# OpenGL Simple GLSL Image Processing

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I've been working on my first game in OpenGL and C++ for a little while now, and I'm trying my hand at GLSL for some simple image processing effects. Specifically, I'm trying to implement a simple gaussian blur. However, I'm having difficulty understanding conceptually how this is supposed to work. Here's how I think it's supposed to go from reading various forum entries/tutorials online:

Setup (one time at the beginning of my game init code):
1. Enable texturing (glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D), glGenTextures(...), glBindTexture(...), etc.)
6. Check glGetInfoLogARB for errors

So far, so good (at least I see no output from the info log, so I'm assuming that's good).

Then, to render each frame:
2. Render my frame normally
3. glFlush() (?)
4. glUseProgam(0) (stop using my shader?)
5. glCopyTexImage2d(...) (Capture rendered output to a texture)
6. Calculate texture offsets based on window size
7. Pass texture offsets to shader using glUniform2fv(...) (I think that this isn't totally necessary if my window size is always the same, then I could have the same texture offsets, but not sure, I've seen a ton of different shader code for the fragment shader that does this in seemingly different ways)
8. Render full screen quad (optionally changing projection matrix to make this easier...) with texture coords
9. glFlush()

Does that sound about right? I think this is what I'm doing, but I'm getting really strange output. If this general approach looks correct, I'll post some more specific code, but I wanted to make sure I wasn't wasting anybody's time if I didn't have the concept correctly.

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You're probably close, but theres a couple changes I would make:

#1) I don't think you ever need to call glFlush. The driver should keep track of what is dependent on what else, so you won't be able to pull from a texture or framebuffer until its ready.

#2) Instead of rendering your scene normally and then copying the texels to a texture, you can render directly into a texture via framebuffers. Look into the commands:
glGenFramebuffers
glBindFramebuffer
glFramebufferTexture

This should be a lot more efficient.

#3) When you render the fullscreen quad, you definately don't want to use the same projection matrix. The easiest is to just use no matrix at all (define input coordinates in normalized device coordinates). Just draw your quad with vertices (+/-1, +/-1, 0) and that will align with the fullscreen without any transform required.

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You're probably close, but theres a couple changes I would make:

#1) I don't think you ever need to call glFlush. The driver should keep track of what is dependent on what else, so you won't be able to pull from a texture or framebuffer until its ready.

#2) Instead of rendering your scene normally and then copying the texels to a texture, you can render directly into a texture via framebuffers. Look into the commands:
glGenFramebuffers
glBindFramebuffer
glFramebufferTexture

This should be a lot more efficient.

#3) When you render the fullscreen quad, you definately don't want to use the same projection matrix. The easiest is to just use no matrix at all (define input coordinates in normalized device coordinates). Just draw your quad with vertices (+/-1, +/-1, 0) and that will align with the fullscreen without any transform required.

Ok, I'll give [s]that[/s] framebuffers a shot at some point, but I'm not very concerned with efficiency at this point, just want to get it working I've read about framebuffers though and it does seem like they are often used for this purpose, and if it makes it easier I'm all for it.

As I was re-reading my post this morning, I think I either made a mistake in my explanation above (and probably my implementation, but I'm at work so can't check my code right now), or I REALLY don't understand how the OpenGL pipeline works.

Also, I'm currently using an Orthographic projection (I'm building a Geometry Wars clone just to learn game programming so it's 2D), so would I still need to alter my projection matrix? I think I should easily be able to use my current projection matrix, but I could be wrong about this as well (all the example code for 3D does this by setting it back to normal I believe and using 0,1 (or -1,1, can never keep it straight...), but I was thinking I could skip this step since I already have an orthographic projection.

Thanks for your reply! I'll try swapping steps 1 and 4 of the render piece later when I get back, and if that doesn't work I'll try to come up with some example code to show the problem I'm having.

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As I was re-reading my post this morning, I think I either made a mistake in my explanation above (and probably my implementation, but I'm at work so can't check my code right now), or I REALLY don't understand how the OpenGL pipeline works.

[/quote]

Yeah, this sounds right. I'm used to using a shader for everything, so it looked right to me to have a shader bound to render your scene. If thats your blur shader you want it active during step 8.

