# OpenGL ASE Texture Coordinates

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So I've been wracking my brain for a while now trying to figure out why the texture coordinates from my ASE file aren't correct and I finally decided to ask for help... I took a simple, boxy, space ship, unwraped it, rendered that, collapsed the layer down in 3DS Max, exported the model as an ASE. I got the model to render correctly in OpenGL ES (for Android) but the texture is not being laid correctly on the model. These are hard values from a file and I will eventually write a parser, but for now I just wanted to make sure I can do it and I understand how. Without further ado, my "ShipModel" class (done in java btw since that's what Android is developed in):

 package com.smash.spaceace.Game; import java.io.IOException; import java.io.InputStream; import java.nio.ByteBuffer; import java.nio.ByteOrder; import java.nio.FloatBuffer; import javax.microedition.khronos.opengles.GL10; import javax.microedition.khronos.opengles.GL11; import android.content.Context; import android.graphics.Bitmap; import android.graphics.BitmapFactory; import android.opengl.GLUtils; import android.util.Log; /** * This class is an object representation of * a Cube containing the vertex information, * texture coordinates, the vertex indices * and drawing functionality, which is called * by the renderer. * * @author Savas Ziplies (nea/INsanityDesign) */ public class ShipModel { /** The buffer holding the vertices */ private FloatBuffer vertexBuffer; /** The buffer holding the texture coordinates */ private FloatBuffer textureBuffer; /** The buffer holding the indices */ private ByteBuffer indexBuffer; /** The buffer holding the normals */ private FloatBuffer normalBuffer; /** Our texture pointer */ private int[] textures = new int[3]; /** The initial vertex definition */ float shipVerts [] = { -0.329f,-3.219f,0.34f, -0.285f,3.219f,0.295f, -0.329f,-3.219f,0.638f, -0.285f,3.219f,0.638f, -0.735f,0.000f,1.118f, -0.735f,-1.610f, 1.118f, -0.735f, 0.000f, 0.082f, -0.735f, -1.610f, 0.093f, -1.865f, -1.408f, 1.118f, -1.865f, -1.408f, 0.093f, -1.641f, -4.030f, 0.094f, -1.641f, -4.030f, 0.545f, -2.771f, -3.828f, 0.545f, -2.771f, -3.829f, 0.094f, 0.329f, -3.219f, 0.348f, 0.735f, -1.610f, 0.093f, 0.735f, 0.000f, 0.082f, 0.285f, 3.219f, 0.295f, 0.329f, -3.219f, 0.638f, 0.735f, -1.610f, 1.118f, 0.735f, 0.000f, 1.118f, 0.285f, 3.219f, 0.638f, 1.865f, -1.408f, 0.093f, 1.865f, -1.408f, 1.118f, 1.641f, -4.030f, 0.094f, 1.641f, -4.030f, 0.545f, 2.771f, -3.828f, 0.545f, 2.771f, -3.829f, 0.094f, -0.311f, -1.415f, 1.310f, 0.311f, -1.415f, 1.310f }; /** * The initial normals for the lighting calculations * * The normals are not necessarily correct from a * real world perspective, as I am too lazy to write * these all on my own. But you get the idea and see * what I mean if you run the demo. */ float shipNormals [] = { 0.000f, -0.286f, 0.958f, -0.000f, -1.000f, -0.000f, -0.990f, 0.139f, 0.000f, -0.780f, 0.626f, 0.000f, -0.970f, -0.245f, -0.000f, 0.000f, 0.000f, 1.000f, -0.001f, -0.007f, -1.000f, -0.039f, -0.216f, 0.976f, 0.937f, -0.351f, 0.000f, -0.937f, 0.351f, 0.000f, -0.000f, -0.000f, -1.000f, 0.129f, -0.124f, -0.984f, 0.990f, 0.139f, -0.000f, 0.780f, 0.626f, -0.000f, 0.970f, -0.245f, 0.000f, 0.000f, 0.000f, 1.000f, 0.001f, -0.007f, -1.000f, 0.176f, -0.984f, 0.001f, -0.937f, -0.351f, 0.000f, 0.937f, 0.350f, 0.000f, 0.000f, -0.000f, -1.000f, 0.000f, 1.000f, 0.000f, -0.000f, 0.147f, 0.989f, 0.000f, 0.066f, -0.998f, -0.000f, 0.135f, 0.991f, 0.000f, -0.703f, 0.711f, 0.413f, 0.000f, 0.911f, -0.413f, 0.000f, 0.911f, -0.176f, -0.984f, 0.001f, 0.039f, -0.216f, 0.976f, 0.039f, -0.216f, 0.976f, 0.000f, -0.286f, 0.958f, 0.000f, -1.000f, 0.000f, -0.990f, 0.139f, 0.000f, -0.780f, 0.626f, 0.000f, -0.970f, -0.245f, 0.000f, -0.039f, -0.216f, 0.976f, 0.937f, -0.351f, 0.000f, -0.937f, 0.350f, 0.000f, -0.000f, -0.000f, -1.000f, -0.000f, -0.007f, -1.000f, 0.000f, -0.157f, -0.988f, -0.225f, -0.006f, -0.974f, 0.990f, 0.139f, 0.000f, 0.780f, 0.626f, 0.000f, 0.970f, -0.245f, 0.000f, 0.176f, -0.984f, 0.001f, -0.937f, -0.351f, 0.000f, 0.937f, 0.351f, 0.000f, 0.000f, -0.000f, -1.000f, 0.000f, 1.000f, 0.000f, 0.000f, 0.147f, 0.989f, -0.000f, 0.066f, -0.998f, 0.000f, 0.135f, 0.991f, 0.000f, -0.703f, 0.711f, -0.176f, -0.984f, 0.001f }; /** The initial texture coordinates (u, v) */ float shipTexCoords [] = { 0.347f, 0.208f, 0.000f, 0.214f, 0.208f, 0.000f, 0.889f, 0.393f, 0.000f, 0.756f, 0.426f, 0.000f, 0.434f, 0.952f, 0.000f, 0.756f, 0.305f, 0.000f, 0.852f, 0.963f, 0.000f, 0.778f, 0.963f, 0.000f, 0.449f, 0.758f, 0.000f, 0.449f, 0.893f, 0.000f, 0.030f, 0.830f, 0.000f, 0.633f, 0.759f, 0.000f, 0.623f, 0.305f, 0.000f, 0.633f, 0.893f, 0.000f, 0.739f, 0.211f, 0.000f, 0.659f, 0.759f, 0.000f, 0.231f, 0.115f, 0.000f, 0.869f, 0.792f, 0.000f, 0.014f, 0.133f, 0.000f, 0.939f, 0.137f, 0.000f, 0.869f, 0.830f, 0.000f, 0.948f, 0.759f, 0.000f, 0.659f, 0.759f, 0.000f, 0.975f, 0.759f, 0.000f, 0.956f, 0.230f, 0.000f, 0.347f, 0.329f, 0.000f, 0.739f, 0.520f, 0.000f, 0.081f, 0.242f, 0.000f, 0.623f, 0.426f, 0.000f, 0.231f, 0.423f, 0.000f, 0.214f, 0.329f, 0.000f, 0.357f, 0.342f, 0.000f, 0.740f, 0.340f, 0.000f, 0.031f, 0.498f, 0.000f, 0.014f, 0.404f, 0.000f, 0.613f, 0.245f, 0.000f, 0.613f, 0.292f, 0.000f, 0.031f, 0.040f, 0.000f, 0.740f, 0.391f, 0.000f, 0.939f, 0.594f, 0.000f, 0.434f, 0.989f, 0.000f, 0.348f, 0.989f, 0.000f, 0.345f, 0.598f, 0.000f, 0.345f, 0.732f, 0.000f, 0.030f, 0.657f, 0.000f, 0.555f, 0.597f, 0.000f, 0.975f, 0.625f, 0.000f, 0.975f, 0.669f, 0.000f, 0.372f, 0.598f, 0.000f, 0.555f, 0.732f, 0.000f, 0.974f, 0.818f, 0.000f, 0.345f, 0.598f, 0.000f, 0.345f, 0.732f, 0.000f, 0.030f, 0.785f, 0.000f, 0.956f, 0.501f, 0.000f, 0.889f, 0.338f, 0.000f, 0.357f, 0.389f, 0.000f, 0.081f, 0.296f, 0.000f, 0.136f, 0.669f, 0.000f, 0.372f, 0.732f, 0.000f, 0.056f, 0.657f, 0.000f, 0.056f, 0.598f, 0.000f, 0.030f, 0.598f, 0.000f, 0.136f, 0.632f, 0.000f, 0.778f, 0.919f, 0.000f, 0.852f, 0.919f, 0.000f, 0.659f, 0.893f, 0.000f, 0.948f, 0.818f, 0.000f, 0.659f, 0.893f, 0.000f, 0.752f, 0.977f, 0.000f, 0.605f, 0.977f, 0.000f, 0.752f, 0.919f, 0.000f, 0.030f, 0.977f, 0.000f, 0.030f, 0.919f, 0.000f, 0.177f, 0.977f, 0.000f, 0.348f, 0.952f, 0.000f, 0.605f, 0.919f, 0.000f, 0.177f, 0.919f, 0.000f }; private byte indices[] = { // Faces definition 18 , 19 , 5, 14 , 18 , 2, 6 , 4 , 3 , 9 , 8 , 4 , 7 , 0 , 2 , 5 , 4 , 8 , 6 , 7 , 9 , 5 , 12 , 11 , 7 , 5 , 11 , 8 , 9 , 13 , 9 , 7 , 10 , 7 , 16 , 0 , 16 , 17 , 