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DX11 Inputlayout problem (dx11) after visual studio 11 preview installation

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I get a really weird error, and I cant figure out whats wrong tbh. I installed visual studio 11 developers preview today (I am starting to think that it might have been a mistake tbh). After I installed it I started to get this error written to my output and I honestly have no idea what to make out of it. An old projekt of mine get the same, but after a render calls it crashes. This only occur when I use the debugflag during creation of the device. My old project worked with debugflag before without crashes. This happens even if I use vs2010 now, my guess is that vs11 updated some files for vs2010 as well :/ I still get the error-output after removing everything but initialization of directx, and creation of one Vertexshader and the creation of the inputlayout. Have anyone seen this error before? To be honest I am starting to think there's a bug in some file that visual studio 11 preview updated or installed that causes this, or that I need to set more flags or settings somewhere in order to use the debugflag during device-creation.

On inputlayout creation I get the following error in output, but the createinputlayout function returns S_OK
D3D11: ERROR: ID3D11Device::CreateInputLayout: The provided input signature expects to read an element with SemanticName/Index: '(null)'/9714417, but the declaration doesn't provide a matching name. [ STATE_CREATION ERROR #163: CREATEINPUTLAYOUT_MISSINGELEMENT ]

D3D11_INPUT_ELEMENT_DESC polygonLayout[2];
unsigned int numelements = 2;
polygonLayout[0].SemanticName = "POSITION";
polygonLayout[0].SemanticIndex = 0;
polygonLayout[0].Format = DXGI_FORMAT_R32G32B32A32_FLOAT;
polygonLayout[0].InputSlot = 0;
polygonLayout[0].AlignedByteOffset = 0;
polygonLayout[0].InputSlotClass = D3D11_INPUT_PER_VERTEX_DATA;
polygonLayout[0].InstanceDataStepRate = 0;

polygonLayout[1].SemanticName = "COLOR";
polygonLayout[1].SemanticIndex = 0;
polygonLayout[1].Format = DXGI_FORMAT_R32G32B32A32_FLOAT;
polygonLayout[1].InputSlot = 0;
polygonLayout[1].AlignedByteOffset = D3D11_APPEND_ALIGNED_ELEMENT;
polygonLayout[1].InputSlotClass = D3D11_INPUT_PER_VERTEX_DATA;
polygonLayout[1].InstanceDataStepRate = 0;

HRESULT hr = m_Device->CreateInputLayout(polygonLayout,numelements,_VShader->m_ShaderBuffer->GetBufferPointer(),_VShader->m_ShaderBuffer->GetBufferSize(),&m_layout);

The HLSL I am currently testing on is very simple

cbuffer MatrixBuffer
matrix worldMatrix;
matrix viewMatrix;
matrix projectionMatrix;

struct VertexInputType
float4 position : POSITION;
float4 color : COLOR;

struct PixelInputType
float4 position : SV_POSITION;
float4 color : COLOR;

// Vertex Shader
PixelInputType ColorVertexShader(VertexInputType input)
PixelInputType output;

// Change the position vector to be 4 units for proper matrix calculations.
input.position.w = 1.0f;

// Calculate the position of the vertex against the world, view, and projection matrices.
output.position = mul(input.position, worldMatrix);
output.position = mul(output.position, viewMatrix);
output.position = mul(output.position, projectionMatrix);

// Store the input color for the pixel shader to use.
output.color = input.color;

return output;

struct PixelInputType
float4 position : SV_POSITION;
float4 color : COLOR;

// Pixel Shader
float4 ColorPixelShader(PixelInputType input) : SV_TARGET
return input.color;

Everything renders correctly (in my current project) but everytime I call drawindexed the following is written in the output, but I think this is due to the previous "error" during the inputlayout creation.

Invalid parameter passed to C runtime function.
Invalid parameter passed to C runtime function.
Invalid parameter passed to C runtime function.
Invalid parameter passed to C runtime function.
D3D11: ERROR: ID3D11DeviceContext::DrawIndexed: Input Assembler - Vertex Shader linkage error: Signatures between stages are incompatible. The input stage requires Semantic/Index ((null),6502817) as input, but it is not provided by the output stage. [ EXECUTION ERROR #342: DEVICE_SHADER_LINKAGE_SEMANTICNAME_NOT_FOUND ]
Invalid parameter passed to C runtime function.
Invalid parameter passed to C runtime function.
Invalid parameter passed to C runtime function.
Invalid parameter passed to C runtime function.
Invalid parameter passed to C runtime function.
Invalid parameter passed to C runtime function.
D3D11: ERROR: ID3D11DeviceContext::DrawIndexed: Vertex Shader - Pixel Shader linkage error: Signatures between stages are incompatible. The input stage requires Semantic/Index ((null),6511892) as input, but it is not provided by the output stage. [ EXECUTION ERROR #342: DEVICE_SHADER_LINKAGE_SEMANTICNAME_NOT_FOUND ]

If I use the code from this tutorial (but changes it so that the debugflag is set) the same error occurs.

