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OpenGL [SOLVED] I am supposed to use Transpose but when i do...

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I have been trying many different languages revolving around DirectX and even had a stab at OpenGL but i finally settled on C# + SlimDX because it's been the most comfortable solution for me.

So, i am making a custom engine for a game i intend to make. It's not going to be a fully fledged engine but more like a support framework.

----

Anyways, the question / problem i am facing right now is that i am (supposedly?) running DirectX 11 and made a simple triangle to play with so i could continue making a camera class. I set up my world, view and projection matrices and a basic color shader.
I started getting very strange issues however as i went along. First i got the RH vs LH wrong but that got sorted (I think) and then things got really wonky.

If i Matrix.Transpose my world, view and projection matrices before sending them to the shader my screen turns completely <color of triangle>!
That is, whatever color of the triangle i assign my view is filled with it. Having tried to "solve" any matrix issues i might have had in my camera class etc for about 4 hours straight i re-built a lot of the cbuffer updating procedures thinking something went wrong there.
Out of a "fluke" i commented out the Matrix.Transpose lines and VOILA. Everything worked as it should!

So... I know i am supposed to use Matrix.Transpose with DX11 but when i do it breaks.
When i don't it works as intended.
How can this be?

Thanks in advance for any clues or information on the subject.
//Cadde

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Well, actually you don't have to transpose the matrices, unless your shaders expects it (which is the normal case, afaik).

Best regards!

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Well it turns out that i did something wrong when setting the constant buffers after all. I thought there wasn't an Effect class in SlimDX.Direct3D11 but lo and behold there was one. So i started using that and now everything behaves as it should.

Still don't need to use Matrix.Transpose though... Which is weird since i am using the LH coordinate system and haven't done anything in the shader to make the switch.
I will probably find out later as i go along...

Another question as well though. I kinda feel that i am not in (as) complete control with effects rather than VertexShader and PixelShader. I much prefer to do things as low level / non "wrappery" as possible without it becoming a groundwork nightmare.
Is there any difference in performance between using the Effect class and using VertexShader/PixelShader classes?

And what happened really? I mean, the matrices i sent to the shader where fine yet the shader misbehaved greatly and made all kinds of wonky vertex transformations. It looked like i was looking through a fisheye lens.
After i started using effects and used Effect.GetVariableByName("").AsMatrix.SetMatrix() it behaved normally.

Sorry, don't have the code i used prior but i am thinking i was updating the wrong registers or whatever. I am new at this so ya, terminology is not right.
But i would love to have a working example on how it should be done.


cbuffer worldBuffer : register(b0)
{
matrix worldMatrix;
}
cbuffer viewBuffer : register(b1)
{
matrix viewMatrix;
}
cbuffer projectionBuffer : register(b2)
{
matrix projectionMatrix;
}


Like, how would i go at sending matrices to each of these?
The reason i split them up like that is because the projection will only be set on initialization and viewport resize, view only once per frame and world once per model / mesh.

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Can you show any of the vertex / pixel shader code? It may give some clues why your matrices behave in the described way.

I'm not using the effects framework at this moment so I can't help you with it.

To update a constant buffer (with out the effect framework), you'll need to create constant buffer in the program side and bind it to the desired register. The program side constant buffer should be at least the same size as defined in the shader, and the program side structure containing the data should be the same as in the shader, in order to map correct variables to correct constants.

It is a good idea to split the constant buffers. It is suggested, however, that one shader doesn't use variables from more than 4-5 different constant buffers. Apparently there may be some performance penalties. So, in that sense, view matrix and projection matrix could be in the same buffer. You'd probably want to save some shader cycles too by providing a view-projection matrix, which you'll need to update every frame.

Best regards!

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By default, shaders assume that matrices in constant buffers are stored in a column-major memory layout and will emit code based on that when compiling vector/matrix multiplications. You can change or work around this in 4 ways:

  1. By declaring the matrix variable with the "row_major" modifier in your shader
  2. By passing D3D10_SHADER_PACK_MATRIX_ROW_MAJOR when compiling the shader (sorry, I don't know what the SlimDX enum equivalent of this is)
  3. By using transpose() in your shader. In most cases won't actually reorder the data in registers or anything like that, instead it will just cause the compiler to emit different code for the mul() intrinsic.
  4. By switching the order of the vector and matrix parameters that you pass to mul(). Normally you will do mul(vector, matrix), but if you do mul(matrix, vector) it's equivalent to calling transpose() on the matrix.

If you don't do any of these things, then you'll need to pre-transpose your matrices when setting their value in the constant buffer. Historically the Effects framework has always handled doing this for you, which inevitably causes confusion when people try handling shaders manually.

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Ok, so i decided to make a test bed for this particular thing because like i said, i cannot come to grasps with how to use the constant buffers.
It has all been written from scratch to make a proper test this time.

Program.cs
using System;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Windows.Forms;
using SlimDX;
using SlimDX.Direct3D11;
using SlimDX.DXGI;
using SlimDX.D3DCompiler;
using SlimDX.Windows;
using Device = SlimDX.Direct3D11.Device;
using Buffer = SlimDX.Direct3D11.Buffer;
using Resource = SlimDX.Direct3D11.Resource;
namespace SlimDX_Testbed
{
static class Program
{
[STAThread]
static void Main()
{
// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Form, device, render target and viewport creation.
RenderForm form = new RenderForm("SlimDX Testbed");
Device device;
DeviceContext context;
SwapChain swapChain;
FeatureLevel[] featureLevels;
RenderTargetView renderTarget;
Viewport viewport;

