# SAH Kd-tree

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I've implemented a kd-tree which Im using for Ray-Tracing, and at the moment, get about 300k ray queries a second, using a scene that has 100k triangles. The tree itself is created by using 4 bytes for each node, and is currently split by simply calculating an AABB for the whole scene and finding the center of each axis, so its essentially an Octree. Im wondering how much of a performance gain you usually get using SAH? Has anyone implemented a kdtree with and without that has some numbers? So that I will have something to compare against.

From what I gather, the simplest approach works by instead of using the center point of each axis from the nodes AABB, you instead, for each triangle work out its projection, giving a tmin and a tmax, creating two splitting points, and then for each point, work out the number of triangles that lie on the left and the right. Once you've done this for each triangle, choose the splitting point that gives the best even number of triangles on each side. continue this process for every node.

Here is the kdtree code (with the cleanup code omitted)

#define ENCODE_VALUE_AND_DIMENSION( des, v, d ) des = (((*(uint*)&v) & (( UINT_MAX << 2 ) ) ) + d ) #define ENCODE_LEAF( des, v ) des = (((*(uint*)&v) & (( UINT_MAX << 2 ) ) ) + 3 ) #define TREE_SIZE( i ) ((1 << (i+1)) - 1) #define DECODE_DIMENSION( x ) ( x & 3 ) #define DECODE_VALUE( x ) (*(float*)(&x)) #define ISLEAF( x ) ( DECODE_DIMENSION(x) == 3 ) #define DECODE_LEAF( x ) ( x & ( UINT_MAX << 2 ) ) #define LEFT_NODE( c, m ) ( 1 ) #define RIGHT_NODE( c, m ) ( 1 + ( TREE_SIZE( m - c ) >> 1 ) ) class KdTree { public: KdTree( uint MaximumLevel, uint MinimumTriangles, const TriangleList& triangles ) : m_MaximumLevel(MaximumLevel), m_MinimumTriangles(MinimumTriangles) { uint size = TREE_SIZE( m_MaximumLevel ); m_pNodeArray = new Node[size]; memset( m_pNodeArray, 0, size * sizeof(Node)); for( TriangleList::size_type i = 0; i < triangles.size(); ++i ) { m_AABB.AddPoint(triangles->v0.p); m_AABB.AddPoint(triangles->v1.p); m_AABB.AddPoint(triangles->v2.p); } m_pNodeArray->Add( m_AABB, 0, triangles, 0, m_MaximumLevel, m_MinimumTriangles ); } bool Intersect( const Ray& queryRay, IntersectionInfo& ii ) { float tmin, tmax, iit = ii.t; int bailout = 0; if( RayAABBIntersection( queryRay, m_AABB, tmin, tmax ) ) { Vec3 invRayDir = Vec3( 1.0f / queryRay.dir.x, 1.0f / queryRay.dir.y , 1.0f / queryRay.dir.z ); m_pNodeArray->Intersect( bailout, 0, m_MaximumLevel, queryRay.Split(tmin), invRayDir, tmin, tmax - tmin, ii ); return ii.t < iit; } return 0; } private: struct Node { Node(){ _Data = 0; } void Add( const AABB& aabb, uint d, const TriangleList& triangles, uint CurrentLevel, uint MaximumLevel, uint MinimumTriangles ) { if( CurrentLevel == MaximumLevel || triangles.size() < MinimumTriangles ) { TriangleList* pTriangles = 0; if( !triangles.empty() ) { pTriangles = new TriangleList( triangles.begin(), triangles.end() ); } ENCODE_LEAF( _Data, pTriangles ); } else { float splitValue = 0.5f * aabb.minima[d] + 0.5f * aabb.maxima[d]; TriangleList leftTBuffer, rightTBuffer; leftTBuffer.reserve( triangles.size() ); rightTBuffer.reserve( triangles.size() ); for( TriangleList::size_type i = 0; i < triangles.size(); ++i ) { if( triangles->v0.p[d] <= splitValue || triangles->v1.p[d] <= splitValue || triangles->v2.p[d] <= splitValue ) { leftTBuffer.push_back(triangles); } if( triangles->v0.p[d] > splitValue || triangles->v1.p[d] > splitValue || triangles->v2.p[d] > splitValue ) { rightTBuffer.push_back(triangles); } } ENCODE_VALUE_AND_DIMENSION( _Data, splitValue, d ); (this + LEFT_NODE( CurrentLevel, MaximumLevel ) )->Add( aabb.ClipByPlane( 0, d, splitValue ), (d+1)%3, leftTBuffer, CurrentLevel+1, MaximumLevel, MinimumTriangles ); (this + RIGHT_NODE( CurrentLevel, MaximumLevel ) )->Add( aabb.ClipByPlane( 1, d, splitValue ), (d+1)%3, rightTBuffer, CurrentLevel+1, MaximumLevel, MinimumTriangles ); } } void IntersectLeaf( const TriangleList* pTriangles, int& bailout, const Ray& ray, const float tail, const float tmax, IntersectionInfo& ii, int& TriangleTests ) { float lu, lv, lw, lt; for( TriangleList::size_type i = 0; i < pTriangles->size(); ++i ) { const Triangle* pT = (*pTriangles); if( RayTriangleIntersectionDouble( ray, pT->v0.p, pT->v1.p, pT->v2.p, lu, lv, lw, lt ) ) { float t = lt + tail; if( t < ii.t ) { ii.t = t; if( ii.type == ANY ) { bailout = 1; return; } if( lt < tmax ) { bailout = 1; } ii.pM = pT->v0.pMaterial; ii.UV = lu*pT->v0.uv + lv*pT->v1.uv + lw*pT->v2.uv; ii.GNormal = lu*pT->v0.n + lv*pT->v1.n + lw*pT->v2.n; ii.SNormal = lu*pT->v0.n + lv*pT->v1.n + lw*pT->v2.n; } } } } void Intersect( int& bailout, uint CurrentLevel, uint MaximumLevel, const Ray& ray, const Vec3& invRayDir, const float tail, const float tmax, IntersectionInfo& ii ) { if( tail > ii.t ) return; if( ISLEAF( _Data ) ) { if( TriangleList* pTriangles = (TriangleList*)DECODE_LEAF( _Data ) ) IntersectLeaf( pTriangles, bailout, ray, tail, tmax, ii, TriangleTests ); } else { uint splitDimension = DECODE_DIMENSION( _Data ); float splitValue = DECODE_VALUE( _Data ); Node* first = this + LEFT_NODE( CurrentLevel, MaximumLevel ); Node* second = this + RIGHT_NODE( CurrentLevel, MaximumLevel ); if( ray.origin[splitDimension] > splitValue ) { std::swap( first, second ); } float tplane = ( splitValue - ray.origin[splitDimension] ) * invRayDir[splitDimension]; if( tplane >= 0.0f && tplane < tmax ) { if( !bailout ) first->Intersect( bailout, CurrentLevel+1, MaximumLevel, ray, invRayDir, tail, tplane, ii ); if( !bailout ) second->Intersect( bailout, CurrentLevel+1, MaximumLevel, ray.Split(tplane), invRayDir, tail + tplane, tmax - tplane, ii ); } else { if( !bailout ) first->Intersect( bailout, CurrentLevel+1, MaximumLevel, ray, invRayDir, tail, tmax, ii ); } } } uint _Data; }; Node* m_pNodeArray; uint m_MaximumLevel, m_MinimumTriangles; AABB m_AABB; };