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In the sample the position is a float3, the shader wants a float4

[font="Arial"]Are you talking about the sam[/font][font="Arial"]ple from the website? If so I am aware of it, and the same error occurs whether I use [size=2]DXGI_FORMAT_R32G32B32A32_FLOAT or [size=2]DXGI_FORMAT_R32G32B32_FLOAT in the inputlayout (and ofcourse changing the position-type in vertexbuffer[size=2], and shader[size=2] to match the type in the inputlayout). [/font]

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Which OS did you install VS11 on? I assume it was the Win8 developer preview, but I wanted to check.

I will be installing the preview tonight, but until then I haven't been able to try building a library yet. Have you tried to compile and run one of the SDK samples? That might provide a good sanity check. Also, if you run with the reference device, what behavior do you see? I'll try a few things out later on and see if everything works out on my side...

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I'm using Windows 7 x64 as OS, Tutorial 07 in the SDK generates the same error as mine. And the same error occurs when using reference device. I guess it is an error introduced by visual studio 11 then :(
Strangely enough the error doesn't seem to occur when using microsofts effect-framework (or atleast it doesn't on the sample I tried it on).

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[font=arial, verdana, tahoma, sans-serif][size=2]Apparently visual studio 11 preview added d3dcompiler_44.dll and the current version uses d3dcompiler_43.dll, I guess that visual studio uses the wrong version of (directx-dll's) in relation to the sdk Im using. [/font]

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Have you corrected the issue now? Since you are running on Win7 and not on the developer preview of Win8, then you have to make sure you are using the headers and executables from the DXSDK instead of what gets installed with VS11. The D3D11.1 headers could be the source of the trouble, so make sure your include references are setup to give the DXSDK priority over all other include sources.

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Hi, I actually have the exact same error (same configuration, VS11 preview on Win7 x64). However, it seems that if you don't enable the debug layer, the problem goes away (InputLayoutCreation returns S_OK, and everything is fine: in PIX, the InputLayout is what is expected). What is even stranger, is that shader reflection still works fine, and loading offline compiled shaders seem to exhibit the same problem, so this seems to point to a corruption at the debug layer level (however, I don't have the skills in assembly to understand what's happening).
By the way, Jason, I am using your library (Hieroglyph) and it's really great. I just have some minor gripes in some places (why using a custom TArray or a custom math library?), but in general it just works fine, so thanks!

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Have you corrected the issue now? Since you are running on Win7 and not on the developer preview of Win8, then you have to make sure you are using the headers and executables from the DXSDK instead of what gets installed with VS11. The D3D11.1 headers could be the source of the trouble, so make sure your include references are setup to give the DXSDK priority over all other include sources.

No, I haven't solved it yet. How do I setup so that the DXSDK gets priority over other include sources? At the moment I have simply added the path of the DXSDK in the VC++ Directories.

In the meantime I did as Razispio and disabled the debuglayer.

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I think that it already compiles against the installed version of directx in the SDK as I also tried compiling and linking against the newer versions (44) with the new toolchain (vc11). It does compile, but fails miserably at run time when it cannot load D3DCompiler_44.dll or D3DX11_44.dll. However, the d3dsdklayers.dll does not seem versioned this way, so this may be the problem (but I will have to investigate more).

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Hi, I actually have the exact same error (same configuration, VS11 preview on Win7 x64). However, it seems that if you don't enable the debug layer, the problem goes away (InputLayoutCreation returns S_OK, and everything is fine: in PIX, the InputLayout is what is expected). What is even stranger, is that shader reflection still works fine, and loading offline compiled shaders seem to exhibit the same problem, so this seems to point to a corruption at the debug layer level (however, I don't have the skills in assembly to understand what's happening).

That sounds pretty strange... The only way that I know of to give the SDK headers precedence is to move their inclusion to the first place in the list of directories. That means to put it before any other standardized inclusions (in my projects it is listed as so: "$(DXSDK_DIR)Include;$(IncludePath)") I am discussing the topic with some MS guys, so I'll let you know if there is anything else to try out...

[quote name='Razispio']
By the way, Jason, I am using your library (Hieroglyph) and it's really great. I just have some minor gripes in some places (why using a custom TArray or a custom math library?), but in general it just works fine, so thanks!
That's great - I appreciate your feedback. I must admit that if I started over I probably wouldn't roll my own stuff from scratch, but I started writing Hieroglyph almost 10 years ago when I was just starting out... it was a bit of a learning exercise, and I just never saw a compelling reason to remove it. Who knows though - I could eventually migrate to another standardized system down the road...

I would be really interested to see some screenshots of something you build with it - it might even be cool to add a user page on the codeplex site... Thanks again!

EDIT: one other thing I just thought of - you are still trying to use a feature level 11 device right? Specifically, you aren't passing the 11.1 feature level to the device creation method? I just wanted to double check...