Also, I'm currently using an Orthographic projection (I'm building a Geometry Wars clone just to learn game programming so it's 2D), so would I still need to alter my projection matrix? I think I should easily be able to use my current projection matrix, but I could be wrong about this as well (all the example code for 3D does this by setting it back to normal I believe and using 0,1 (or -1,1, can never keep it straight...), but I was thinking I could skip this step since I already have an orthographic projection.
[/quote]
You could make it work with an orthographic projection matrix, but my point was that you don't have to use a matrix at all. If you define your quad's input coordinates in NDC, than you can just let this be your vertex shader:

in vec2 vertex;
out vec2 texcoord;

main () {
gl_Position = vec4(vertex,0,1); //no matrix multiplies necessary
texcoord = vertex*0.5 + 0.5; //scale -1/1 range to 0/1;
}

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You could make it work with an orthographic projection matrix, but my point was that you don't have to use a matrix at all. If you define your quad's input coordinates in NDC, than you can just let this be your vertex shader:

in vec2 vertex;
out vec2 texcoord;

main () {
gl_Position = vec4(vertex,0,1); //no matrix multiplies necessary
texcoord = vertex*0.5 + 0.5; //scale -1/1 range to 0/1;
}

Awesome, yeah that would be ideal. I think I'll take your suggestions and try to implement them in a simple example (FBO + your simple vertex shader above) and then see if I can port it over to my game code. I need to move away from using glBegin()/glEnd() eventually anyway and move to vertex arrays or VBO's at some point too, but want to avoid a total re-write

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Ok, I took a quick shot at using an FBO instead of drawing and then copying it to a texture. I must be doing something wrong, because all I get is a white screen, but I don't get any errors, so I feel like I'm close. I haven't implemented shader stuff yet, but that's next.

Here's the code:

https://gist.github.com/916742

You can comment out the FBO binding in the draw method as well as the "drawTexturedQuad" function call, and you'll see the normal frame.

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There may be other issues as well, but for one thing you're not allowed to have a texture bound to a sampler at the same time you are writing to it, you'll get undefined behaviour. Unbind the texture from the sampler when you're writing to the framebuffer, and unbind the framebuffer when you're reading from the texture.

Once you start working with offscreen rendertargets, it's probably a good idea to go pick up a free copy of gdebugger, it will make your life a lot easier.

EDIT:

Also you have to bind the framebuffer to attach a texture to it:

glGenFramebuffers(1, &fbo_id);
glBindFramebuffer(GL_FRAMEBUFFER,fbo_id); //NEW
glFramebufferTexture2D(GL_FRAMEBUFFER, GL_COLOR_ATTACHMENT0, GL_TEXTURE_2D, tex_id, 0);
glBindFramebuffer(GL_FRAMEBUFFER, 0); //NEW

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There may be other issues as well, but for one thing you're not allowed to have a texture bound to a sampler at the same time you are writing to it, you'll get undefined behaviour. Unbind the texture from the sampler when you're writing to the framebuffer, and unbind the framebuffer when you're reading from the texture.

Once you start working with offscreen rendertargets, it's probably a good idea to go pick up a free copy of gdebugger, it will make your life a lot easier.

EDIT:

Also you have to bind the framebuffer to attach a texture to it:

glGenFramebuffers(1, &fbo_id);
glBindFramebuffer(GL_FRAMEBUFFER,fbo_id); //NEW
glFramebufferTexture2D(GL_FRAMEBUFFER, GL_COLOR_ATTACHMENT0, GL_TEXTURE_2D, tex_id, 0);
glBindFramebuffer(GL_FRAMEBUFFER, 0); //NEW

Hmmm, I added that code, and added two lines to the draw method (to try not to have texture/fbo bound at the same time per your suggestion), but still same all-white screen. Perhaps I'm not doing it correctly though? I updated the gist with the new code in the draw method.

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http://www.gamedev.net/page/resources/_//feature/fprogramming/opengl-frame-buffer-object-101-r2331

The first thing they do in the article is create a renderbuffer for use as a depth buffer. Is this something I need to do as well? I would think I don't need depth information considering I'm doing everything in 2d...but then again I don't fully understand FBO's yet so...

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I'm pretty sure you don't need a depth attachment if you don't want one, you should be able to render fine to just a color attachment. Be sure to disable depth test and depth write though when drawing to the FB.

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Video:

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Take a look at my code:
Sprite Class
(You mostly need to see the Constructor, the Render Method and the Move Method)
#include "Brain.h" #include <glm/gtc/matrix_transform.hpp> #include <vector> struct Sprite::Implementation { //Position. struct pos pos; //Tag. std::string tag; //Texture. Texture *texture; //Model matrix. glm::mat4 model; //Vertex Array Object. VertexArray *vao; //Vertex Buffer Object. VertexBuffer *vbo; //Layout. VertexBufferLayout *layout; //Index Buffer Object. IndexBuffer *ibo; //Shader. Shader *program; //Brains. std::vector<Brain *> brains; //Deconstructor. ~Implementation(); }; Sprite::Sprite(std::string image_path, std::string tag, float x, float y) { //Create Pointer To Implementaion. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Set the Position of the Sprite object. m_Impl->pos.x = x; m_Impl->pos.y = y; //Set the tag. m_Impl->tag = tag; //Create The Texture. m_Impl->texture = new Texture(image_path); //Initialize the model Matrix. m_Impl->model = glm::mat4(1.0f); //Get the Width and the Height of the Texture. int width = m_Impl->texture->GetWidth(); int height = m_Impl->texture->GetHeight(); //Create the Verticies. float verticies[] = { //Positions //Texture Coordinates. x, y, 0.0f, 0.0f, x + width, y, 1.0f, 0.0f, x + width, y + height, 1.0f, 1.0f, x, y + height, 0.0f, 1.0f }; //Create the Indicies. unsigned int indicies[] = { 0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 0 }; //Create Vertex Array. m_Impl->vao = new VertexArray(); //Create the Vertex Buffer. m_Impl->vbo = new VertexBuffer((void *)verticies, sizeof(verticies)); //Create The Layout. m_Impl->layout = new VertexBufferLayout(); m_Impl->layout->PushFloat(2); m_Impl->layout->PushFloat(2); m_Impl->vao->AddBuffer(m_Impl->vbo, m_Impl->layout); //Create the Index Buffer. m_Impl->ibo = new IndexBuffer(indicies, 6); //Create the new shader. m_Impl->program = new Shader("Shaders/SpriteShader.shader"); } //Render. void Sprite::Render(Window * window) { //Create the projection Matrix based on the current window width and height. glm::mat4 proj = glm::ortho(0.0f, (float)window->GetWidth(), 0.0f, (float)window->GetHeight(), -1.0f, 1.0f); //Set the MVP Uniform. m_Impl->program->setUniformMat4f("u_MVP", proj * m_Impl->model); //Run All The Brains (Scripts) of this game object (sprite). for (unsigned int i = 0; i < m_Impl->brains.size(); i++) { //Get Current Brain. Brain *brain = m_Impl->brains[i]; //Call the start function only once! if (brain->GetStart()) { brain->SetStart(false); brain->Start(); } //Call the update function every frame. brain->Update(); } //Render. window->GetRenderer()->Draw(m_Impl->vao, m_Impl->ibo, m_Impl->texture, m_Impl->program); } void Sprite::Move(float speed, bool left, bool right, bool up, bool down) { if (left) { m_Impl->pos.x -= speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(-speed, 0, 0)); } if (right) { m_Impl->pos.x += speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(speed, 0, 0)); } if (up) { m_Impl->pos.y += speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(0, speed, 0)); } if (down) { m_Impl->pos.y -= speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(0, -speed, 0)); } } void Sprite::AddBrain(Brain * brain) { //Push back the brain object. m_Impl->brains.push_back(brain); } pos *Sprite::GetPos() { return &m_Impl->pos; } std::string Sprite::GetTag() { return m_Impl->tag; } int Sprite::GetWidth() { return m_Impl->texture->GetWidth(); } int Sprite::GetHeight() { return m_Impl->texture->GetHeight(); } Sprite::~Sprite() { delete m_Impl; } //Implementation Deconstructor. Sprite::Implementation::~Implementation() { delete texture; delete vao; delete vbo; delete layout; delete ibo; delete program; }
Renderer Class
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Window Class:
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Brain Class
#include "Brain.h" #include "Sprite.h" #include "Window.h" struct Brain::Implementation { //Just A Flag. bool started; //Window Pointer. Window *window; //Sprite Pointer. Sprite *sprite; }; Brain::Brain(Window *window, Sprite *sprite) { //Create Pointer To Implementation. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Initialize Implementation. m_Impl->started = true; m_Impl->window = window; m_Impl->sprite = sprite; } Brain::~Brain() { //Delete Pointer To Implementation. delete m_Impl; } void Brain::Start() { } void Brain::Update() { } Window * Brain::GetWindow() { return m_Impl->window; } Sprite * Brain::GetSprite() { return m_Impl->sprite; } bool Brain::GetStart() { return m_Impl->started; } void Brain::SetStart(bool value) { m_Impl->started = value; } Script Class (Its a Brain Subclass!!!)
#include "Script.h" Script::Script(Window *window, Sprite *sprite) : Brain(window, sprite) { } Script::~Script() { } void Script::Start() { std::cout << "Game Started!" << std::endl; } void Script::Update() { Input *input = this->GetWindow()->GetInput(); Sprite *sp = this->GetSprite(); //Move this sprite. this->GetSprite()->Move(200 * this->GetWindow()->GetDeltaTime(), input->GetKeyDown("left"), input->GetKeyDown("right"), input->GetKeyDown("up"), input->GetKeyDown("down")); std::cout << sp->GetTag().c_str() << ".x = " << sp->GetPos()->x << ", " << sp->GetTag().c_str() << ".y = " << sp->GetPos()->y << std::endl; }
Main:
#include "SpaceShooterEngine.h" #include "Script.h" int main() { Window w("title", 600,600); Scene *scene = new Scene(); Sprite *player = new Sprite("Resources/Images/player.png", "Player", 100,100); Sprite *other = new Sprite("Resources/Images/cherno.png", "Other", 400, 100); Sprite *other2 = new Sprite("Resources/Images/cherno.png", "Other", 300, 400); Brain *brain = new Script(&w, player); player->AddBrain(brain); scene->AddSprite(player); scene->AddSprite(other); scene->AddSprite(other2); w.LoadScene(scene); w.MainLoop(); return 0; }