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I've implemented a kd-tree which Im using for Ray-Tracing, and at the moment, get about 300k ray queries a second, using a scene that has 100k triangles. The tree itself is created by using 4 bytes for each node, and is currently split by simply calculating an AABB for the whole scene and finding the center of each axis, so its essentially an Octree. Im wondering how much of a performance gain you usually get using SAH? Has anyone implemented a kdtree with and without that has some numbers? So that I will have something to compare against.

From what I gather, the simplest approach works by instead of using the center point of each axis from the nodes AABB, you instead, for each triangle work out its projection, giving a tmin and a tmax, creating two splitting points, and then for each point, work out the number of triangles that lie on the left and the right. Once you've done this for each triangle, choose the splitting point that gives the best even number of triangles on each side. continue this process for every node.

A major thing to consider when judging what your speed up might be between using a simple Octree vs Kd-tree is that the improvement depends on the layout of the scene. If a large selection of your triangles are in a small area Kd-tree will give a much larger speed up over Octree. Reason being if all your triangles are in a tight enough area based on the total area and depth of tree, you could potentially have all triangles in one leaf of an Octree. Kd-tree will avoid that by "evenly" dividing the space where the triangles to reside, to get the performance you want (even distribution opposed to clumping).

Similar effect is seen if a scene has a ground and many items on or close to the ground but the "top" of the space is far from the ground. A large portion of an Octree covering the sky will be mostly empty while that covering the ground will be very full. Something a Kd-tree can better deal with.

So the improvement, you'll find, is greatly related to the distribution of triangles in your scene.

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Thanks for the reply, but my post was more about SAH and its improvement on a kd-tree. I implemented it today actually, and got about a 10 - 30% improvement. But the creation of the Kd-tree when using SAH takes forever.

without - 20ms
with - 5 minutes

I do the following.

- for each level
-- for each triangle compute tmin and tmax projection onto axis D
-- for each tmin and tmax of each triangle, compute left and right triangle count, and also the left and right voxel surface area
- go through all these candidate splitting points, and compute best one, based off the loweset score, score = lefttriangleCount*leftarea + righttrianglecount*rightarea

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