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Can one or both of you check if your output application is trying to load the D3D11_1sdklayers.dll? If so, this is only compatible with Win8 and could be a source of the issue...

If you are familiar with how to use it, can you use dumpbin.exe on the build of your application with the debug layer enabled and generate a list of the dll's that it is using? This might also help to solve the problem.

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No, I'm pretty sure that I am still using the dxsdk headers, since if you build with the vc10 toolchain, you don't even get access to the 8.0 platform sdk headers (no d3d11_1.h header, nothing new). I'll have to investigate that further... Microsoft should just release a real dxsdk (or a dxsdk preview). I just checked my System directory, and it seems that i have a d3d11_1sdklayers.dll file, so the d3d11sdklayers.dll may have been changed (or at least, the visual studio install did modify some system dlls). Do you know where I could get hashsums for these dlls? Maybe I could try and compare to see if I still have the same dll versions. (I've just checked the file version, it seems that my d3d11sdklayers.dll and d3d11_1sdklayers.dll have the same file and product version, so it's not too far I guess).

I understand why you have rolled some of your own stuff, we all do while building things (at the beginning, I thought it was for the book). Anyway, I already changed it so it's no longer an issue (only a little bit of find&replace, was quite easy). Thanks for your help.

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In the output window it says 'ValkyrieSimpleTestApp.exe' (Win32): Loaded 'C:\Windows\SysWOW64\d3d11sdklayers.dll'. So I assume it loads the correct one. I have never used dumpbin.exe before, but I think I managed to get it correct. I think that it's odd that it doesn't contain anything about d3d11sdklayers.dll, but that can however be because i used the wrong command (/imports).

Microsoft (R) COFF/PE Dumper Version 10.00.40219.01
Copyright (C) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Dump of file ValkyrieSimpleTestApp.exe


Section contains the following imports:

513528 Import Address Table
513128 Import Name Table
0 time date stamp
0 Index of first forwarder reference

C7 DebugBreak
54D lstrlenA
3B1 RaiseException
367 MultiByteToWideChar
215 GetModuleHandleA
202 GetLastError
162 FreeLibrary
218 GetModuleHandleW
4F1 VirtualQuery
214 GetModuleFileNameW
38A OutputDebugStringW
2CB HeapAlloc
2CF HeapFree
279 GetSystemTimeAsFileTime
1C1 GetCurrentProcessId
1C5 GetCurrentThreadId
293 GetTickCount
3A7 QueryPerformanceCounter
CA DecodePointer
4A5 SetUnhandledExceptionFilter
4D3 UnhandledExceptionFilter
1C0 GetCurrentProcess
4C0 TerminateProcess
33F LoadLibraryW
24A GetProcessHeap
389 OutputDebugStringA
300 IsDebuggerPresent
511 WideCharToMultiByte
2D3 HeapSetInformation
2E9 InterlockedCompareExchange
4B2 Sleep
2EC InterlockedExchange
EA EncodePointer
245 GetProcAddress

513790 Import Address Table
513390 Import Name Table
0 time date stamp
0 Index of first forwarder reference

A6 DestroyWindow
305 UnregisterClassA
1EC LoadIconA
1E8 LoadCursorA
24C RegisterClassExA
17E GetSystemMetrics
23 ChangeDisplaySettingsA
2 AdjustWindowRect
6D CreateWindowExA
2DF ShowWindow
293 SetForegroundWindow
292 SetFocus
311 UpdateWindow
25A RegisterRawInputDevices
237 PostQuitMessage
E BeginPaint
DC EndPaint
20E MessageBoxA
AE DispatchMessageA
2FC TranslateMessage
232 PeekMessageA
16E GetRawInputData
19C GetWindowRect
9B DefWindowProcA
12D GetForegroundWindow

5134F8 Import Address Table
5130F8 Import Name Table
0 time date stamp
0 Index of first forwarder reference

20D GetStockObject

513650 Import Address Table
513250 Import Name Table
0 time date stamp
0 Index of first forwarder reference

2EE _invalid_parameter
126 _CrtDbgReportW
FA ?raw_name@type_info@@QBEPBDXZ
5FE ldiv
614 memset
E5 ?_name_internal_method@type_info@@QBEPBDPAU__type_info_node@@@Z
175 __clean_type_info_names_internal
21B _configthreadlocale
1C7 __setusermatherr
21A _commode
279 _fmode
1C4 __set_app_type
1F2 _amsg_exit
185 __getmainargs
25D _exit
14F _XcptFilter
209 _cexit
1E4 _aligned_malloc
186 __initenv
137 _CrtSetCheckCount
2E9 _initterm
2EA _initterm_e
104 ?terminate@@YAXXZ
EF ?_type_info_dtor_internal_method@type_info@@QAEXXZ
22D _crt_debugger_hook
21E _controlfp_s
2EF _invoke_watson
4C8 _unlock
17D __dllonexit
35A _lock
402 _onexit
254 _except_handler4_common
55F _wmakepath_s
675 wcscpy_s
581 _wsplitpath_s
78 ??_U@YAPAXI@Z
5D ??1exception@std@@UAE@XZ
10F ?what@exception@std@@UBEPBDXZ
22 ??0exception@std@@QAE@ABQBD@Z
24 ??0exception@std@@QAE@ABV01@@Z
141 _CxxThrowException
612 memmove
641 strlen
5B4 exit
610 memcpy
63 ??2@YAPAXI@Z
65 ??3@YAXPAX@Z
411 _purecall
15C __CxxFrameHandler3
656 tan
5A3 atan
1E2 _aligned_free
65C tolower
65E towlower
4EC _vsnprintf
630 sprintf