21 , 22 , 16 , 20 , 15 , 19 , 18 , 19 , 23 , 20 , 16 , 22 , 15 , 26 , 25 , 27 , 15 , 24 , 25 , 23 , 26 , 27 , 22 , 27 , 24 , 3 , 21 , 17 , 3 , 4 , 20 , 1 , 17 , 16 , 20 , 4 , 28 , 28 , 5 , 19 , 20 , 29 , 19 , 5 , 28 , 4 , 12 , 13 , 11 , 26 , 23 , 25 , 23 , 19 , 25 , 5 , 2 , 18 , 2 , 0 , 14 , 3 , 1 , 6 , 4 , 6 , 9 , 2 , 5 , 7 , 5 , 8 , 12 , 11 , 10 , 7 , 13 , 12 , 8 , 10 , 13 , 9 , 7 , 6 , 16 , 15 , 14 , 0 , 16 , 15 , 0 , 21 , 20 , 16 , 20 , 23 , 22 , 18 , 14 , 15 , 25 , 24 , 27 , 25 , 19 , 15 , 27 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 15 , 22 , 17 , 1 , 3 , 20 , 21 , 3 , 16 , 6 , 1 , 28 , 29 , 20 , 19 , 29 , 28 , 13 , 10 , 11 }; /** * The Cube constructor. * * Initiate the buffers. */ public ShipModel() { // ByteBuffer byteBuf = ByteBuffer.allocateDirect(shipVerts.length * 4); byteBuf.order(ByteOrder.nativeOrder()); vertexBuffer = byteBuf.asFloatBuffer(); float temp; for(int x = 0; x < shipVerts.length; x++) { if((x - 1) % 3 == 0 && x + 1 < shipVerts.length && x - 1 > 0 || x == 1) { Log.d("Space Ace", "X: " + x); temp = shipVerts[x]; shipVerts[x] = shipVerts[x + 1]; shipVerts[x + 1] = temp; } } vertexBuffer.put(shipVerts); vertexBuffer.position(0); // byteBuf = ByteBuffer.allocateDirect(shipTexCoords.length); byteBuf.order(ByteOrder.nativeOrder()); textureBuffer = byteBuf.asFloatBuffer(); textureBuffer.put(shipTexCoords); textureBuffer.position(0); // byteBuf = ByteBuffer.allocateDirect(shipNormals.length); byteBuf.order(ByteOrder.nativeOrder()); normalBuffer = byteBuf.asFloatBuffer(); for(int x = 0; x < shipNormals.length; x++) { if((x - 1) % 3 == 0 && x + 1 < shipNormals.length && x - 1 > 0 || x == 1) { temp = shipNormals[x]; shipNormals[x] = shipNormals[x + 1]; shipNormals[x + 1] = temp; } } normalBuffer.put(shipNormals); normalBuffer.position(0); indexBuffer = ByteBuffer.allocateDirect(indices.length); indexBuffer.put(indices); // indexBuffer.position(0); } /** * The object own drawing function. * Called from the renderer to redraw this instance * with possible changes in values. * * @param gl - The GL Context * @param filter - Which texture filter to be used */ public void draw(GL10 gl, int filter) { //Bind the texture according to the set texture filter gl.glBindTexture(GL10.GL_TEXTURE_2D, textures[filter]); //Enable the vertex, texture and normal state gl.glEnableClientState(GL10.GL_VERTEX_ARRAY); gl.glEnableClientState(GL10.GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY); gl.glEnableClientState(GL10.GL_NORMAL_ARRAY); //Point to our buffers gl.glVertexPointer(3, GL10.GL_FLOAT, 0, vertexBuffer); gl.glTexCoordPointer(2, GL10.GL_FLOAT, 0, textureBuffer); gl.glNormalPointer(GL10.GL_FLOAT, 0, normalBuffer); //Draw the vertices as triangles, based on the Index Buffer information gl.glDrawElements(GL10.GL_TRIANGLES, indices.length, GL10.GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, indexBuffer); //Disable the client state before leaving gl.glDisableClientState(GL10.GL_VERTEX_ARRAY); gl.glDisableClientState(GL10.GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY); gl.glDisableClientState(GL10.GL_NORMAL_ARRAY); } /** * Load the textures * * @param gl - The GL Context * @param context - The Activity context */ public void loadGLTexture(GL10 gl, Context context, int drawable) { //Get the texture from the Android resource directory InputStream is = context.getResources().openRawResource(drawable); Bitmap bitmap = null; try { //BitmapFactory is an Android graphics utility for images bitmap = BitmapFactory.decodeStream(is); } finally { //Always clear and close try { is.close(); is = null; } catch (IOException e) { } } //Generate there texture pointer gl.glGenTextures(3, textures, 0); //Create Nearest Filtered Texture and bind it to texture 0 gl.glBindTexture(GL10.GL_TEXTURE_2D, textures[0]); gl.glTexParameterf(GL10.GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL10.GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL10.GL_NEAREST); gl.glTexParameterf(GL10.GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL10.GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL10.GL_NEAREST); GLUtils.texImage2D(GL10.GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, bitmap, 0); //Create Linear Filtered Texture and bind it to texture 1 gl.glBindTexture(GL10.GL_TEXTURE_2D, textures[1]); gl.glTexParameterf(GL10.GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL10.GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL10.GL_LINEAR); gl.glTexParameterf(GL10.GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL10.GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL10.GL_LINEAR); GLUtils.texImage2D(GL10.GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, bitmap, 0); //Create mipmapped textures and bind it to texture 2 gl.glBindTexture(GL10.GL_TEXTURE_2D, textures[2]); gl.glTexParameterf(GL10.GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL10.GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL10.GL_LINEAR); gl.glTexParameterf(GL10.GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL10.GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL10.GL_LINEAR_MIPMAP_NEAREST); /* * This is a change to the original tutorial, as buildMipMap does not exist anymore * in the Android SDK. * * We check if the GL context is version 1.1 and generate MipMaps by flag. * Otherwise we call our own buildMipMap implementation */ if(gl instanceof GL11) { gl.glTexParameterf(GL11.GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL11.GL_GENERATE_MIPMAP, GL11.GL_TRUE); GLUtils.texImage2D(GL10.GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, bitmap, 0); // } else { buildMipmap(gl, bitmap); } //Clean up bitmap.recycle(); } /** * Our own MipMap generation implementation. * Scale the original bitmap down, always by factor two, * and set it as new mipmap level. * * Thanks to Mike Miller (with minor changes)! * * @param gl - The GL Context * @param bitmap - The bitmap to mipmap */ private void buildMipmap(GL10 gl, Bitmap bitmap) { // int level = 0; // int height = bitmap.getHeight(); int width = bitmap.getWidth(); // while(height >= 1 || width >= 1) { //First of all, generate the texture from our bitmap and set it to the according level GLUtils.texImage2D(GL10.GL_TEXTURE_2D, level, bitmap, 0); // if(height == 1 || width == 1) { break; } //Increase the mipmap level level++; // height /= 2; width /= 2; Bitmap bitmap2 = Bitmap.createScaledBitmap(bitmap, width, height, true); //Clean up bitmap.recycle(); bitmap = bitmap2; } } } 