// Width and height of form and viewport etc.
int width = 1600;
int height = 900;
form.ClientSize = new Size(width, height);
featureLevels = new[]
{
FeatureLevel.Level_11_0,
FeatureLevel.Level_10_1,
FeatureLevel.Level_10_0,
};
// Create device and swap chain.
Device.CreateWithSwapChain
(
DriverType.Hardware, DeviceCreationFlags.Debug,
featureLevels,
new SwapChainDescription
{
BufferCount = 2,
Flags = SwapChainFlags.AllowModeSwitch,
IsWindowed = true,
ModeDescription = new ModeDescription
{
Format = Format.R8G8B8A8_UNorm,
Width = width,
Height = height,
RefreshRate = new Rational(60, 1),
Scaling = DisplayModeScaling.Unspecified,
ScanlineOrdering = DisplayModeScanlineOrdering.Progressive,
},
OutputHandle = form.Handle,
SampleDescription = new SampleDescription(1, 0),
SwapEffect = SwapEffect.Discard,
Usage = Usage.RenderTargetOutput,
},
out device, out swapChain
);
// Assign the context.
context = device.ImmediateContext;
// Create the render target view.
using (Resource resource = Resource.FromSwapChain<Texture2D>(swapChain, 0))
renderTarget = new RenderTargetView
(
device, resource,
new RenderTargetViewDescription
{
Dimension = RenderTargetViewDimension.Texture2D,
Format = Format.R8G8B8A8_UNorm,
MipSlice = 0,
}
);
// Create the viewport.
viewport = new Viewport(0.0f, 0.0f, width, height, 0.0f, 1.0f);
// Assign the render targets and viewport to the context.
context.OutputMerger.SetTargets(renderTarget);
context.Rasterizer.SetViewports(viewport);

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Model
DataStream vertexData;
DataStream indexData;

Buffer vertexBuffer;
Buffer indexBuffer;
VertexBufferBinding[] binding;

int vertexCount = 8;
int indexCount = 36;
// Create the vertex data stream.
vertexData = new DataStream(12 * vertexCount, true, true);

// Create a 1x1x1 cube.
// We will be using TriangleList primitive topology here.
vertexData.Write(new Vector3(-1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f)); // FTL 0
vertexData.Write(new Vector3( 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f)); // FTR 1
vertexData.Write(new Vector3(-1.0f, -1.0f, 1.0f)); // FBL 2
vertexData.Write(new Vector3( 1.0f, -1.0f, 1.0f)); // FBR 3
vertexData.Write(new Vector3(-1.0f, 1.0f, -1.0f)); // BTL 4
vertexData.Write(new Vector3( 1.0f, 1.0f, -1.0f)); // BTR 5
vertexData.Write(new Vector3(-1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f)); // BBL 6
vertexData.Write(new Vector3( 1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f)); // BBR 7

// Create the index data stream.
indexData = new DataStream(sizeof(UInt32) * indexCount, true, true);
// Assign the indices for 12 triangles making up the cube
indexData.WriteRange<UInt32>
(
new UInt32[]
{
// Front
0, 1, 2, // 1
2, 1, 3, // 2
// Right
1, 5, 3, // 1
3, 5, 7, // 2
// Back
5, 4, 7, // 1
7, 4, 6, // 2
// Left
4, 0, 6, // 1
6, 0, 2, // 2
// Top
4, 5, 0, // 1
0, 5, 1, // 2
// Bottom
2, 3, 6, // 1
6, 3, 7, // 2
}
);
// return the reading positions.
vertexData.Position = 0;
indexData.Position = 0;
// Create the vertex buffer.
vertexBuffer = new Buffer
(
device, vertexData,
new BufferDescription
{
BindFlags = BindFlags.VertexBuffer,
CpuAccessFlags = CpuAccessFlags.None,
OptionFlags = ResourceOptionFlags.None,
SizeInBytes = 12 * vertexCount,
StructureByteStride = 0,
Usage = ResourceUsage.Default,
}
);
// Create the index buffer.
indexBuffer = new Buffer
(
device, indexData,
new BufferDescription
{
BindFlags = BindFlags.IndexBuffer,
CpuAccessFlags = CpuAccessFlags.None,
OptionFlags = ResourceOptionFlags.None,
SizeInBytes = sizeof(UInt32) * indexCount,
StructureByteStride = 0,
Usage = ResourceUsage.Default,
}
);
// Create the vertex bidnings.
binding = new[]
{
new VertexBufferBinding(vertexBuffer, 12, 0),
};
// Assign the vertex and index buffers to the rendering pipeline.
context.InputAssembler.SetVertexBuffers(0, binding);
context.InputAssembler.SetIndexBuffer(indexBuffer, Format.R32_UInt, 0);
// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Shaders.
VertexShader vertexShader;
PixelShader pixelShader;

InputElement[] elements;
InputLayout layout;
ShaderSignature inputSignature;
// Create the vertex shader.
using (ShaderBytecode bytecode = ShaderBytecode.CompileFromFile("ColorShader.fx", "VShader", "vs_5_0", ShaderFlags.Debug | ShaderFlags.EnableStrictness, EffectFlags.None))
{
inputSignature = ShaderSignature.GetInputSignature(bytecode);
vertexShader = new VertexShader(device, bytecode);
}
// Create the pixel shader.
using (ShaderBytecode bytecode = ShaderBytecode.CompileFromFile("ColorShader.fx", "PShader", "ps_5_0", ShaderFlags.Debug | ShaderFlags.EnableStrictness, EffectFlags.None))
pixelShader = new PixelShader(device, bytecode);
elements = new[]
{
new InputElement("POSITION", 0, Format.R32G32B32_Float, 0),
};
layout = new InputLayout(device, inputSignature, elements);
// Set the vertex and pixel shaders to the active rendering pipeline.
context.VertexShader.Set(vertexShader);
context.PixelShader.Set(pixelShader);
// Set the layout and primitive topology.
context.InputAssembler.InputLayout = layout;
context.InputAssembler.PrimitiveTopology = PrimitiveTopology.TriangleList;

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Matrices
Matrix world = Matrix.Identity;
Matrix view = Matrix.Identity;
Matrix projection = Matrix.PerspectiveFovRH(ToRad(45.0f), (float)width / height, 0.0f, 10000.0f);
Matrix viewProjection = view * projection;