5135F4 Import Address Table
5131F4 Import Name Table
0 time date stamp
0 Index of first forwarder reference

285 ?_Swap_all@_Container_base12@std@@QAEXAAU12@@Z
60 ??0_Lockit@std@@QAE@H@Z
9E ??1_Lockit@std@@QAE@XZ
1A8 ?_Debug_message@std@@YAXPB_W0I@Z
297 ?_Xlength_error@std@@YAXPBD@Z
299 ?_Xout_of_range@std@@YAXPBD@Z
25D ?_Orphan_all@_Container_base12@std@@QAEXXZ
5A ??0_Container_base12@std@@QAE@XZ
9A ??1_Container_base12@std@@QAE@XZ
1E7 ?_Getpfirst@_Container_base12@std@@QBEPAPAU_Iterator_base12@2@XZ

513898 Import Address Table
513498 Import Name Table
0 time date stamp
0 Index of first forwarder reference

0 CreateDXGIFactory

513834 Import Address Table
513434 Import Name Table
0 time date stamp
0 Index of first forwarder reference

4 D3D11CreateDevice

5134C8 Import Address Table
5130C8 Import Name Table
0 time date stamp
0 Index of first forwarder reference

D D3DReflect

513864 Import Address Table
513464 Import Name Table
0 time date stamp
0 Index of first forwarder reference

16 D3DX11CreateTextureFromFileA
1 D3DX11CompileFromFileA


1000 .data
2000 .idata
3D000 .rdata
A000 .reloc
1000 .rsrc
90000 .text
44000 .textbss

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In the output window it says 'ValkyrieSimpleTestApp.exe' (Win32): Loaded 'C:\Windows\SysWOW64\d3d11sdklayers.dll'. So I assume it loads the correct one.

I have the same, but it is definitely the incorrect dll. On my machine with VS11 installed, the dll has a size of 576kb and a file version of 9.30.930.8102 while on another machine (with only the DXSDK and VS10), the file has a size of 484KB and a version of 9.27.952.3001.

Edit: That's it actually, just copied the old dll into the folder of my application, and it runs without error again! I would be curious which version of d3d11 the newer version was built against.

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Thanks, that fixed the issue. I copied the [color="#1C2837"]d3d11sdklayers.dll from the dxsdk runtime folder to the applicaiton folder. Seems that vs11 updated that for some random reason. (I had to rename it so use lowercase letters only though)

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It appears that all of the following dll's are updated with the new VS11 developer preview:


Since you already have been able to switch back to the standard functionality by replacing only one dll, then it shouldn't be a big issue... Still, if strange behavior persists, try replacing all of these with their SDK equivalents and see if it resolves the issue.

