frame that the camera detected movement. This is of course very costly and not the way to do it. Thats why I'm now trying to learn how to create a dynamic vertexbuffer instead and to map and unmap the vertexes, in the end my goal is to update only part of the vertexbuffer that is needed, but one step at a time ^^

      So below is my code which I use to create the Dynamic buffer. The issue is that I want the size of the vertex buffer to be big enough to handle bigger vertex buffers then just mPlanetMesh.vertices.size() due to more vertices being added later when I start to do LOD and stuff, the first render isn't the biggest one I will need.
      vertexBufferDesc.Usage = D3D11_USAGE_DYNAMIC; vertexBufferDesc.ByteWidth = mPlanetMesh.vertices.size(); vertexBufferDesc.BindFlags = D3D11_BIND_VERTEX_BUFFER; vertexBufferDesc.CPUAccessFlags = D3D11_CPU_ACCESS_WRITE; vertexBufferDesc.MiscFlags = 0; vertexBufferDesc.StructureByteStride = 0; vertexData.pSysMem = &mPlanetMesh.vertices[0]; vertexData.SysMemPitch = 0; vertexData.SysMemSlicePitch = 0; result = device->CreateBuffer(&vertexBufferDesc, &vertexData, &mVertexBuffer); if (FAILED(result)) { return false; } What happens is that the 
      result = device->CreateBuffer(&vertexBufferDesc, &vertexData, &mVertexBuffer); Makes it crash due to Access Violation. When I put the vertices.size() in it works without issues, but when I try to set it to like vertices.size() * 2 it crashes.
      I googled my eyes dry tonight but doesn't seem to find people with the same kind of issue, I've read that the vertex buffer can be bigger if needed. What I'm I doing wrong here?
       
      Best Regards and Thanks in advance
      Toastmastern
    • By yonisi
      Hi,
      I have a terrain engine where the terrain and water are on different grids. So I'm trying to render planar reflections of the terrain into the water grid. After reading some web pages and docs and also trying to learn from the RasterTek reflections demo and the small water bodies demo as well. What I do is as follows:
      1. Create a Reflection view matrix  - Technically I ONLY flip the camera position in the Y direction (Positive Y is up) and add to it 2 * waterLevel. Then I update the View matrix and I save that matrix for later. The code:
      void Camera::UpdateReflectionViewMatrix( float waterLevel ) { mBackupPosition = mPosition; mBackupLook = mLook; mPosition.y = -mPosition.y + 2.0f * waterLevel; //mLook.y = -mLook.y + 2.0f * waterLevel; UpdateViewMatrix(); mReflectionView = View(); } 2. I render the Terrain geometry to a 512x512 sized Render target by using the Reflection view matrix and an opposite culling (My Terrain is using front culling by nature so I'm using back culling for the Reflction render pass). Let me say that I checked with the Graphics debugger and the Reflection Render target looks "OK" at this stage (Picture attached). I don't know if the fact that the terrain is shown only at the top are of the texture is expected or not, but it seems OK.

      3. Render the Reflection texture into the water using projective texturing - I hope this step is OK code wise. Basically I'm sending to the shader the WorldReflectionViewProj matrix that was created at step 1 in order to use it for the projective texture coordinates, I then convert the position in the DS (Water and terrain are drawn with Tessellation) to the projective tex coords using that WorldReflectionViewProj matrix, then I sample the reflection texture after setting up the coordinates in the PS. Here is the code:
      //Send the ReflectionWorldViewProj matrix to the shader: XMStoreFloat4x4(&mPerFrameCB.Data.ReflectionWorldViewProj, XMMatrixTranspose( ( mWorld * pCam->GetReflectedView() ) * mProj )); //Setting up the Projective tex coords in the DS: Output.projTexPosition = mul(float4(worldPos.xyz, 1), g_ReflectionWorldViewProj); //Setting up the coords in the PS and sampling the reflection texture: float2 projTexCoords; projTexCoords.x = input.projTexPosition.x / input.projTexPosition.w / 2.0 + 0.5; projTexCoords.y = -input.projTexPosition.y / input.projTexPosition.w / 2.0 + 0.5; projTexCoords += normal.xz * 0.025; float4 reflectionColor = gReflectionMap.SampleLevel(SamplerClampLinear, projTexCoords, 0); texColor += reflectionColor * 0.25; I'll add that when compiling the PS I'm getting a warning on those dividing by input.projTexPosition.w for a possible float division by 0, I tried to add some offset or some minimum to the dividing term but that still not solved my issue.
      Here is the problem itself. At relatively flat view angles I'm seeing correct reflections (Or at least so it seems), but as I pitch the camera down, I'm seeing those artifacts which I have no idea where are coming from. I'm culling the terrain in the reflection render pass when it's lower than water height (I have heightmaps for that).
       