As a disclaimer I did use some code from a tutorial in this, so not all of the work is mine, especially the loadGLtexture function mainly cause I have no idea what the hell it does so maybe some clarification on that would be good too. Like I said this is a VERY rough start and I just want to get my model modelled and textured on the screen before I go writing better code.

My ASE file:

 *3DSMAX_ASCIIEXPORT 200 *COMMENT "AsciiExport Version 2.00 - Thu May 19 22:05:05 2011" *SCENE { *SCENE_FILENAME "boxy ship.max" *SCENE_FIRSTFRAME 0 *SCENE_LASTFRAME 100 *SCENE_FRAMESPEED 30 *SCENE_TICKSPERFRAME 160 *SCENE_BACKGROUND_STATIC 0.000 0.000 0.000 *SCENE_AMBIENT_STATIC 0.000 0.000 0.000 } *MATERIAL_LIST { *MATERIAL_COUNT 1 *MATERIAL 0 { *MATERIAL_NAME "01 - Default" *MATERIAL_CLASS "Standard" *MATERIAL_AMBIENT 0.588 0.588 0.588 *MATERIAL_DIFFUSE 0.588 0.588 0.588 *MATERIAL_SPECULAR 0.900 0.900 0.900 *MATERIAL_SHINE 0.100 *MATERIAL_SHINESTRENGTH 0.000 *MATERIAL_TRANSPARENCY 0.000 *MATERIAL_WIRESIZE 1.000 *MATERIAL_SHADING Blinn *MATERIAL_XP_FALLOFF 0.000 *MATERIAL_SELFILLUM 0.000 *MATERIAL_FALLOFF In *MATERIAL_XP_TYPE Filter *MAP_DIFFUSE { *MAP_NAME "Map #0" *MAP_CLASS "Bitmap" *MAP_SUBNO 1 *MAP_AMOUNT 1.000 *BITMAP "E:\Users\SMASH\Pictures\Space Ace\ship_unwrap.png" *MAP_TYPE Screen *UVW_U_OFFSET 0.000 *UVW_V_OFFSET 0.000 *UVW_U_TILING 1.000 *UVW_V_TILING 1.000 *UVW_ANGLE 0.000 *UVW_BLUR 1.000 *UVW_BLUR_OFFSET 0.000 *UVW_NOUSE_AMT 1.000 *UVW_NOISE_SIZE 1.000 *UVW_NOISE_LEVEL 1 *UVW_NOISE_PHASE 0.000 *BITMAP_FILTER Pyramidal } } } *GEOMOBJECT { *NODE_NAME "Box01" *NODE_TM { *NODE_NAME "Box01" *INHERIT_POS 0 0 0 *INHERIT_ROT 0 0 0 *INHERIT_SCL 0 0 0 *TM_ROW0 -0.000 -0.285 0.000 *TM_ROW1 -0.000 0.000 0.285 *TM_ROW2 -0.285 0.000 -0.000 *TM_ROW3 0.000 4.640 3.480 *TM_POS 0.000 4.640 3.480 *TM_ROTAXIS 0.577 -0.577 -0.577 *TM_ROTANGLE 4.189 *TM_SCALE 0.285 0.285 0.285 *TM_SCALEAXIS 0.000 0.000 0.000 *TM_SCALEAXISANG 0.000 } *MESH { *TIMEVALUE 0 *MESH_NUMVERTEX 0 *MESH_NUMFACES 0 *MESH_VERTEX_LIST { } *MESH_FACE_LIST { } *MESH_NUMTVERTEX 0 *MESH_NORMALS { } } *PROP_MOTIONBLUR 0 *PROP_CASTSHADOW 1 *PROP_RECVSHADOW 1 *WIREFRAME_COLOR 0.694 0.106 0.345 } *GEOMOBJECT { *NODE_NAME "Box02" *NODE_TM { *NODE_NAME "Box02" *INHERIT_POS 0 0 0 *INHERIT_ROT 0 0 0 *INHERIT_SCL 0 0 0 *TM_ROW0 1.000 0.000 0.000 *TM_ROW1 0.000 1.000 0.000 *TM_ROW2 0.000 0.000 1.000 *TM_ROW3 -0.493 2.001 0.000 *TM_POS -0.493 2.001 0.000 *TM_ROTAXIS 0.000 0.000 0.000 *TM_ROTANGLE 0.000 *TM_SCALE 1.000 1.000 1.000 *TM_SCALEAXIS 0.000 0.000 0.000 *TM_SCALEAXISANG 0.000 } *MESH { *TIMEVALUE 0 *MESH_NUMVERTEX 30 *MESH_NUMFACES 56 *MESH_VERTEX_LIST { *MESH_VERTEX 0 -0.329 -3.219 0.348 *MESH_VERTEX 1 -0.285 3.219 0.295 *MESH_VERTEX 2 -0.329 -3.219 0.638 *MESH_VERTEX 3 -0.285 3.219 0.638 *MESH_VERTEX 4 -0.735 0.000 1.118 *MESH_VERTEX 5 -0.735 -1.610 1.118 *MESH_VERTEX 6 -0.735 0.000 0.082 *MESH_VERTEX 7 -0.735 -1.610 0.093 *MESH_VERTEX 8 -1.865 -1.408 1.118 *MESH_VERTEX 9 -1.865 -1.408 0.093 *MESH_VERTEX 10 -1.641 -4.030 0.094 *MESH_VERTEX 11 -1.641 -4.030 0.545 *MESH_VERTEX 12 -2.771 -3.828 0.545 *MESH_VERTEX 13 -2.771 -3.829 0.094 *MESH_VERTEX 14 0.329 -3.219 0.348 *MESH_VERTEX 15 0.735 -1.610 0.093 *MESH_VERTEX 16 0.735 0.000 0.082 *MESH_VERTEX 17 0.285 3.219 0.295 *MESH_VERTEX 18 0.329 -3.219 0.638 *MESH_VERTEX 19 0.735 -1.610 1.118 *MESH_VERTEX 20 0.735 0.000 1.118 *MESH_VERTEX 21 0.285 3.219 0.638 *MESH_VERTEX 22 1.865 -1.408 0.093 *MESH_VERTEX 23 1.865 -1.408 1.118 *MESH_VERTEX 24 1.641 -4.030 0.094 *MESH_VERTEX 25 1.641 -4.030 0.545 *MESH_VERTEX 26 2.771 -3.828 0.545 *MESH_VERTEX 27 2.771 -3.829 0.094 *MESH_VERTEX 28 -0.311 -1.415 1.310 *MESH_VERTEX 29 0.311 -1.415 1.310 } *MESH_FACE_LIST { *MESH_FACE 0: A: 18 B: 19 C: 5 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 0 *MESH_FACE 1: A: 14 B: 18 C: 2 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 4 *MESH_FACE 2: A: 6 B: 4 C: 3 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 3: A: 9 B: 8 C: 4 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 4: A: 7 B: 0 C: 2 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 5: A: 5 B: 4 C: 8 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 6: A: 6 B: 7 C: 9 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 7: A: 5 B: 12 C: 11 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 8: A: 7 B: 5 C: 11 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 9: A: 8 B: 9 C: 13 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 10: A: 9 B: 7 C: 10 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 11: A: 7 B: 16 C: 0 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 1 *MESH_FACE 12: A: 16 B: 17 C: 21 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 13: A: 22 B: 16 C: 20 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 14: A: 15 B: 19 C: 18 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 15: A: 19 B: 23 C: 20 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 16: A: 16 B: 22 C: 15 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 17: A: 26 B: 25 C: 27 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 18: A: 15 B: 24 C: 25 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 19: A: 23 B: 26 C: 27 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 20: A: 22 B: 27 C: 24 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 21: A: 3 B: 21 C: 17 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 5 *MESH_FACE 22: A: 3 B: 4 C: 20 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 0 *MESH_FACE 23: A: 1 B: 17 C: 16 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 1 *MESH_FACE 24: A: 20 B: 4 C: 28 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 0 *MESH_FACE 25: A: 28 B: 5 C: 19 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 0 *MESH_FACE 26: A: 20 B: 29 C: 19 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 27: A: 5 B: 28 C: 4 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 28: A: 12 B: 13 C: 11 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 29: A: 26 B: 23 C: 25 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 30: A: 23 B: 19 C: 25 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 31: A: 5 B: 2 C: 18 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 0 *MESH_FACE 32: A: 2 B: 0 C: 14 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 4 *MESH_FACE 33: A: 3 B: 1 C: 6 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 34: A: 4 B: 6 C: 9 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 35: A: 2 B: 5 C: 7 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 36: A: 5 B: 8 C: 12 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 37: A: 11 B: 10 C: 7 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 38: A: 13 B: 12 C: 8 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 39: A: 10 B: 13 C: 9 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 40: A: 7 B: 6 C: 16 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 1 *MESH_FACE 41: A: 15 B: 14 C: 0 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 1 *MESH_FACE 42: A: 16 B: 15 C: 0 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 1 *MESH_FACE 43: A: 21 B: 20 C: 16 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 44: A: 20 B: 23 C: 22 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 45: A: 18 B: 14 C: 15 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 46: A: 25 B: 24 C: 27 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 47: A: 25 B: 19 C: 15 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 48: A: 27 B: 22 C: 23 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 49: A: 24 B: 15 C: 22 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 *MESH_FACE 50: A: 17 B: 1 C: 3 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 5 *MESH_FACE 51: A: 20 B: 21 C: 3 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 0 *MESH_FACE 52: A: 16 B: 6 C: 1 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 1 *MESH_FACE 53: A: 28 B: 29 C: 20 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 0 *MESH_FACE 54: A: 19 B: 29 C: 28 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 0 *MESH_FACE 55: A: 13 B: 10 C: 11 AB: 1 BC: 1 CA: 1 *MESH_SMOOTHING *MESH_MTLID 2 } *MESH_NUMTVERTEX 78 *MESH_TVERTLIST { *MESH_TVERT 0 0.347 0.208 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 1 0.214 0.208 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 2 0.889 0.393 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 3 0.756 0.426 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 4 0.434 0.952 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 5 0.756 0.305 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 6 0.852 0.963 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 7 0.778 0.963 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 8 0.449 0.758 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 9 0.449 0.893 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 10 0.030 0.830 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 11 0.633 0.759 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 12 0.623 0.305 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 13 0.633 0.893 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 14 0.739 0.211 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 15 0.659 0.759 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 16 0.231 0.115 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 17 0.869 0.792 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 18 0.014 0.133 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 19 0.939 0.137 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 20 0.869 0.830 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 21 0.948 0.759 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 22 0.659 0.759 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 23 0.975 0.759 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 24 0.956 0.230 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 25 0.347 0.329 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 26 0.739 0.520 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 27 0.081 0.242 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 28 0.623 0.426 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 29 0.231 0.423 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 30 0.214 0.329 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 31 0.357 0.342 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 32 0.740 0.340 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 33 0.031 0.498 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 34 0.014 0.404 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 35 0.613 0.245 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 36 0.613 0.292 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 37 