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Basic 2D Game Architecture

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I have been learning game programming for the past year, and I have made some small tests and prototypes to test my skills (for instance a Tetris clone, a 2D platformer etc), and now I'd like to start building a bigger game. But I have a big problem - I don't know anything about games' architecture. I'm talking about big games like World of Goo, VVVVVV and Braid. I can't just start writing a game as big as those into a few of classes. I used only 2 classes in the Tetris clone I made, but now I really have to learn how to keep things organized in the game code and start learning some game architecture.

I hope someone can explain these things so that a beginner can understand what each branch in the game code should hold.
Some of the things a game's architecture should have (AFAIK) are

  • GameStates

    • MainMenu
    • InGame
    • InGameMenu(Pause, Round end)
    • etc
    • ResourceManager
    • Renderer

      • Subrenderer

        • CharacterRenderer
        • World's Static Objects renderer
        • btw, how to manage entities' rendering order?
        • etc

        • Logic

          • GameLogic
          • Simulation

            • SubSimulation

              • PhysicsSimulation
              • Ai

                • PathFinding

                • World Class
                • GameAccessPoint

                  • Init
                  • Input

                    Some of the things listed there might be in wrong places, but the point is that the tree is huge! and I need your help.

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Well, it sounds like you're trying to bite off more than you can chew. Try just taking more little steps into making other games. I make simple games just for fun. If you want, you can check out my blog (see my old blog in my sig) for detailed steps of making a top-down 2D game. My Dev Journal has steps I took to convert that game is a Component Based Entity System. It might give you some idea of how I do these things.

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I have written a component-based entity system, actually. The same project had a resource manager, and all the other stuff I mentioned in that list, but the architecture was horrible and it got really messy after a while so I froze the project. I have made these small projects to a point where now I need to learn a decent architecture to make bigger games. That's why I think I'm not trying to bite off more than I can chew. Even if I am, the guidance you guys give here can help the next beginner searching stuff on the forums.

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