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      Next-generation APIs allow fine level-control over how resources are allocated. Diligent Engine does not currently expose this functionality, but it can be added by implementing IResourceAllocator interface that encapsulates specifics of resource allocation and providing this interface to CreateBuffer() or CreateTexture() methods. If null is provided, default allocator should be used.
      Initializing the Pipeline State
      As it was mentioned earlier, Diligent Engine follows next-gen APIs to configure the graphics/compute pipeline. One big Pipelines State Object (PSO) encompasses all required states (all shader stages, input layout description, depth stencil, rasterizer and blend state descriptions etc.). This approach maps directly to Direct3D12/Vulkan, but is also beneficial for older APIs as it eliminates pipeline misconfiguration errors. With many individual calls tweaking various GPU pipeline settings it is very easy to forget to set one of the states or assume the stage is already properly configured when in fact it is not. Using pipeline state object helps avoid these problems as all stages are configured at once.
      Creating Shaders
      While in earlier APIs shaders were bound separately, in the next-generation APIs as well as in Diligent Engine shaders are part of the pipeline state object. The biggest challenge when authoring shaders is that Direct3D and OpenGL/Vulkan use different shader languages (while Apple uses yet another language in their Metal API). Maintaining two versions of every shader is not an option for real applications and Diligent Engine implements shader source code converter that allows shaders authored in HLSL to be translated to GLSL. To create a shader, one needs to populate ShaderCreationAttribs structure. SourceLanguage member of this structure tells the system which language the shader is authored in:
      SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_DEFAULT - The shader source language matches the underlying graphics API: HLSL for Direct3D11/Direct3D12 mode, and GLSL for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL - The shader source is in HLSL. For OpenGL and OpenGLES modes, the source code will be converted to GLSL. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_GLSL - The shader source is in GLSL. There is currently no GLSL to HLSL converter, so this value should only be used for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. There are two ways to provide the shader source code. The first way is to use Source member. The second way is to provide a file path in FilePath member. Since the engine is entirely decoupled from the platform and the host file system is platform-dependent, the structure exposes pShaderSourceStreamFactory member that is intended to provide the engine access to the file system. If FilePath is provided, shader source factory must also be provided. If the shader source contains any #include directives, the source stream factory will also be used to load these files. The engine provides default implementation for every supported platform that should be sufficient in most cases. Custom implementation can be provided when needed.
      When sampling a texture in a shader, the texture sampler was traditionally specified as separate object that was bound to the pipeline at run time or set as part of the texture object itself. However, in most cases it is known beforehand what kind of sampler will be used in the shader. Next-generation APIs expose new type of sampler called static sampler that can be initialized directly in the pipeline state. Diligent Engine exposes this functionality: when creating a shader, textures can be assigned static samplers. If static sampler is assigned, it will always be used instead of the one initialized in the texture shader resource view. To initialize static samplers, prepare an array of StaticSamplerDesc structures and initialize StaticSamplers and NumStaticSamplers members. Static samplers are more efficient and it is highly recommended to use them whenever possible. On older APIs, static samplers are emulated via generic sampler objects.
      The following is an example of shader initialization:
      ShaderCreationAttribs Attrs; Attrs.Desc.Name = "MyPixelShader"; Attrs.FilePath = "MyShaderFile.fx"; Attrs.SearchDirectories = "shaders;shaders\\inc;"; Attrs.EntryPoint = "MyPixelShader"; Attrs.Desc.ShaderType = SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL; Attrs.SourceLanguage = SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL; BasicShaderSourceStreamFactory BasicSSSFactory(Attrs.SearchDirectories); Attrs.pShaderSourceStreamFactory = &BasicSSSFactory; ShaderVariableDesc ShaderVars[] = {     {"g_StaticTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC},     {"g_MutableTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE},     {"g_DynamicTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC} }; Attrs.Desc.VariableDesc = ShaderVars; Attrs.Desc.NumVariables = _countof(ShaderVars); Attrs.Desc.DefaultVariableType = SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC; StaticSamplerDesc StaticSampler; StaticSampler.Desc.MinFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.Desc.MagFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.Desc.MipFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.TextureName = "g_MutableTexture"; Attrs.Desc.NumStaticSamplers = 1; Attrs.Desc.StaticSamplers = &StaticSampler; ShaderMacroHelper Macros; Macros.AddShaderMacro("USE_SHADOWS", 1); Macros.AddShaderMacro("NUM_SHADOW_SAMPLES", 4); Macros.Finalize(); Attrs.Macros = Macros; RefCntAutoPtr<IShader> pShader; m_pDevice->CreateShader( Attrs, &pShader );