DataStream worldMatrixData;
Buffer worldMatrixBuffer;
DataStream viewProjectionMatrixData;
Buffer viewProjectionMatrixBuffer;
// Create the world matrix data stream.
worldMatrixData = new DataStream(64, true, true);
// Create the world matrix buffer.
worldMatrixBuffer = new Buffer
(
device,
new BufferDescription
{
BindFlags = BindFlags.ConstantBuffer,
CpuAccessFlags = CpuAccessFlags.None,
OptionFlags = ResourceOptionFlags.None,
SizeInBytes = 64,
StructureByteStride = 0,
Usage = ResourceUsage.Default,
}
);
// Create the combined view and projection matrix data stream.
viewProjectionMatrixData = new DataStream(64, true, true);
// Create the combined view and projection matrix buffer.
viewProjectionMatrixBuffer = new Buffer
(
device,
new BufferDescription
{
BindFlags = BindFlags.ConstantBuffer,
CpuAccessFlags = CpuAccessFlags.None,
OptionFlags = ResourceOptionFlags.None,
SizeInBytes = 64,
StructureByteStride = 0,
Usage = ResourceUsage.Default,
}
);
Buffer[] constantBuffers = new[]
{
worldMatrixBuffer,
viewProjectionMatrixBuffer,
};
context.VertexShader.SetConstantBuffers(constantBuffers, 0, 2);
// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Application loop.
Stopwatch sw = new Stopwatch();

double lastUpdate = 0.0f;
double updateFrequency = 1.0f / 20;
form.KeyDown += (o, e) =>
{
if (e.KeyCode == Keys.Escape)
form.Close();
};
MessagePump.Run
(
form,
() =>
{
if (!sw.IsRunning)
sw.Start();
// Update every <updateFrequency> seconds.
if (sw.Elapsed.TotalSeconds - lastUpdate >= updateFrequency)
{
// UPDATE()

// Set the view matrix.
// Set the "camera" (view) to 0, 0, 0 looking down the negative Z axis using 0, 1, 0 as the up vector.
view = Matrix.LookAtRH(new Vector3(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f), new Vector3(0.0f, 0.0f, -1.0f), Vector3.UnitY);
// Update the viewProjection matrix.
viewProjection = projection * view;

// Commented this out because it doesn't behave as it should.
// viewProjection = Matrix.Transpose(viewProjection);
// Update the matrix constant buffers.
viewProjectionMatrixData.Write(viewProjection);
viewProjectionMatrixData.Position = 0;
context.UpdateSubresource(new DataBox(0, 0, viewProjectionMatrixData), viewProjectionMatrixBuffer, 0);
lastUpdate = sw.Elapsed.TotalSeconds;
}

// RENDER()
// Set the world matrix.

// Move the cube along the z axis between -10.0f and 10.0f.
float z = (float)Math.Cos(sw.Elapsed.TotalSeconds) * 20;
world = Matrix.Translation(new Vector3(0.0f, 0.0f, z));
// Commented this out because it doesn't behave as it should.
//world = Matrix.Transpose(world);

// Update the matrix constant buffers.
worldMatrixData.Write(world);
worldMatrixData.Position = 0;
context.UpdateSubresource(new DataBox(0, 0, worldMatrixData), worldMatrixBuffer, 0);
context.ClearRenderTargetView(renderTarget, new Color4(1.0f, 0.0f, 0.1f, 0.2f));
context.DrawIndexed(indexCount, 0, 0);
swapChain.Present(0, PresentFlags.None);
}
);

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Cleanup.

// Matrix constant buffers.
if (worldMatrixBuffer != null) worldMatrixBuffer.Dispose();
if (viewProjectionMatrixBuffer != null) viewProjectionMatrixBuffer.Dispose();
if (worldMatrixData != null)
{
worldMatrixData.Close();
worldMatrixData.Dispose();
}
if (viewProjectionMatrixData != null)
{
viewProjectionMatrixData.Close();
viewProjectionMatrixData.Dispose();
}
// Shaders.
if (inputSignature != null) inputSignature.Dispose();
if (layout != null) layout.Dispose();
if (pixelShader != null) pixelShader.Dispose();
if (vertexShader != null) vertexShader.Dispose();
// Model.
if (indexBuffer != null) indexBuffer.Dispose();
if (vertexBuffer != null) vertexBuffer.Dispose();
if (indexData != null)
{
indexData.Close();
indexData.Dispose();
}

if (vertexData != null)
{
vertexData.Close();
vertexData.Dispose();
}

// Device etc.
if (renderTarget != null) renderTarget.Dispose();
if (swapChain != null) swapChain.Dispose();
if (context != null) context.Dispose();
if (device != null) device.Dispose();
if (form != null) form.Dispose();
// Happy smiley faces in yo face brah! =)
}
// Converts degrees to radians.
static float ToRad(float value)
{
return (float)(Math.PI / 180) * value;
}
}
}


ColorShader.fx
cbuffer WorldMatrixBuffer : register(cb0)
{
matrix world;
};
cbuffer ViewProjectionMatrixBuffer : register(cb1)
{
matrix viewProjection;
};
struct VS_IN
{
float3 position : POSITION;
};
struct PS_IN
{
float4 position : SV_POSITION;
};
PS_IN VShader(VS_IN input)
{
PS_IN output;
output.position = float4(input.position, 1.0);
output.position = mul(output.position, world);
output.position = mul(output.position, viewProjection);
return output;
}
float4 PShader(PS_IN input) : SV_Target
{
return float4(1.0, 1.0, 0.0, 1.0);
}


Still not getting my view and projection matrices to update or behave properly.
If i comment the "output.position = mul(output.position, viewProjection);" line i get alternating dark blue and yellow as the model moves back and forth.
If i uncomment the Matrix.Transpose lines i get the same effect except the yellow phases are shorter.

As always, really appreciate the help here!
//Cadde

EDIT: Forgot to attach the solution. Edited by Cadde

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Bump and update.

I converted the code in the DirectX SDK for Direct3D 11 Tutorial 7 into SlimDX code line by line. (Or at least i think i did)
Only a few minor changes/additions needed to be made considering c++ is by far superior to C# when it comes to sizeof() and other such "unsafe" and dangerous things... (UGH)

Either way, here is the conversion (Attached file) if anyone is interested in looking at it. I experience the same problems as before... Nothing get's shown on screen when using UpdateSubresource and SetConstantbuffers.
I know the code works in C++ but it doesn't do it when i convert to C# and SlimDX.

I am at a total loss here.
Thanks for any assistance!
//Cadde

EDIT:

Some additional information...