0.031 0.040 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 38 0.740 0.391 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 39 0.939 0.594 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 40 0.434 0.989 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 41 0.348 0.989 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 42 0.345 0.598 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 43 0.345 0.732 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 44 0.030 0.657 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 45 0.555 0.597 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 46 0.975 0.625 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 47 0.975 0.669 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 48 0.372 0.598 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 49 0.555 0.732 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 50 0.974 0.818 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 51 0.345 0.598 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 52 0.345 0.732 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 53 0.030 0.785 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 54 0.956 0.501 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 55 0.889 0.338 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 56 0.357 0.389 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 57 0.081 0.296 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 58 0.136 0.669 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 59 0.372 0.732 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 60 0.056 0.657 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 61 0.056 0.598 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 62 0.030 0.598 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 63 0.136 0.632 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 64 0.778 0.919 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 65 0.852 0.919 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 66 0.659 0.893 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 67 0.948 0.818 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 68 0.659 0.893 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 69 0.752 0.977 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 70 0.605 0.977 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 71 0.752 0.919 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 72 0.030 0.977 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 73 0.030 0.919 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 74 0.177 0.977 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 75 0.348 0.952 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 76 0.605 0.919 0.000 *MESH_TVERT 77 0.177 0.919 0.000 } *MESH_NUMTVFACES 56 *MESH_TFACELIST { *MESH_TFACE 0 2 3 5 *MESH_TFACE 1 4 40 41 *MESH_TFACE 2 8 9 10 *MESH_TFACE 3 11 13 9 *MESH_TFACE 4 15 17 20 *MESH_TFACE 5 5 12 14 *MESH_TFACE 6 0 1 16 *MESH_TFACE 7 5 19 24 *MESH_TFACE 8 42 43 44 *MESH_TFACE 9 13 11 21 *MESH_TFACE 10 16 1 18 *MESH_TFACE 11 1 25 27 *MESH_TFACE 12 45 46 47 *MESH_TFACE 13 48 45 49 *MESH_TFACE 14 51 52 58 *MESH_TFACE 15 3 26 28 *MESH_TFACE 16 25 29 30 *MESH_TFACE 17 69 70 71 *MESH_TFACE 18 22 23 50 *MESH_TFACE 19 59 60 61 *MESH_TFACE 20 29 33 34 *MESH_TFACE 21 6 7 64 *MESH_TFACE 22 31 12 28 *MESH_TFACE 23 35 36 25 *MESH_TFACE 24 28 12 32 *MESH_TFACE 25 32 5 3 *MESH_TFACE 26 28 38 3 *MESH_TFACE 27 5 32 12 *MESH_TFACE 28 72 73 74 *MESH_TFACE 29 39 26 54 *MESH_TFACE 30 26 3 54 *MESH_TFACE 31 5 55 2 *MESH_TFACE 32 41 75 4 *MESH_TFACE 33 10 53 8 *MESH_TFACE 34 9 8 11 *MESH_TFACE 35 20 66 15 *MESH_TFACE 36 5 14 19 *MESH_TFACE 37 44 62 42 *MESH_TFACE 38 21 67 13 *MESH_TFACE 39 18 37 16 *MESH_TFACE 40 1 0 25 *MESH_TFACE 41 30 57 27 *MESH_TFACE 42 25 30 27 *MESH_TFACE 43 47 49 45 *MESH_TFACE 44 49 59 48 *MESH_TFACE 45 58 63 51 *MESH_TFACE 46 70 76 71 *MESH_TFACE 47 50 68 22 *MESH_TFACE 48 61 48 59 *MESH_TFACE 49 34 30 29 *MESH_TFACE 50 64 65 6 *MESH_TFACE 51 28 56 31 *MESH_TFACE 52 25 0 35 *MESH_TFACE 53 32 38 28 *MESH_TFACE 54 3 38 32 *MESH_TFACE 55 73 77 74 } *MESH_NORMALS { *MESH_FACENORMAL 0 0.000 -0.286 0.958 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 18 0.000 -0.286 0.958 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 19 0.000 -0.286 0.958 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 5 0.000 -0.286 0.958 *MESH_FACENORMAL 1 -0.000 -1.000 -0.000 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-0.216 0.976 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 12 -0.039 -0.216 0.976 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 11 -0.039 -0.216 0.976 *MESH_FACENORMAL 8 0.937 -0.351 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 7 0.937 -0.351 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 5 0.937 -0.351 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 11 0.937 -0.351 0.000 *MESH_FACENORMAL 9 -0.937 0.351 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 8 -0.937 0.351 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 9 -0.937 0.351 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 13 -0.937 0.351 0.000 *MESH_FACENORMAL 10 -0.000 -0.000 -1.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 9 -0.000 -0.000 -1.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 7 -0.000 -0.000 -1.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 10 -0.000 -0.000 -1.000 *MESH_FACENORMAL 11 0.129 -0.124 -0.984 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 7 0.129 -0.124 -0.984 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 16 0.129 -0.124 -0.984 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 0 0.129 -0.124 -0.984 *MESH_FACENORMAL 12 0.990 0.139 -0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 16 0.990 0.139 -0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 17 0.990 0.139 -0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 21 0.990 0.139 -0.000 *MESH_FACENORMAL 13 0.780 0.626 -0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 22 0.780 0.626 -0.000 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-0.937 0.350 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 13 -0.937 0.350 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 12 -0.937 0.350 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 8 -0.937 0.350 0.000 *MESH_FACENORMAL 39 -0.000 -0.000 -1.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 10 -0.000 -0.000 -1.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 13 -0.000 -0.000 -1.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 9 -0.000 -0.000 -1.000 *MESH_FACENORMAL 40 -0.000 -0.007 -1.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 7 -0.000 -0.007 -1.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 6 -0.000 -0.007 -1.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 16 -0.000 -0.007 -1.000 *MESH_FACENORMAL 41 0.000 -0.157 -0.988 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 15 0.000 -0.157 -0.988 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 14 0.000 -0.157 -0.988 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 0 0.000 -0.157 -0.988 *MESH_FACENORMAL 42 -0.225 -0.006 -0.974 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 16 -0.225 -0.006 -0.974 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 15 -0.225 -0.006 -0.974 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 0 -0.225 -0.006 -0.974 *MESH_FACENORMAL 43 0.990 0.139 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 21 0.990 0.139 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 20 0.990 0.139 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 16 0.990 0.139 0.000 *MESH_FACENORMAL 44 0.780 0.626 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 20 0.780 0.626 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 23 0.780 0.626 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 22 0.780 0.626 0.000 *MESH_FACENORMAL 45 0.970 -0.245 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 18 0.970 -0.245 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 14 0.970 -0.245 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 15 0.970 -0.245 0.000 *MESH_FACENORMAL 46 0.176 -0.984 0.001 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 25 0.176 -0.984 0.001 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 24 0.176 -0.984 0.001 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 27 0.176 -0.984 0.001 *MESH_FACENORMAL 47 -0.937 -0.351 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 25 -0.937 -0.351 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 19 -0.937 -0.351 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 15 -0.937 -0.351 0.000 *MESH_FACENORMAL 48 0.937 0.351 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 27 0.937 0.351 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 22 0.937 0.351 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 23 0.937 0.351 0.000 *MESH_FACENORMAL 49 0.000 -0.000 -1.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 24 0.000 -0.000 -1.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 15 0.000 -0.000 -1.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 22 0.000 -0.000 -1.000 *MESH_FACENORMAL 50 0.000 1.000 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 17 0.000 1.000 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 1 0.000 1.000 0.000 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 3 0.000 1.000 0.000 *MESH_FACENORMAL 51 0.000 0.147 0.989 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 20 0.000 0.147 0.989 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 21 0.000 0.147 0.989 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 3 0.000 0.147 0.989 *MESH_FACENORMAL 52 -0.000 0.066 -0.998 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 16 -0.000 0.066 -0.998 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 6 -0.000 0.066 -0.998 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 1 -0.000 0.066 -0.998 *MESH_FACENORMAL 53 0.000 0.135 0.991 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 28 0.000 0.135 0.991 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 29 0.000 0.135 0.991 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 20 0.000 0.135 0.991 *MESH_FACENORMAL 54 0.000 -0.703 0.711 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 19 0.000 -0.703 0.711 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 29 0.000 -0.703 0.711 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 28 0.000 -0.703 0.711 *MESH_FACENORMAL 55 -0.176 -0.984 0.001 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 13 -0.176 -0.984 0.001 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 10 -0.176 -0.984 0.001 *MESH_VERTEXNORMAL 11 -0.176 -0.984 0.001 } } *PROP_MOTIONBLUR 0 *PROP_CASTSHADOW 1 *PROP_RECVSHADOW 1 *MATERIAL_REF 0 } 