      Any help will be appreciated because I don't know what is wrong or where else to look.
    • By thmfrnk
      Hi,
      I am looking for a usefull commandline based texture compression tool with the rights to be able to ship with my application. It should have following caps:
      Supports all major image format as source files (jpeg, png, tga, bmp) Export as DDS Compression Formats BC1, BC2, BC3, BC4, BC7 I am actually using the nvdxt tool from Nvidia, but it does not support BC4 (which I need for one-channel 8bit textures). Everything else which I found wasn't really useful.
      Any suggestions?
      Thx
       
    • By trojanfoe
      I have been trying to create a BlendState for my UI text sprites so that they are both alpha-blended (so you can see them) and invert the pixel they are rendered over (again, so you can see them).
      In order to get alpha blending you would need:
      SrcBlend = SRC_ALPHA DestBlend = INV_SRC_ALPHA and in order to have inverted colours you would need something like:
      SrcBlend = INV_DEST_COLOR DestBlend = INV_SRC_COLOR and you can't have both.
      So I have come to the conclusion that it's not possible; am I right?
    • By Royma
      In traditional way, it needs 6 passes for a point light and many passes for cascaded shadow mapping to generate shadow maps. Recently I learnt a method that using a geometry shader to generate all the shadow maps in one pass.I specify a render target and a depth-stencil buffer which are both Texture2dArray in DirectX11.It looks much better than the traditional way I think.But after I implemented it, I found cascaded shadow mapping runs much slower than the traditional way.The fps slow down from 60 to 35.I don't know why.I guess may be I should do some culling or maybe the geometry shader is not efficient.
      I want to know the reason that I reduced the drawcalls from 8 to 1, but it runs slow down.Should I abandon this method or is there any way to optimize this method to run more efficiently than multi-pass rendering?
      Here is the gs code:

      [maxvertexcount(24)]
      void main(
          triangle DepthGsIn input[3] : SV_POSITION,
          inout TriangleStream< DepthPsIn > output
      )
      {
          for (uint k = 0; k < 8; ++k)
          {
              DepthPsIn element;
              element.RTIndex = k;
              for (uint i = 0; i < 3; ++i)
              {
                  float2 shadowSlopeBias = calculateShadowSlopeBias(input.normal, -g_cameras[k].world[1]);
                  float shadowBias = shadowSlopeBias.y * g_cameras[k].shadowMapParameters.x + g_cameras[k].shadowMapParameters.y;
                  element.position = input.position + shadowBias * g_cameras[k].world[1];
                  element.position = mul(element.position, g_cameras[k].viewProjection);
                  element.depth = element.position.z / element.position.w;
                  
                  output.Append(element);
              }
              output.RestartStrip();
          }
      }
       
    • By savail
      Hey,
      There are a few things which confuse me regarding DirectX 11 and HLSL shaders in general. I would be very grateful for your advice!
      1. Let's take for example a scene which invokes 2 totally separate pipeline render passes interchangeably. I understand I need to bind correct shaders for each of the render pass and potentially blend/depth or rasterizer state but what about resources such as Constant Buffers, Shader Resource Views and Unordered Access Views? Assuming that the second render pass uses none of the resources used by the first pass, do I still need to unbind the resources and clean pipeline state after first pass? Or is it ok to leave pipeline with unbound garbage since anything I'd need to bind for second pass would overwrite contents in the appropriate register slots anyway?
      2. Is it a good practice to assign register slots manually to all resources in HLSL?
      3. I thought about assigning manually register slots for every distinct render pass up to the maximum slot limit if neccessary. For example in 1 render pass I invoke 3 CS's, 2 VS's and 2 PS's and for all resources used by those shaders I try to fill as many register slots as neccessary and potentially reuse many times the same slot in shaders sharing the same resource. I was wondering if there is any performance penalty or gain when I bind all of my needed resources at the start of render pass and never gonna have to do it again until next render pass? - this means potentially binding a lot of registers and having excessive number of bound resources for every shader that is run.
      4. Is it a good practice to create a separate include file for every resource that occurs in >= 2 shader files or is it better to duplicate the declarations? In first case, the code is imo easier to maintain and edit but might be harder to read if there's too many includes. I've come up with a compromise between these 2 like this: create a separate include file for every CB that occurs in >= 2 shader files and a separate include file for every sampler I ever need to use. All other resources like srvs and uavs I prefer to duplicate in multiple shaders because they take much less space than CB for example... I'm not sure however if that's a good practice
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