      Creating the Pipeline State Object
      After all required shaders are created, the rest of the fields of the PipelineStateDesc structure provide depth-stencil, rasterizer, and blend state descriptions, the number and format of render targets, input layout format, etc. For instance, rasterizer state can be described as follows:
      PipelineStateDesc PSODesc; RasterizerStateDesc &RasterizerDesc = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.RasterizerDesc; RasterizerDesc.FillMode = FILL_MODE_SOLID; RasterizerDesc.CullMode = CULL_MODE_NONE; RasterizerDesc.FrontCounterClockwise = True; RasterizerDesc.ScissorEnable = True; RasterizerDesc.AntialiasedLineEnable = False; Depth-stencil and blend states are defined in a similar fashion.
      Another important thing that pipeline state object encompasses is the input layout description that defines how inputs to the vertex shader, which is the very first shader stage, should be read from the memory. Input layout may define several vertex streams that contain values of different formats and sizes:
      // Define input layout InputLayoutDesc &Layout = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.InputLayout; LayoutElement TextLayoutElems[] = {     LayoutElement( 0, 0, 3, VT_FLOAT32, False ),     LayoutElement( 1, 0, 4, VT_UINT8, True ),     LayoutElement( 2, 0, 2, VT_FLOAT32, False ), }; Layout.LayoutElements = TextLayoutElems; Layout.NumElements = _countof( TextLayoutElems ); Finally, pipeline state defines primitive topology type. When all required members are initialized, a pipeline state object can be created by IRenderDevice::CreatePipelineState() method:
      // Define shader and primitive topology PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.PrimitiveTopologyType = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TYPE_TRIANGLE; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pVS = pVertexShader; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pPS = pPixelShader; PSODesc.Name = "My pipeline state"; m_pDev->CreatePipelineState(PSODesc, &m_pPSO); When PSO object is bound to the pipeline, the engine invokes all API-specific commands to set all states specified by the object. In case of Direct3D12 this maps directly to setting the D3D12 PSO object. In case of Direct3D11, this involves setting individual state objects (such as rasterizer and blend states), shaders, input layout etc. In case of OpenGL, this requires a number of fine-grain state tweaking calls. Diligent Engine keeps track of currently bound states and only calls functions to update these states that have actually changed.
      Binding Shader Resources
      Direct3D11 and OpenGL utilize fine-grain resource binding models, where an application binds individual buffers and textures to certain shader or program resource binding slots. Direct3D12 uses a very different approach, where resource descriptors are grouped into tables, and an application can bind all resources in the table at once by setting the table in the command list. Resource binding model in Diligent Engine is designed to leverage this new method. It introduces a new object called shader resource binding that encapsulates all resource bindings required for all shaders in a certain pipeline state. It also introduces the classification of shader variables based on the frequency of expected change that helps the engine group them into tables under the hood:
      Static variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC) are variables that are expected to be set only once. They may not be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. Such variables are intended to hold global constants such as camera attributes or global light attributes constant buffers. Mutable variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE) define resources that are expected to change on a per-material frequency. Examples may include diffuse textures, normal maps etc. Dynamic variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC) are expected to change frequently and randomly. Shader variable type must be specified during shader creation by populating an array of ShaderVariableDesc structures and initializing ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::VariableDesc and ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::NumVariables members (see example of shader creation above).
      Static variables cannot be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. They are bound directly to the shader object. For instance, a shadow map texture is not expected to change after it is created, so it can be bound directly to the shader:
      PixelShader->GetShaderVariable( "g_tex2DShadowMap" )->Set( pShadowMapSRV ); Mutable and dynamic variables are bound via a new Shader Resource Binding object (SRB) that is created by the pipeline state (IPipelineState::CreateShaderResourceBinding()):
      m_pPSO->CreateShaderResourceBinding(&m_pSRB); Note that an SRB is only compatible with the pipeline state it was created from. SRB object inherits all static bindings from shaders in the pipeline, but is not allowed to change them.
      Mutable resources can only be set once for every instance of a shader resource binding. Such resources are intended to define specific material properties. For instance, a diffuse texture for a specific material is not expected to change once the material is defined and can be set right after the SRB object has been created:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL, "tex2DDiffuse")->Set(pDiffuseTexSRV); In some cases it is necessary to bind a new resource to a variable every time a draw command is invoked. Such variables should be labeled as dynamic, which will allow setting them multiple times through the same SRB object:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_VERTEX, "cbRandomAttribs")->Set(pRandomAttrsCB); Under the hood, the engine pre-allocates descriptor tables for static and mutable resources when an SRB objcet is created. Space for dynamic resources is dynamically allocated at run time. Static and mutable resources are thus more efficient and should be used whenever possible.