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• ### Similar Content

• Hello Everyone,
I have been going over a number of books and examples that deal with GLSL. It's common after viewing the source code to have something like this...
class Model{ public: Model(); void render(); private: GLSL glsl_program; }; ////// .cpp Model::Model(){ glsl_program.compileAndLinkShaders() } void Model::render(){ glsl_program.use() //render something glsl_program.unUse(); } Is this how a shader program should be used in real time applications? For example, if I have a particle class, for every particle that's created, do I want to compiling and linking a vertex, frag shader? It seems to a noob such as myself this might not be the best approach to real time applications.
If I am correct, what is the best work around?
Thanks so much for all the help,

Mike

• I'm having some difficulty understanding how data would flow or get inserted into a multi-threaded opengl renderer where there is a thread pool and a render thread and an update thread (possibly main). My understanding is that the threadpool will continually execute jobs, assemble these and when done send them off to be rendered where I can further sort these and achieve some cheap form of statelessness. I don't want anything overly complicated or too fine grained,  fibers,  job stealing etc. My end goal is to simply have my renderer isolated in its own thread and only concerned with drawing and swapping buffers.
My questions are:
1. At what point in this pipeline are resources created?
Say I have a
class CCommandList { void SetVertexBuffer(...); void SetIndexBuffer(...); void SetVertexShader(...); void SetPixelShader(...); } borrowed from an existing post here. I would need to generate a VAO at some point and call glGenBuffers etc especially if I start with an empty scene. If my context lives on another thread, how do I call these commands if the command list is only supposed to be a collection of state and what command to use. I don't think that the render thread should do this and somehow add a task to the queue or am I wrong?
Or could I do some variation where I do the loading in a thread with shared context and from there generate a command that has the handle to the resources needed.