I literally can't find what is wrong. If you need more code, ask me to post it. I will also attach all the source files.
Brain.cpp
Error.cpp
IndexBuffer.cpp
Input.cpp
Renderer.cpp
Scene.cpp
Sprite.cpp
Texture.cpp
VertexArray.cpp
VertexBuffer.cpp
VertexBufferLayout.cpp
Window.cpp
Brain.h
Error.h
IndexBuffer.h
Input.h
Renderer.h
Scene.h
SpaceShooterEngine.h
Sprite.h
Texture.h
VertexArray.h
VertexBuffer.h
VertexBufferLayout.h
Window.h

• Hello fellow programmers,
For a couple of days now i've decided to build my own planet renderer just to see how floating point precision issues
can be tackled. As you probably imagine, i've quickly faced FPP issues when trying to render absurdly large planets.

I have used the classical quadtree LOD approach;
I've generated my grids with 33 vertices, (x: -1 to 1, y: -1 to 1, z = 0).
Each grid is managed by a TerrainNode class that, depending on the side it represents (top, bottom, left right, front, back),
creates a special rotation-translation matrix that moves and rotates the grid away from the origin so that when i finally
normalize all the vertices on my vertex shader i can get a perfect sphere.
T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, 1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(180.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[0] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, T * R, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_FRONT)); T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, -1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(0.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[1] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, R * T, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_BACK)); // So on and so forth for the rest of the sides As you can see, for the front side grid, i rotate it 180 degrees to make it face the camera and push it towards the eye;
the back side is handled almost the same way only that i don't need to rotate it but simply push it away from the eye.
The same technique is applied for the rest of the faces (obviously, with the proper rotations / translations).
The matrix that result from the multiplication of R and T (in that particular order) is send to my vertex shader as r_Grid'.
// spherify vec3 V = normalize((r_Grid * vec4(r_Vertex, 1.0)).xyz); gl_Position = r_ModelViewProjection * vec4(V, 1.0); The r_ModelViewProjection' matrix is generated on the CPU in this manner.
// No the most efficient way, but it works. glm::dmat4 Camera::getMatrix() { // Create the view matrix // Roll, Yaw and Pitch are all quaternions. glm::dmat4 View = glm::toMat4(Roll) * glm::toMat4(Pitch) * glm::toMat4(Yaw); // The model matrix is generated by translating in the oposite direction of the camera. glm::dmat4 Model = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), -Position); // Projection = glm::perspective(fovY, aspect, zNear, zFar); // zNear = 0.1, zFar = 1.0995116e12 return Projection * View * Model; } I managed to get rid of z-fighting by using a technique called Logarithmic Depth Buffer described in this article; it works amazingly well, no z-fighting at all, at least not visible.
Each frame i'm rendering each node by sending the generated matrices this way.
// set the r_ModelViewProjection uniform // Sneak in the mRadiusMatrix which is a matrix that contains the radius of my planet. Shader::setUniform(0, Camera::getInstance()->getMatrix() * mRadiusMatrix); // set the r_Grid matrix uniform i created earlier. Shader::setUniform(1, r_Grid); grid->render(); My planet's radius is around 6400000.0 units, absurdly large, but that's what i really want to achieve;
Everything works well, the node's split and merge as you'd expect, however whenever i get close to the surface
of the planet the rounding errors start to kick in giving me that lovely stairs effect.
I've read that if i could render each grid relative to the camera i could get better precision on the surface, effectively
getting rid of those rounding errors.

My question is how can i achieve this relative to camera rendering in my scenario here?
I know that i have to do most of the work on the CPU with double, and that's exactly what i'm doing.
I only use double on the CPU side where i also do most of the matrix multiplications.
As you can see from my vertex shader i only do the usual r_ModelViewProjection * (some vertex coords).