Using SlimDX January 2012 version.
.Net 2.0
Tried 32 and 64 bit SlimDX dll's for .net 2.0

It works when i use the Effect class. But doing it the "right" way doesn't work at all for me.

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In your vertex buffer binding you set the stride to 0 when it should actually be sizeof(SimpleVertex), which is 20.


DOH!
It works, you are a god and all that.
Now i have a working example to go from to fix my other ones. Thanks!

EDIT:

Ok, this is what i have learned for all this so far.

  1. For projection, a near plane of 0.0f does [color=#ff0000]NOT work.
  2. One does indeed need to transpose the matrices. How i managed to get anything useful out of not transposing them i will never know. (Matrix math is still beyond me...)
  3. It helps to pay attention when you code, as Mike pointed out you have to set a proper stride.
  4. It was initially very unclear to me how to use constant buffers and the answer from Mike on stackoverflow never mentioned that you had to set then to the shaders using SetConstantBuffers. This could have been realized had i known anything about D3D in the first place or by simply looking into the DX SDK examples.

Point is, never give up and when you get stuck make sure you don't start assuming things as i did.

Now, a quick example on how to properly update constant buffers in case anyone else finds themselves in a similar situation:

A simple shader with 3 constant buffers:
cbuffer WorldMatrixBuffer : register(b0)
{
matrix world;
};
cbuffer ViewMatrixBuffer : register(b1)
{
matrix view;
};
cbuffer ProjectionMatrixBuffer : register(b2)
{
matrix projection;
};
struct VS_IN
{
float4 position : POSITION;
};
struct PS_IN
{
float4 position : SV_POSITION;
};
PS_IN VShader(VS_IN input)
{
PS_IN output;
output.position = input.position;
output.position = mul(output.position, world);
output.position = mul(output.position, view);
output.position = mul(output.position, projection);
return output;
}
float4 PShader(PS_IN input) : SV_Target
{
return float4(1.0, 1.0, 0.0, 1.0);
}


This will take in a vertex buffer, multiply it's positions by the world, view and projection matrices that are defined in their own separate constant buffers.
It passes the information along down the rasterizer where each pixel is set to a solid yellow color.
One could gain a little bit of performance by multiplying the view and projection matrices before sending them to the shader and using a combined viewProjection cbuffer to reduce the number of mul() operations in the vertex shader stage. For the sake of clarity i have decided not to do this here.

The registers (b0, b1 and b2) are defined so we can assign them in code using their respective indexes (slots) and to update and assign them you need (in code):

  1. A Buffer with the ConstantBuffer bind, Default resource usage and in this case, no CPU access flags.
  2. A data stream to write matrix data to. A matrix is 64 bytes large (float4x4, 16 floats of 4 bytes each) thus you need to have 64 bytes of memory allocated to write to these constant buffers.
  3. A context to call UpdateSubresoruce().

Sample code:
// Create the projection matrix buffer.
projectionMatrixBuffer = new Buffer
(
device,
new BufferDescription
{
BindFlags = BindFlags.ConstantBuffer,
CpuAccessFlags = CpuAccessFlags.None,
SizeInBytes = Marshal.SizeOf(projection),
Usage = ResourceUsage.Default,
}
);
// Update the projection constant buffer.
using (DataStream data = new DataStream(Marshal.SizeOf(projection), true, true))
{
data.Write(Matrix.Transpose(projection));
data.Position = 0;
context.UpdateSubresource(new DataBox(0, 0, data), projectionMatrixBuffer, 0);
}


So first we create a buffer with the proper buffer description. Marshal.SizeOf() resides in System.Runtime.InteropServices and is used to determine the size of Types (Classes) and objects (assigned variables) which is helpful if you don't want to manually calculate the size of each constant buffer.
In this case i write the matrix directly to the stream but if your cbuffer has more than one element in it it may be useful to create a structure or class to contain all elements of the constant buffer in it before writing to the buffer.

For example:
[StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
class HerpClass
{
public Matrix world;
public Matrix view;
public Matrix projection;
}
struct HerpStruct
{
public Matrix world;
public Matrix view;
public Matrix projection;
}
...
int classSize = Marshal.SizeOf(typeof(HerpClass)); // Is 192 (64 * 3)
int structSize = Marshal.SizeOf(typeof(HerpStruct)); // Is 192 (64 * 3)


Adding any private variables to these classes will still count towards the total size of the class/structure so don't do it. (No i didn't either btw if you thought so, i just want to cover this incase someone gets any ideas.)
The reason you need "[StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]" on the class is because otherwise Marshal.SizeOf will produce an ArgumentException that reads "HerpClass cannot be marshaled as an unmanaged structure; no meaningful size or offset can be computed."
Thus, using a struct is your best option and structs and classes are pretty much the same things anyways.

Yes, you can create a constructor thus enabling you to use "new HerpClass(world, view, projection);" if you so desire.

Right, moving on...
Before you render you need to set the buffers to the vertex shader (and pixel shader where needed, they are separate) and to do that you do this:

// Set the vertex and pixel shaders to the active rendering pipeline.
context.VertexShader.Set(vertexShader);
context.VertexShader.SetConstantBuffers(new Buffer[] { worldMatrixBuffer }, 0, 1);
context.VertexShader.SetConstantBuffers(new Buffer[] { viewMatrixBuffer }, 1, 1);
context.VertexShader.SetConstantBuffers(new Buffer[] { projectionMatrixBuffer }, 2, 1);
context.PixelShader.Set(pixelShader);
context.DrawIndexed(indexCount, 0, 0);


Now, i included the Vertex/PixelShader.Set() here as well as the DrawIndexed and Present calls for clarity.
You can do it any way you like, but the gist of it all is you set them BEFORE the draw calls.
Obviously setting the projection for each mesh you draw is excessive and wastes precious cycles. You only need to set the projection when you change the shader or your projection changes. Like from a form resize or if you are zooming the view or changing the view distance.
The same applies with the view matrix, that only needs to be when the camera moves or you switch shaders.

To summarize then.

  1. Create buffers in code that match the buffers in the shader.
  2. Write to the buffers in code when the world, view or projection matrices change using a data stream and update them in the context using UpdateSubresource.
  3. Set them to the shader using SetConstantBuffers when the shader is changed. The second argument to the function call is the index as defined in the shader file.