2. How do I know all my jobs are done.
I'm working with C++, is this as simple as knowing how many objects there are in the scene, for every task that gets added increment a counter and when it matches aforementioned count I signal the renderer that the command list is ready? I was thinking a condition_variable or something would suffice to alert the renderthread that work is ready.

3. Does all work come from a singular queue that the thread pool constantly cycles over?
With the notion of jobs, we are basically sending the same work repeatedly right? Do all jobs need to be added to a single persistent queue to be submitted over and over again?

4. Are resources destroyed with commands?
Likewise with initializing and assuming #3 is correct, removing an item from the scene would mean removing it from the job queue, no? Would I need to send a onetime command to the renderer to cleanup?

• I am starting to get into linux X11/GLX programming, but from every C example i found - there is this XVisualInfo thing parameter passed to XCreateWindow always.
Can i control this parameter later on - when the window is already created? What i want it to change my own non GLX window to be a GLX window - without recreating. Is that possible?

On win32 this works just fine to create a rendering context later on, i simply find and setup the pixel format from a pixel format descriptor and create the context and are ready to go.

I am asking, because if that doesent work - i need to change a few things to support both worlds (Create a context from a existing window, create a context for a new window).

• This article uses material originally posted on Diligent Graphics web site.
Introduction
Graphics APIs have come a long way from small set of basic commands allowing limited control of configurable stages of early 3D accelerators to very low-level programming interfaces exposing almost every aspect of the underlying graphics hardware. Next-generation APIs, Direct3D12 by Microsoft and Vulkan by Khronos are relatively new and have only started getting widespread adoption and support from hardware vendors, while Direct3D11 and OpenGL are still considered industry standard. New APIs can provide substantial performance and functional improvements, but may not be supported by older hardware. An application targeting wide range of platforms needs to support Direct3D11 and OpenGL. New APIs will not give any advantage when used with old paradigms. It is totally possible to add Direct3D12 support to an existing renderer by implementing Direct3D11 interface through Direct3D12, but this will give zero benefits. Instead, new approaches and rendering architectures that leverage flexibility provided by the next-generation APIs are expected to be developed.
There are at least four APIs (Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES, Vulkan, plus Apple's Metal for iOS and osX platforms) that a cross-platform 3D application may need to support. Writing separate code paths for all APIs is clearly not an option for any real-world application and the need for a cross-platform graphics abstraction layer is evident. The following is the list of requirements that I believe such layer needs to satisfy:
Lightweight abstractions: the API should be as close to the underlying native APIs as possible to allow an application leverage all available low-level functionality. In many cases this requirement is difficult to achieve because specific features exposed by different APIs may vary considerably. Low performance overhead: the abstraction layer needs to be efficient from performance point of view. If it introduces considerable amount of overhead, there is no point in using it. Convenience: the API needs to be convenient to use. It needs to assist developers in achieving their goals not limiting their control of the graphics hardware. Multithreading: ability to efficiently parallelize work is in the core of Direct3D12 and Vulkan and one of the main selling points of the new APIs. Support for multithreading in a cross-platform layer is a must. Extensibility: no matter how well the API is designed, it still introduces some level of abstraction. In some cases the most efficient way to implement certain functionality is to directly use native API. The abstraction layer needs to provide seamless interoperability with the underlying native APIs to provide a way for the app to add features that may be missing. Diligent Engine is designed to solve these problems. Its main goal is to take advantages of the next-generation APIs such as Direct3D12 and Vulkan, but at the same time provide support for older platforms via Direct3D11, OpenGL and OpenGLES. Diligent Engine exposes common C++ front-end for all supported platforms and provides interoperability with underlying native APIs. It also supports integration with Unity and is designed to be used as graphics subsystem in a standalone game engine, Unity native plugin or any other 3D application. Full source code is available for download at GitHub and is free to use.
Overview
Diligent Engine API takes some features from Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 as well as introduces new concepts to hide certain platform-specific details and make the system easy to use. It contains the following main components:
Render device (IRenderDevice  interface) is responsible for creating all other objects (textures, buffers, shaders, pipeline states, etc.).
Device context (IDeviceContext interface) is the main interface for recording rendering commands. Similar to Direct3D11, there are immediate context and deferred contexts (which in Direct3D11 implementation map directly to the corresponding context types). Immediate context combines command queue and command list recording functionality. It records commands and submits the command list for execution when it contains sufficient number of commands. Deferred contexts are designed to only record command lists that can be submitted for execution through the immediate context.
An alternative way to design the API would be to expose command queue and command lists directly. This approach however does not map well to Direct3D11 and OpenGL. Besides, some functionality (such as dynamic descriptor allocation) can be much more efficiently implemented when it is known that a command list is recorded by a certain deferred context from some thread.
The approach taken in the engine does not limit scalability as the application is expected to create one deferred context per thread, and internally every deferred context records a command list in lock-free fashion. At the same time this approach maps well to older APIs.
In current implementation, only one immediate context that uses default graphics command queue is created. To support multiple GPUs or multiple command queue types (compute, copy, etc.), it is natural to have one immediate contexts per queue. Cross-context synchronization utilities will be necessary.
Swap Chain (ISwapChain interface). Swap chain interface represents a chain of back buffers and is responsible for showing the final rendered image on the screen.
Render device, device contexts and swap chain are created during the engine initialization.
Resources (ITexture and IBuffer interfaces). There are two types of resources - textures and buffers. There are many different texture types (2D textures, 3D textures, texture array, cubmepas, etc.) that can all be represented by ITexture interface.
Resources Views (ITextureView and IBufferView interfaces). While textures and buffers are mere data containers, texture views and buffer views describe how the data should be interpreted. For instance, a 2D texture can be used as a render target for rendering commands or as a shader resource.
Pipeline State (IPipelineState interface). GPU pipeline contains many configurable stages (depth-stencil, rasterizer and blend states, different shader stage, etc.). Direct3D11 uses coarse-grain objects to set all stage parameters at once (for instance, a rasterizer object encompasses all rasterizer attributes), while OpenGL contains myriad functions to fine-grain control every individual attribute of every stage. Both methods do not map very well to modern graphics hardware that combines all states into one monolithic state under the hood. Direct3D12 directly exposes pipeline state object in the API, and Diligent Engine uses the same approach.
Shader Resource Binding (IShaderResourceBinding interface). Shaders are programs that run on the GPU. Shaders may access various resources (textures and buffers), and setting correspondence between shader variables and actual resources is called resource binding. Resource binding implementation varies considerably between different API. Diligent Engine introduces a new object called shader resource binding that encompasses all resources needed by all shaders in a certain pipeline state.
API Basics
Creating Resources
Device resources are created by the render device. The two main resource types are buffers, which represent linear memory, and textures, which use memory layouts optimized for fast filtering. Graphics APIs usually have a native object that represents linear buffer. Diligent Engine uses IBuffer interface as an abstraction for a native buffer. To create a buffer, one needs to populate BufferDesc structure and call IRenderDevice::CreateBuffer() method as in the following example:
BufferDesc BuffDesc; BufferDesc.Name = "Uniform buffer"; BuffDesc.BindFlags = BIND_UNIFORM_BUFFER; BuffDesc.Usage = USAGE_DYNAMIC; BuffDesc.uiSizeInBytes = sizeof(ShaderConstants); BuffDesc.CPUAccessFlags = CPU_ACCESS_WRITE; m_pDevice->CreateBuffer( BuffDesc, BufferData(), &m_pConstantBuffer ); While there is usually just one buffer object, different APIs use very different approaches to represent textures. For instance, in Direct3D11, there are ID3D11Texture1D, ID3D11Texture2D, and ID3D11Texture3D objects. In OpenGL, there is individual object for every texture dimension (1D, 2D, 3D, Cube), which may be a texture array, which may also be multisampled (i.e. GL_TEXTURE_2D_MULTISAMPLE_ARRAY). As a result there are nine different GL texture types that Diligent Engine may create under the hood. In Direct3D12, there is only one resource interface. Diligent Engine hides all these details in ITexture interface. There is only one  IRenderDevice::CreateTexture() method that is capable of creating all texture types. Dimension, format, array size and all other parameters are specified by the members of the TextureDesc structure:
TextureDesc TexDesc; TexDesc.Name = "My texture 2D"; TexDesc.Type = TEXTURE_TYPE_2D; TexDesc.Width = 1024; TexDesc.Height = 1024; TexDesc.Format = TEX_FORMAT_RGBA8_UNORM; TexDesc.Usage = USAGE_DEFAULT; TexDesc.BindFlags = BIND_SHADER_RESOURCE | BIND_RENDER_TARGET | BIND_UNORDERED_ACCESS; TexDesc.Name = "Sample 2D Texture"; m_pRenderDevice->CreateTexture( TexDesc, TextureData(), &m_pTestTex ); If native API supports multithreaded resource creation, textures and buffers can be created by multiple threads simultaneously.
Interoperability with native API provides access to the native buffer/texture objects and also allows creating Diligent Engine objects from native handles. It allows applications seamlessly integrate native API-specific code with Diligent Engine.
Next-generation APIs allow fine level-control over how resources are allocated. Diligent Engine does not currently expose this functionality, but it can be added by implementing IResourceAllocator interface that encapsulates specifics of resource allocation and providing this interface to CreateBuffer() or CreateTexture() methods. If null is provided, default allocator should be used.
Initializing the Pipeline State
As it was mentioned earlier, Diligent Engine follows next-gen APIs to configure the graphics/compute pipeline. One big Pipelines State Object (PSO) encompasses all required states (all shader stages, input layout description, depth stencil, rasterizer and blend state descriptions etc.). This approach maps directly to Direct3D12/Vulkan, but is also beneficial for older APIs as it eliminates pipeline misconfiguration errors. With many individual calls tweaking various GPU pipeline settings it is very easy to forget to set one of the states or assume the stage is already properly configured when in fact it is not. Using pipeline state object helps avoid these problems as all stages are configured at once.