      As you can see, Diligent Engine does not expose low-level details of how resources are bound to shader variables. One reason for this is that these details are very different for various APIs. The other reason is that using low-level binding methods is extremely error-prone: it is very easy to forget to bind some resource, or bind incorrect resource such as bind a buffer to the variable that is in fact a texture, especially during shader development when everything changes fast. Diligent Engine instead relies on shader reflection system to automatically query the list of all shader variables. Grouping variables based on three types mentioned above allows the engine to create optimized layout and take heavy lifting of matching resources to API-specific resource location, register or descriptor in the table.
      This post gives more details about the resource binding model in Diligent Engine.
      Setting the Pipeline State and Committing Shader Resources
      Before any draw or compute command can be invoked, the pipeline state needs to be bound to the context:
      m_pContext->SetPipelineState(m_pPSO); Under the hood, the engine sets the internal PSO object in the command list or calls all the required native API functions to properly configure all pipeline stages.
      The next step is to bind all required shader resources to the GPU pipeline, which is accomplished by IDeviceContext::CommitShaderResources() method:
      m_pContext->CommitShaderResources(m_pSRB, COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES); The method takes a pointer to the shader resource binding object and makes all resources the object holds available for the shaders. In the case of D3D12, this only requires setting appropriate descriptor tables in the command list. For older APIs, this typically requires setting all resources individually.
      Next-generation APIs require the application to track the state of every resource and explicitly inform the system about all state transitions. For instance, if a texture was used as render target before, while the next draw command is going to use it as shader resource, a transition barrier needs to be executed. Diligent Engine does the heavy lifting of state tracking.  When CommitShaderResources() method is called with COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES flag, the engine commits and transitions resources to correct states at the same time. Note that transitioning resources does introduce some overhead. The engine tracks state of every resource and it will not issue the barrier if the state is already correct. But checking resource state is an overhead that can sometimes be avoided. The engine provides IDeviceContext::TransitionShaderResources() method that only transitions resources:
      m_pContext->TransitionShaderResources(m_pPSO, m_pSRB); In some scenarios it is more efficient to transition resources once and then only commit them.
      Invoking Draw Command
      The final step is to set states that are not part of the PSO, such as render targets, vertex and index buffers. Diligent Engine uses Direct3D11-syle API that is translated to other native API calls under the hood:
      ITextureView *pRTVs[] = {m_pRTV}; m_pContext->SetRenderTargets(_countof( pRTVs ), pRTVs, m_pDSV); // Clear render target and depth buffer const float zero[4] = {0, 0, 0, 0}; m_pContext->ClearRenderTarget(nullptr, zero); m_pContext->ClearDepthStencil(nullptr, CLEAR_DEPTH_FLAG, 1.f); // Set vertex and index buffers IBuffer *buffer[] = {m_pVertexBuffer}; Uint32 offsets[] = {0}; Uint32 strides[] = {sizeof(MyVertex)}; m_pContext->SetVertexBuffers(0, 1, buffer, strides, offsets, SET_VERTEX_BUFFERS_FLAG_RESET); m_pContext->SetIndexBuffer(m_pIndexBuffer, 0); Different native APIs use various set of function to execute draw commands depending on command details (if the command is indexed, instanced or both, what offsets in the source buffers are used etc.). For instance, there are 5 draw commands in Direct3D11 and more than 9 commands in OpenGL with something like glDrawElementsInstancedBaseVertexBaseInstance not uncommon. Diligent Engine hides all details with single IDeviceContext::Draw() method that takes takes DrawAttribs structure as an argument. The structure members define all attributes required to perform the command (primitive topology, number of vertices or indices, if draw call is indexed or not, if draw call is instanced or not, if draw call is indirect or not, etc.). For example:
      DrawAttribs attrs; attrs.IsIndexed = true; attrs.IndexType = VT_UINT16; attrs.NumIndices = 36; attrs.Topology = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLE_LIST; pContext->Draw(attrs); For compute commands, there is IDeviceContext::DispatchCompute() method that takes DispatchComputeAttribs structure that defines compute grid dimension.
      Source Code
      Full engine source code is available on GitHub and is free to use. The repository contains tutorials, sample applications, asteroids performance benchmark and an example Unity project that uses Diligent Engine in native plugin.
      Atmospheric scattering sample demonstrates how Diligent Engine can be used to implement various rendering tasks: loading textures from files, using complex shaders, rendering to multiple render targets, using compute shaders and unordered access views, etc.