Happy coding!
//Cadde

And once again, thanks for the assist! Edited by Cadde

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      This article uses material originally posted on Diligent Graphics web site.
      Introduction
      Graphics APIs have come a long way from small set of basic commands allowing limited control of configurable stages of early 3D accelerators to very low-level programming interfaces exposing almost every aspect of the underlying graphics hardware. Next-generation APIs, Direct3D12 by Microsoft and Vulkan by Khronos are relatively new and have only started getting widespread adoption and support from hardware vendors, while Direct3D11 and OpenGL are still considered industry standard. New APIs can provide substantial performance and functional improvements, but may not be supported by older hardware. An application targeting wide range of platforms needs to support Direct3D11 and OpenGL. New APIs will not give any advantage when used with old paradigms. It is totally possible to add Direct3D12 support to an existing renderer by implementing Direct3D11 interface through Direct3D12, but this will give zero benefits. Instead, new approaches and rendering architectures that leverage flexibility provided by the next-generation APIs are expected to be developed.
      There are at least four APIs (Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES, Vulkan, plus Apple's Metal for iOS and osX platforms) that a cross-platform 3D application may need to support. Writing separate code paths for all APIs is clearly not an option for any real-world application and the need for a cross-platform graphics abstraction layer is evident. The following is the list of requirements that I believe such layer needs to satisfy:
      Lightweight abstractions: the API should be as close to the underlying native APIs as possible to allow an application leverage all available low-level functionality. In many cases this requirement is difficult to achieve because specific features exposed by different APIs may vary considerably. Low performance overhead: the abstraction layer needs to be efficient from performance point of view. If it introduces considerable amount of overhead, there is no point in using it. Convenience: the API needs to be convenient to use. It needs to assist developers in achieving their goals not limiting their control of the graphics hardware. Multithreading: ability to efficiently parallelize work is in the core of Direct3D12 and Vulkan and one of the main selling points of the new APIs. Support for multithreading in a cross-platform layer is a must. Extensibility: no matter how well the API is designed, it still introduces some level of abstraction. In some cases the most efficient way to implement certain functionality is to directly use native API. The abstraction layer needs to provide seamless interoperability with the underlying native APIs to provide a way for the app to add features that may be missing. Diligent Engine is designed to solve these problems. Its main goal is to take advantages of the next-generation APIs such as Direct3D12 and Vulkan, but at the same time provide support for older platforms via Direct3D11, OpenGL and OpenGLES. Diligent Engine exposes common C++ front-end for all supported platforms and provides interoperability with underlying native APIs. It also supports integration with Unity and is designed to be used as graphics subsystem in a standalone game engine, Unity native plugin or any other 3D application. Full source code is available for download at GitHub and is free to use.
      Overview
      Diligent Engine API takes some features from Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 as well as introduces new concepts to hide certain platform-specific details and make the system easy to use. It contains the following main components:
      Render device (IRenderDevice  interface) is responsible for creating all other objects (textures, buffers, shaders, pipeline states, etc.).
      Device context (IDeviceContext interface) is the main interface for recording rendering commands. Similar to Direct3D11, there are immediate context and deferred contexts (which in Direct3D11 implementation map directly to the corresponding context types). Immediate context combines command queue and command list recording functionality. It records commands and submits the command list for execution when it contains sufficient number of commands. Deferred contexts are designed to only record command lists that can be submitted for execution through the immediate context.
      An alternative way to design the API would be to expose command queue and command lists directly. This approach however does not map well to Direct3D11 and OpenGL. Besides, some functionality (such as dynamic descriptor allocation) can be much more efficiently implemented when it is known that a command list is recorded by a certain deferred context from some thread.
      The approach taken in the engine does not limit scalability as the application is expected to create one deferred context per thread, and internally every deferred context records a command list in lock-free fashion. At the same time this approach maps well to older APIs.
      In current implementation, only one immediate context that uses default graphics command queue is created. To support multiple GPUs or multiple command queue types (compute, copy, etc.), it is natural to have one immediate contexts per queue. Cross-context synchronization utilities will be necessary.
      Swap Chain (ISwapChain interface). Swap chain interface represents a chain of back buffers and is responsible for showing the final rendered image on the screen.
      Render device, device contexts and swap chain are created during the engine initialization.
      Resources (ITexture and IBuffer interfaces). There are two types of resources - textures and buffers. There are many different texture types (2D textures, 3D textures, texture array, cubmepas, etc.) that can all be represented by ITexture interface.
      Resources Views (ITextureView and IBufferView interfaces). While textures and buffers are mere data containers, texture views and buffer views describe how the data should be interpreted. For instance, a 2D texture can be used as a render target for rendering commands or as a shader resource.
      Pipeline State (IPipelineState interface). GPU pipeline contains many configurable stages (depth-stencil, rasterizer and blend states, different shader stage, etc.). Direct3D11 uses coarse-grain objects to set all stage parameters at once (for instance, a rasterizer object encompasses all rasterizer attributes), while OpenGL contains myriad functions to fine-grain control every individual attribute of every stage. Both methods do not map very well to modern graphics hardware that combines all states into one monolithic state under the hood. Direct3D12 directly exposes pipeline state object in the API, and Diligent Engine uses the same approach.
      Shader Resource Binding (IShaderResourceBinding interface). Shaders are programs that run on the GPU. Shaders may access various resources (textures and buffers), and setting correspondence between shader variables and actual resources is called resource binding. Resource binding implementation varies considerably between different API. Diligent Engine introduces a new object called shader resource binding that encompasses all resources needed by all shaders in a certain pipeline state.
      API Basics
      Creating Resources
      Device resources are created by the render device. The two main resource types are buffers, which represent linear memory, and textures, which use memory layouts optimized for fast filtering. Graphics APIs usually have a native object that represents linear buffer. Diligent Engine uses IBuffer interface as an abstraction for a native buffer. To create a buffer, one needs to populate BufferDesc structure and call IRenderDevice::CreateBuffer() method as in the following example:
      BufferDesc BuffDesc; BufferDesc.Name = "Uniform buffer"; BuffDesc.BindFlags = BIND_UNIFORM_BUFFER; BuffDesc.Usage = USAGE_DYNAMIC; BuffDesc.uiSizeInBytes = sizeof(ShaderConstants); BuffDesc.CPUAccessFlags = CPU_ACCESS_WRITE; m_pDevice->CreateBuffer( BuffDesc, BufferData(), &m_pConstantBuffer ); While there is usually just one buffer object, different APIs use very different approaches to represent textures. For instance, in Direct3D11, there are ID3D11Texture1D, ID3D11Texture2D, and ID3D11Texture3D objects. In OpenGL, there is individual object for every texture dimension (1D, 2D, 3D, Cube), which may be a texture array, which may also be multisampled (i.e. GL_TEXTURE_2D_MULTISAMPLE_ARRAY). As a result there are nine different GL texture types that Diligent Engine may create under the hood. In Direct3D12, there is only one resource interface. Diligent Engine hides all these details in ITexture interface. There is only one  IRenderDevice::CreateTexture() method that is capable of creating all texture types. Dimension, format, array size and all other parameters are specified by the members of the TextureDesc structure:
      TextureDesc TexDesc; TexDesc.Name = "My texture 2D"; TexDesc.Type = TEXTURE_TYPE_2D; TexDesc.Width = 1024; TexDesc.Height = 1024; TexDesc.Format = TEX_FORMAT_RGBA8_UNORM; TexDesc.Usage = USAGE_DEFAULT; TexDesc.BindFlags = BIND_SHADER_RESOURCE | BIND_RENDER_TARGET | BIND_UNORDERED_ACCESS; TexDesc.Name = "Sample 2D Texture"; m_pRenderDevice->CreateTexture( TexDesc, TextureData(), &m_pTestTex ); If native API supports multithreaded resource creation, textures and buffers can be created by multiple threads simultaneously.
      Interoperability with native API provides access to the native buffer/texture objects and also allows creating Diligent Engine objects from native handles. It allows applications seamlessly integrate native API-specific code with Diligent Engine.
      Next-generation APIs allow fine level-control over how resources are allocated. Diligent Engine does not currently expose this functionality, but it can be added by implementing IResourceAllocator interface that encapsulates specifics of resource allocation and providing this interface to CreateBuffer() or CreateTexture() methods. If null is provided, default allocator should be used.
      Initializing the Pipeline State
      As it was mentioned earlier, Diligent Engine follows next-gen APIs to configure the graphics/compute pipeline. One big Pipelines State Object (PSO) encompasses all required states (all shader stages, input layout description, depth stencil, rasterizer and blend state descriptions etc.). This approach maps directly to Direct3D12/Vulkan, but is also beneficial for older APIs as it eliminates pipeline misconfiguration errors. With many individual calls tweaking various GPU pipeline settings it is very easy to forget to set one of the states or assume the stage is already properly configured when in fact it is not. Using pipeline state object helps avoid these problems as all stages are configured at once.
      Creating Shaders
      While in earlier APIs shaders were bound separately, in the next-generation APIs as well as in Diligent Engine shaders are part of the pipeline state object. The biggest challenge when authoring shaders is that Direct3D and OpenGL/Vulkan use different shader languages (while Apple uses yet another language in their Metal API). Maintaining two versions of every shader is not an option for real applications and Diligent Engine implements shader source code converter that allows shaders authored in HLSL to be translated to GLSL. To create a shader, one needs to populate ShaderCreationAttribs structure. SourceLanguage member of this structure tells the system which language the shader is authored in:
      SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_DEFAULT - The shader source language matches the underlying graphics API: HLSL for Direct3D11/Direct3D12 mode, and GLSL for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL - The shader source is in HLSL. For OpenGL and OpenGLES modes, the source code will be converted to GLSL. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_GLSL - The shader source is in GLSL. There is currently no GLSL to HLSL converter, so this value should only be used for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. There are two ways to provide the shader source code. The first way is to use Source member. The second way is to provide a file path in FilePath member. Since the engine is entirely decoupled from the platform and the host file system is platform-dependent, the structure exposes pShaderSourceStreamFactory member that is intended to provide the engine access to the file system. If FilePath is provided, shader source factory must also be provided. If the shader source contains any #include directives, the source stream factory will also be used to load these files. The engine provides default implementation for every supported platform that should be sufficient in most cases. Custom implementation can be provided when needed.
      When sampling a texture in a shader, the texture sampler was traditionally specified as separate object that was bound to the pipeline at run time or set as part of the texture object itself. However, in most cases it is known beforehand what kind of sampler will be used in the shader. Next-generation APIs expose new type of sampler called static sampler that can be initialized directly in the pipeline state. Diligent Engine exposes this functionality: when creating a shader, textures can be assigned static samplers. If static sampler is assigned, it will always be used instead of the one initialized in the texture shader resource view. To initialize static samplers, prepare an array of StaticSamplerDesc structures and initialize StaticSamplers and NumStaticSamplers members. Static samplers are more efficient and it is highly recommended to use them whenever possible. On older APIs, static samplers are emulated via generic sampler objects.
      The following is an example of shader initialization:
      ShaderCreationAttribs Attrs; Attrs.Desc.Name = "MyPixelShader"; Attrs.FilePath = "MyShaderFile.fx"; Attrs.SearchDirectories = "shaders;shaders\\inc;"; Attrs.EntryPoint = "MyPixelShader"; Attrs.Desc.ShaderType = SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL; Attrs.SourceLanguage = SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL; BasicShaderSourceStreamFactory BasicSSSFactory(Attrs.SearchDirectories); Attrs.pShaderSourceStreamFactory = &BasicSSSFactory; ShaderVariableDesc ShaderVars[] = {     {"g_StaticTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC},     {"g_MutableTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE},     {"g_DynamicTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC} }; Attrs.Desc.VariableDesc = ShaderVars; Attrs.Desc.NumVariables = _countof(ShaderVars); Attrs.Desc.DefaultVariableType = SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC; StaticSamplerDesc StaticSampler; StaticSampler.Desc.MinFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.Desc.MagFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.Desc.MipFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.TextureName = "g_MutableTexture"; Attrs.Desc.NumStaticSamplers = 1; Attrs.Desc.StaticSamplers = &StaticSampler; ShaderMacroHelper Macros; Macros.AddShaderMacro("USE_SHADOWS", 1); Macros.AddShaderMacro("NUM_SHADOW_SAMPLES", 4); Macros.Finalize(); Attrs.Macros = Macros; RefCntAutoPtr<IShader> pShader; m_pDevice->CreateShader( Attrs, &pShader );
      Creating the Pipeline State Object
      After all required shaders are created, the rest of the fields of the PipelineStateDesc structure provide depth-stencil, rasterizer, and blend state descriptions, the number and format of render targets, input layout format, etc. For instance, rasterizer state can be described as follows:
      PipelineStateDesc PSODesc; RasterizerStateDesc &RasterizerDesc = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.RasterizerDesc; RasterizerDesc.FillMode = FILL_MODE_SOLID; RasterizerDesc.CullMode = CULL_MODE_NONE; RasterizerDesc.FrontCounterClockwise = True; RasterizerDesc.ScissorEnable = True; RasterizerDesc.AntialiasedLineEnable = False; Depth-stencil and blend states are defined in a similar fashion.
      Another important thing that pipeline state object encompasses is the input layout description that defines how inputs to the vertex shader, which is the very first shader stage, should be read from the memory. Input layout may define several vertex streams that contain values of different formats and sizes:
      // Define input layout InputLayoutDesc &Layout = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.InputLayout; LayoutElement TextLayoutElems[] = {     LayoutElement( 0, 0, 3, VT_FLOAT32, False ),     LayoutElement( 1, 0, 4, VT_UINT8, True ),     LayoutElement( 2, 0, 2, VT_FLOAT32, False ), }; Layout.LayoutElements = TextLayoutElems; Layout.NumElements = _countof( TextLayoutElems ); Finally, pipeline state defines primitive topology type. When all required members are initialized, a pipeline state object can be created by IRenderDevice::CreatePipelineState() method:
      // Define shader and primitive topology PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.PrimitiveTopologyType = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TYPE_TRIANGLE; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pVS = pVertexShader; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pPS = pPixelShader; PSODesc.Name = "My pipeline state"; m_pDev->CreatePipelineState(PSODesc, &m_pPSO); When PSO object is bound to the pipeline, the engine invokes all API-specific commands to set all states specified by the object. In case of Direct3D12 this maps directly to setting the D3D12 PSO object. In case of Direct3D11, this involves setting individual state objects (such as rasterizer and blend states), shaders, input layout etc. In case of OpenGL, this requires a number of fine-grain state tweaking calls. Diligent Engine keeps track of currently bound states and only calls functions to update these states that have actually changed.