While in earlier APIs shaders were bound separately, in the next-generation APIs as well as in Diligent Engine shaders are part of the pipeline state object. The biggest challenge when authoring shaders is that Direct3D and OpenGL/Vulkan use different shader languages (while Apple uses yet another language in their Metal API). Maintaining two versions of every shader is not an option for real applications and Diligent Engine implements shader source code converter that allows shaders authored in HLSL to be translated to GLSL. To create a shader, one needs to populate ShaderCreationAttribs structure. SourceLanguage member of this structure tells the system which language the shader is authored in:
When sampling a texture in a shader, the texture sampler was traditionally specified as separate object that was bound to the pipeline at run time or set as part of the texture object itself. However, in most cases it is known beforehand what kind of sampler will be used in the shader. Next-generation APIs expose new type of sampler called static sampler that can be initialized directly in the pipeline state. Diligent Engine exposes this functionality: when creating a shader, textures can be assigned static samplers. If static sampler is assigned, it will always be used instead of the one initialized in the texture shader resource view. To initialize static samplers, prepare an array of StaticSamplerDesc structures and initialize StaticSamplers and NumStaticSamplers members. Static samplers are more efficient and it is highly recommended to use them whenever possible. On older APIs, static samplers are emulated via generic sampler objects.
The following is an example of shader initialization:
Creating the Pipeline State Object
After all required shaders are created, the rest of the fields of the PipelineStateDesc structure provide depth-stencil, rasterizer, and blend state descriptions, the number and format of render targets, input layout format, etc. For instance, rasterizer state can be described as follows:
PipelineStateDesc PSODesc; RasterizerStateDesc &RasterizerDesc = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.RasterizerDesc; RasterizerDesc.FillMode = FILL_MODE_SOLID; RasterizerDesc.CullMode = CULL_MODE_NONE; RasterizerDesc.FrontCounterClockwise = True; RasterizerDesc.ScissorEnable = True; RasterizerDesc.AntialiasedLineEnable = False; Depth-stencil and blend states are defined in a similar fashion.
Another important thing that pipeline state object encompasses is the input layout description that defines how inputs to the vertex shader, which is the very first shader stage, should be read from the memory. Input layout may define several vertex streams that contain values of different formats and sizes:
// Define input layout InputLayoutDesc &Layout = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.InputLayout; LayoutElement TextLayoutElems[] = {     LayoutElement( 0, 0, 3, VT_FLOAT32, False ),     LayoutElement( 1, 0, 4, VT_UINT8, True ),     LayoutElement( 2, 0, 2, VT_FLOAT32, False ), }; Layout.LayoutElements = TextLayoutElems; Layout.NumElements = _countof( TextLayoutElems ); Finally, pipeline state defines primitive topology type. When all required members are initialized, a pipeline state object can be created by IRenderDevice::CreatePipelineState() method:
// Define shader and primitive topology PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.PrimitiveTopologyType = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TYPE_TRIANGLE; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pVS = pVertexShader; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pPS = pPixelShader; PSODesc.Name = "My pipeline state"; m_pDev->CreatePipelineState(PSODesc, &m_pPSO); When PSO object is bound to the pipeline, the engine invokes all API-specific commands to set all states specified by the object. In case of Direct3D12 this maps directly to setting the D3D12 PSO object. In case of Direct3D11, this involves setting individual state objects (such as rasterizer and blend states), shaders, input layout etc. In case of OpenGL, this requires a number of fine-grain state tweaking calls. Diligent Engine keeps track of currently bound states and only calls functions to update these states that have actually changed.
Direct3D11 and OpenGL utilize fine-grain resource binding models, where an application binds individual buffers and textures to certain shader or program resource binding slots. Direct3D12 uses a very different approach, where resource descriptors are grouped into tables, and an application can bind all resources in the table at once by setting the table in the command list. Resource binding model in Diligent Engine is designed to leverage this new method. It introduces a new object called shader resource binding that encapsulates all resource bindings required for all shaders in a certain pipeline state. It also introduces the classification of shader variables based on the frequency of expected change that helps the engine group them into tables under the hood:
Static variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC) are variables that are expected to be set only once. They may not be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. Such variables are intended to hold global constants such as camera attributes or global light attributes constant buffers. Mutable variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE) define resources that are expected to change on a per-material frequency. Examples may include diffuse textures, normal maps etc. Dynamic variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC) are expected to change frequently and randomly. Shader variable type must be specified during shader creation by populating an array of ShaderVariableDesc structures and initializing ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::VariableDesc and ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::NumVariables members (see example of shader creation above).
Static variables cannot be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. They are bound directly to the shader object. For instance, a shadow map texture is not expected to change after it is created, so it can be bound directly to the shader:
PixelShader->GetShaderVariable( "g_tex2DShadowMap" )->Set( pShadowMapSRV ); Mutable and dynamic variables are bound via a new Shader Resource Binding object (SRB) that is created by the pipeline state (IPipelineState::CreateShaderResourceBinding()):
m_pPSO->CreateShaderResourceBinding(&m_pSRB); Note that an SRB is only compatible with the pipeline state it was created from. SRB object inherits all static bindings from shaders in the pipeline, but is not allowed to change them.
Mutable resources can only be set once for every instance of a shader resource binding. Such resources are intended to define specific material properties. For instance, a diffuse texture for a specific material is not expected to change once the material is defined and can be set right after the SRB object has been created:
m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL, "tex2DDiffuse")->Set(pDiffuseTexSRV); In some cases it is necessary to bind a new resource to a variable every time a draw command is invoked. Such variables should be labeled as dynamic, which will allow setting them multiple times through the same SRB object:
m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_VERTEX, "cbRandomAttribs")->Set(pRandomAttrsCB); Under the hood, the engine pre-allocates descriptor tables for static and mutable resources when an SRB objcet is created. Space for dynamic resources is dynamically allocated at run time. Static and mutable resources are thus more efficient and should be used whenever possible.
As you can see, Diligent Engine does not expose low-level details of how resources are bound to shader variables. One reason for this is that these details are very different for various APIs. The other reason is that using low-level binding methods is extremely error-prone: it is very easy to forget to bind some resource, or bind incorrect resource such as bind a buffer to the variable that is in fact a texture, especially during shader development when everything changes fast. Diligent Engine instead relies on shader reflection system to automatically query the list of all shader variables. Grouping variables based on three types mentioned above allows the engine to create optimized layout and take heavy lifting of matching resources to API-specific resource location, register or descriptor in the table.
This post gives more details about the resource binding model in Diligent Engine.
Setting the Pipeline State and Committing Shader Resources
Before any draw or compute command can be invoked, the pipeline state needs to be bound to the context:
m_pContext->SetPipelineState(m_pPSO); Under the hood, the engine sets the internal PSO object in the command list or calls all the required native API functions to properly configure all pipeline stages.
The next step is to bind all required shader resources to the GPU pipeline, which is accomplished by IDeviceContext::CommitShaderResources() method:
m_pContext->CommitShaderResources(m_pSRB, COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES); The method takes a pointer to the shader resource binding object and makes all resources the object holds available for the shaders. In the case of D3D12, this only requires setting appropriate descriptor tables in the command list. For older APIs, this typically requires setting all resources individually.
Next-generation APIs require the application to track the state of every resource and explicitly inform the system about all state transitions. For instance, if a texture was used as render target before, while the next draw command is going to use it as shader resource, a transition barrier needs to be executed. Diligent Engine does the heavy lifting of state tracking.  When CommitShaderResources() method is called with COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES flag, the engine commits and transitions resources to correct states at the same time. Note that transitioning resources does introduce some overhead. The engine tracks state of every resource and it will not issue the barrier if the state is already correct. But checking resource state is an overhead that can sometimes be avoided. The engine provides IDeviceContext::TransitionShaderResources() method that only transitions resources:
m_pContext->TransitionShaderResources(m_pPSO, m_pSRB); In some scenarios it is more efficient to transition resources once and then only commit them.
Invoking Draw Command
The final step is to set states that are not part of the PSO, such as render targets, vertex and index buffers. Diligent Engine uses Direct3D11-syle API that is translated to other native API calls under the hood:
ITextureView *pRTVs[] = {m_pRTV}; m_pContext->SetRenderTargets(_countof( pRTVs ), pRTVs, m_pDSV); // Clear render target and depth buffer const float zero[4] = {0, 0, 0, 0}; m_pContext->ClearRenderTarget(nullptr, zero); m_pContext->ClearDepthStencil(nullptr, CLEAR_DEPTH_FLAG, 1.f); // Set vertex and index buffers IBuffer *buffer[] = {m_pVertexBuffer}; Uint32 offsets[] = {0}; Uint32 strides[] = {sizeof(MyVertex)}; m_pContext->SetVertexBuffers(0, 1, buffer, strides, offsets, SET_VERTEX_BUFFERS_FLAG_RESET); m_pContext->SetIndexBuffer(m_pIndexBuffer, 0); Different native APIs use various set of function to execute draw commands depending on command details (if the command is indexed, instanced or both, what offsets in the source buffers are used etc.). For instance, there are 5 draw commands in Direct3D11 and more than 9 commands in OpenGL with something like glDrawElementsInstancedBaseVertexBaseInstance not uncommon. Diligent Engine hides all details with single IDeviceContext::Draw() method that takes takes DrawAttribs structure as an argument. The structure members define all attributes required to perform the command (primitive topology, number of vertices or indices, if draw call is indexed or not, if draw call is instanced or not, if draw call is indirect or not, etc.). For example:
DrawAttribs attrs; attrs.IsIndexed = true; attrs.IndexType = VT_UINT16; attrs.NumIndices = 36; attrs.Topology = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLE_LIST; pContext->Draw(attrs); For compute commands, there is IDeviceContext::DispatchCompute() method that takes DispatchComputeAttribs structure that defines compute grid dimension.
Source Code
Full engine source code is available on GitHub and is free to use. The repository contains tutorials, sample applications, asteroids performance benchmark and an example Unity project that uses Diligent Engine in native plugin.
Atmospheric scattering sample demonstrates how Diligent Engine can be used to implement various rendering tasks: loading textures from files, using complex shaders, rendering to multiple render targets, using compute shaders and unordered access views, etc.