      Asteroids performance benchmark is based on this demo developed by Intel. It renders 50,000 unique textured asteroids and allows comparing performance of Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 implementations. Every asteroid is a combination of one of 1000 unique meshes and one of 10 unique textures.

      Finally, there is an example project that shows how Diligent Engine can be integrated with Unity.

      Future Work
      The engine is under active development. It currently supports Windows desktop, Universal Windows, Linux, Android, MacOS, and iOS platforms. Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES backends are now feature complete. Vulkan backend is coming next, and Metal backend is in the plan.
    • By trojanfoe
      I hope this is the right place to ask questions about DirectXTK which aren't really about graphics, if not please let me know a better place.
      Can anyone tell me why I cannot do this:
      DirectX::SimpleMath::Rectangle rectangle = {...}; RECT rect = rectangle; or
      RECT rect = static_cast<RECT>(rectangle); or
      const RECT rect(m_textureRect); despite Rectangle having the following operator RECT:
      operator RECT() { RECT rct; rct.left = x; rct.top = y; rct.right = (x + width); rct.bottom = (y + height); return rct; } VS2017 tells me:
      error C2440: 'initializing': cannot convert from 'const DirectX::SimpleMath::Rectangle' to 'const RECT' Thanks in advance
    • By isu diss
      I'm trying to duplicate vertices using std::map to be used in a vertex buffer. I don't get the correct index buffer(myInds) or vertex buffer(myVerts). I can get the index array from FBX but it differs from what I get in the following std::map code. Any help is much appreciated.
      struct FBXVTX { XMFLOAT3 Position; XMFLOAT2 TextureCoord; XMFLOAT3 Normal; }; std::map< FBXVTX, int > myVertsMap; std::vector<FBXVTX> myVerts; std::vector<int> myInds; HRESULT FBXLoader::Open(HWND hWnd, char* Filename, bool UsePositionOnly) { HRESULT hr = S_OK; if (FBXM) { FBXIOS = FbxIOSettings::Create(FBXM, IOSROOT); FBXM->SetIOSettings(FBXIOS); FBXI = FbxImporter::Create(FBXM, ""); if (!(FBXI->Initialize(Filename, -1, FBXIOS))) { hr = E_FAIL; MessageBox(hWnd, (wchar_t*)FBXI->GetStatus().GetErrorString(), TEXT("ALM"), MB_OK); } FBXS = FbxScene::Create(FBXM, "REALMS"); if (!FBXS) { hr = E_FAIL; MessageBox(hWnd, TEXT("Failed to create the scene"), TEXT("ALM"), MB_OK); } if (!(FBXI->Import(FBXS))) { hr = E_FAIL; MessageBox(hWnd, TEXT("Failed to import fbx file content into the scene"), TEXT("ALM"), MB_OK); } FbxAxisSystem OurAxisSystem = FbxAxisSystem::DirectX; FbxAxisSystem SceneAxisSystem = FBXS->GetGlobalSettings().GetAxisSystem(); if(SceneAxisSystem != OurAxisSystem) { FbxAxisSystem::DirectX.ConvertScene(FBXS); } FbxSystemUnit SceneSystemUnit = FBXS->GetGlobalSettings().GetSystemUnit(); if( SceneSystemUnit.GetScaleFactor() != 1.0 ) { FbxSystemUnit::cm.ConvertScene( FBXS ); } if (FBXI) FBXI->Destroy(); FbxNode* MainNode = FBXS->GetRootNode(); int NumKids = MainNode->GetChildCount(); FbxNode* ChildNode = NULL; for (int i=0; i<NumKids; i++) { ChildNode = MainNode->GetChild(i); FbxNodeAttribute* NodeAttribute = ChildNode->GetNodeAttribute(); if (NodeAttribute->GetAttributeType() == FbxNodeAttribute::eMesh) { FbxMesh* Mesh = ChildNode->GetMesh(); if (UsePositionOnly) { NumVertices = Mesh->GetControlPointsCount();//number of vertices MyV = new XMFLOAT3[NumVertices]; for (DWORD j = 0; j < NumVertices; j++) { FbxVector4 Vertex = Mesh->GetControlPointAt(j);//Gets the control point at the specified index. MyV[j] = XMFLOAT3((float)Vertex.mData[0], (float)Vertex.mData[1], (float)Vertex.mData[2]); } NumIndices = Mesh->GetPolygonVertexCount();//number of indices MyI = (DWORD*)Mesh->GetPolygonVertices();//index array } else { FbxLayerElementArrayTemplate<FbxVector2>* uvVertices = NULL; Mesh->GetTextureUV(&uvVertices); int idx = 0; for (int i = 0; i < Mesh->GetPolygonCount(); i++)//polygon(=mostly triangle) count { for (int j = 0; j < Mesh->GetPolygonSize(i); j++)//retrieves number of vertices in a polygon { FBXVTX myVert; int p_index = 3*i+j; int t_index = Mesh->GetTextureUVIndex(i, j); FbxVector4 Vertex = Mesh->GetControlPointAt(p_index);//Gets the control point at the specified index. myVert.Position = XMFLOAT3((float)Vertex.mData[0], (float)Vertex.mData[1], (float)Vertex.mData[2]); FbxVector4 Normal; Mesh->GetPolygonVertexNormal(i, j, Normal); myVert.Normal = XMFLOAT3((float)Normal.mData[0], (float)Normal.mData[1], (float)Normal.mData[2]); FbxVector2 uv = uvVertices->GetAt(t_index); myVert.TextureCoord = XMFLOAT2((float)uv.mData[0], (float)uv.mData[1]); if ( myVertsMap.find( myVert ) != myVertsMap.end() ) myInds.push_back( myVertsMap[ myVert ]); else { myVertsMap.insert( std::pair<FBXVTX, int> (myVert, idx ) ); myVerts.push_back(myVert); myInds.push_back(idx); idx++; } } } } } } } else { hr = E_FAIL; MessageBox(hWnd, TEXT("Failed to create the FBX Manager"), TEXT("ALM"), MB_OK); } return hr; } bool operator < ( const FBXVTX &lValue, const FBXVTX &rValue) { if (lValue.Position.x != rValue.Position.x) return(lValue.Position.x < rValue.Position.x); if (lValue.Position.y != rValue.Position.y) return(lValue.Position.y < rValue.Position.y); if (lValue.Position.z != rValue.Position.z) return(lValue.Position.z < rValue.Position.z); if (lValue.TextureCoord.x != rValue.TextureCoord.x) return(lValue.TextureCoord.x < rValue.TextureCoord.x); if (lValue.TextureCoord.y != rValue.TextureCoord.y) return(lValue.TextureCoord.y < rValue.TextureCoord.y); if (lValue.Normal.x != rValue.Normal.x) return(lValue.Normal.x < rValue.Normal.x); if (lValue.Normal.y != rValue.Normal.y) return(lValue.Normal.y < rValue.Normal.y); return(lValue.Normal.z < rValue.Normal.z); }  
    • By Karol Plewa
      I am working on a project where I'm trying to use Forward Plus Rendering on point lights. I have a simple reflective scene with many point lights moving around it. I am using effects file (.fx) to keep my shaders in one place. I am having a problem with Compute Shader code. I cannot get it to work properly and calculate the tiles and lighting properly. 
      Is there anyone that is wishing to help me set up my compute shader?
      Thank you in advance for any replies and interest!
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