      Binding Shader Resources
      Direct3D11 and OpenGL utilize fine-grain resource binding models, where an application binds individual buffers and textures to certain shader or program resource binding slots. Direct3D12 uses a very different approach, where resource descriptors are grouped into tables, and an application can bind all resources in the table at once by setting the table in the command list. Resource binding model in Diligent Engine is designed to leverage this new method. It introduces a new object called shader resource binding that encapsulates all resource bindings required for all shaders in a certain pipeline state. It also introduces the classification of shader variables based on the frequency of expected change that helps the engine group them into tables under the hood:
      Static variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC) are variables that are expected to be set only once. They may not be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. Such variables are intended to hold global constants such as camera attributes or global light attributes constant buffers. Mutable variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE) define resources that are expected to change on a per-material frequency. Examples may include diffuse textures, normal maps etc. Dynamic variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC) are expected to change frequently and randomly. Shader variable type must be specified during shader creation by populating an array of ShaderVariableDesc structures and initializing ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::VariableDesc and ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::NumVariables members (see example of shader creation above).
      Static variables cannot be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. They are bound directly to the shader object. For instance, a shadow map texture is not expected to change after it is created, so it can be bound directly to the shader:
      PixelShader->GetShaderVariable( "g_tex2DShadowMap" )->Set( pShadowMapSRV ); Mutable and dynamic variables are bound via a new Shader Resource Binding object (SRB) that is created by the pipeline state (IPipelineState::CreateShaderResourceBinding()):
      m_pPSO->CreateShaderResourceBinding(&m_pSRB); Note that an SRB is only compatible with the pipeline state it was created from. SRB object inherits all static bindings from shaders in the pipeline, but is not allowed to change them.
      Mutable resources can only be set once for every instance of a shader resource binding. Such resources are intended to define specific material properties. For instance, a diffuse texture for a specific material is not expected to change once the material is defined and can be set right after the SRB object has been created:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL, "tex2DDiffuse")->Set(pDiffuseTexSRV); In some cases it is necessary to bind a new resource to a variable every time a draw command is invoked. Such variables should be labeled as dynamic, which will allow setting them multiple times through the same SRB object:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_VERTEX, "cbRandomAttribs")->Set(pRandomAttrsCB); Under the hood, the engine pre-allocates descriptor tables for static and mutable resources when an SRB objcet is created. Space for dynamic resources is dynamically allocated at run time. Static and mutable resources are thus more efficient and should be used whenever possible.
      As you can see, Diligent Engine does not expose low-level details of how resources are bound to shader variables. One reason for this is that these details are very different for various APIs. The other reason is that using low-level binding methods is extremely error-prone: it is very easy to forget to bind some resource, or bind incorrect resource such as bind a buffer to the variable that is in fact a texture, especially during shader development when everything changes fast. Diligent Engine instead relies on shader reflection system to automatically query the list of all shader variables. Grouping variables based on three types mentioned above allows the engine to create optimized layout and take heavy lifting of matching resources to API-specific resource location, register or descriptor in the table.
      This post gives more details about the resource binding model in Diligent Engine.
      Setting the Pipeline State and Committing Shader Resources
      Before any draw or compute command can be invoked, the pipeline state needs to be bound to the context:
      m_pContext->SetPipelineState(m_pPSO); Under the hood, the engine sets the internal PSO object in the command list or calls all the required native API functions to properly configure all pipeline stages.
      The next step is to bind all required shader resources to the GPU pipeline, which is accomplished by IDeviceContext::CommitShaderResources() method:
      m_pContext->CommitShaderResources(m_pSRB, COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES); The method takes a pointer to the shader resource binding object and makes all resources the object holds available for the shaders. In the case of D3D12, this only requires setting appropriate descriptor tables in the command list. For older APIs, this typically requires setting all resources individually.
      Next-generation APIs require the application to track the state of every resource and explicitly inform the system about all state transitions. For instance, if a texture was used as render target before, while the next draw command is going to use it as shader resource, a transition barrier needs to be executed. Diligent Engine does the heavy lifting of state tracking.  When CommitShaderResources() method is called with COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES flag, the engine commits and transitions resources to correct states at the same time. Note that transitioning resources does introduce some overhead. The engine tracks state of every resource and it will not issue the barrier if the state is already correct. But checking resource state is an overhead that can sometimes be avoided. The engine provides IDeviceContext::TransitionShaderResources() method that only transitions resources:
      m_pContext->TransitionShaderResources(m_pPSO, m_pSRB); In some scenarios it is more efficient to transition resources once and then only commit them.
      Invoking Draw Command
      The final step is to set states that are not part of the PSO, such as render targets, vertex and index buffers. Diligent Engine uses Direct3D11-syle API that is translated to other native API calls under the hood:
      ITextureView *pRTVs[] = {m_pRTV}; m_pContext->SetRenderTargets(_countof( pRTVs ), pRTVs, m_pDSV); // Clear render target and depth buffer const float zero[4] = {0, 0, 0, 0}; m_pContext->ClearRenderTarget(nullptr, zero); m_pContext->ClearDepthStencil(nullptr, CLEAR_DEPTH_FLAG, 1.f); // Set vertex and index buffers IBuffer *buffer[] = {m_pVertexBuffer}; Uint32 offsets[] = {0}; Uint32 strides[] = {sizeof(MyVertex)}; m_pContext->SetVertexBuffers(0, 1, buffer, strides, offsets, SET_VERTEX_BUFFERS_FLAG_RESET); m_pContext->SetIndexBuffer(m_pIndexBuffer, 0); Different native APIs use various set of function to execute draw commands depending on command details (if the command is indexed, instanced or both, what offsets in the source buffers are used etc.). For instance, there are 5 draw commands in Direct3D11 and more than 9 commands in OpenGL with something like glDrawElementsInstancedBaseVertexBaseInstance not uncommon. Diligent Engine hides all details with single IDeviceContext::Draw() method that takes takes DrawAttribs structure as an argument. The structure members define all attributes required to perform the command (primitive topology, number of vertices or indices, if draw call is indexed or not, if draw call is instanced or not, if draw call is indirect or not, etc.). For example:
      DrawAttribs attrs; attrs.IsIndexed = true; attrs.IndexType = VT_UINT16; attrs.NumIndices = 36; attrs.Topology = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLE_LIST; pContext->Draw(attrs); For compute commands, there is IDeviceContext::DispatchCompute() method that takes DispatchComputeAttribs structure that defines compute grid dimension.
      Source Code
      Full engine source code is available on GitHub and is free to use. The repository contains two samples, asteroids performance benchmark and example Unity project that uses Diligent Engine in native plugin.
      AntTweakBar sample is Diligent Engine’s “Hello World” example.