Asteroids performance benchmark is based on this demo developed by Intel. It renders 50,000 unique textured asteroids and allows comparing performance of Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 implementations. Every asteroid is a combination of one of 1000 unique meshes and one of 10 unique textures.

Finally, there is an example project that shows how Diligent Engine can be integrated with Unity.

Future Work
The engine is under active development. It currently supports Windows desktop, Universal Windows, Linux, Android, MacOS, and iOS platforms. Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES backends are now feature complete. Vulkan backend is coming next, and Metal backend is in the plan.

• Good Evening,
I want to make a 2D game which involves displaying some debug information. Especially for collision, enemy sights and so on ...
First of I was thinking about all those shapes which I need will need for debugging purposes: circles, rectangles, lines, polygons.
I am really stucked right now because of the fundamental question:
Where do I store my vertices positions for each line (object)? Currently I am not using a model matrix because I am using orthographic projection and set the final position within the VBO. That means that if I add a new line I would have to expand the "points" array and re-upload (recall glBufferData) it every time. The other method would be to use a model matrix and a fixed vbo for a line but it would be also messy to exactly create a line from (0,0) to (100,20) calculating the rotation and scale to make it fit.
If I proceed with option 1 "updating the array each frame" I was thinking of having 4 draw calls every frame for the lines vao, polygons vao and so on.
In addition to that I am planning to use some sort of ECS based architecture. So the other question would be:
Should I treat those debug objects as entities/components?
For me it would make sense to treat them as entities but that's creates a new issue with the previous array approach because it would have for example a transform and render component. A special render component for debug objects (no texture etc) ... For me the transform component is also just a matrix but how would I then define a line?
Treating them as components would'nt be a good idea in my eyes because then I would always need an entity. Well entity is just an id !? So maybe its a component?
Regards,
LifeArtist