       
      Atmospheric scattering sample is a more advanced example. It demonstrates how Diligent Engine can be used to implement various rendering tasks: loading textures from files, using complex shaders, rendering to multiple render targets, using compute shaders and unordered access views, etc.

      Asteroids performance benchmark is based on this demo developed by Intel. It renders 50,000 unique textured asteroids and allows comparing performance of Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 implementations. Every asteroid is a combination of one of 1000 unique meshes and one of 10 unique textures.

      Finally, there is an example project that shows how Diligent Engine can be integrated with Unity.

      Future Work
      The engine is under active development. It currently supports Windows desktop, Universal Windows and Android platforms. Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES backends are now feature complete. Vulkan backend is coming next, and support for more platforms is planned.
    • By reenigne
      For those that don't know me. I am the individual who's two videos are listed here under setup for https://wiki.libsdl.org/Tutorials
      I also run grhmedia.com where I host the projects and code for the tutorials I have online.
      Recently, I received a notice from youtube they will be implementing their new policy in protecting video content as of which I won't be monetized till I meat there required number of viewers and views each month.

      Frankly, I'm pretty sick of youtube. I put up a video and someone else learns from it and puts up another video and because of the way youtube does their placement they end up with more views.
      Even guys that clearly post false information such as one individual who said GLEW 2.0 was broken because he didn't know how to compile it. He in short didn't know how to modify the script he used because he didn't understand make files and how the requirements of the compiler and library changes needed some different flags.

      At the end of the month when they implement this I will take down the content and host on my own server purely and it will be a paid system and or patreon. 

      I get my videos may be a bit dry, I generally figure people are there to learn how to do something and I rather not waste their time. 
      I used to also help people for free even those coming from the other videos. That won't be the case any more. I used to just take anyone emails and work with them my email is posted on the site.

      I don't expect to get the required number of subscribers in that time or increased views. Even if I did well it wouldn't take care of each reoccurring month.
      I figure this is simpler and I don't plan on putting some sort of exorbitant fee for a monthly subscription or the like.
      I was thinking on the lines of a few dollars 1,2, and 3 and the larger subscription gets you assistance with the content in the tutorials if needed that month.
      Maybe another fee if it is related but not directly in the content. 
      The fees would serve to cut down on the number of people who ask for help and maybe encourage some of the people to actually pay attention to what is said rather than do their own thing. That actually turns out to be 90% of the issues. I spent 6 hours helping one individual last week I must have asked him 20 times did you do exactly like I said in the video even pointed directly to the section. When he finally sent me a copy of the what he entered I knew then and there he had not. I circled it and I pointed out that wasn't what I said to do in the video. I didn't tell him what was wrong and how I knew that way he would go back and actually follow what it said to do. He then reported it worked. Yea, no kidding following directions works. But hey isn't alone and well its part of the learning process.

      So the point of this isn't to be a gripe session. I'm just looking for a bit of feed back. Do you think the fees are unreasonable?
      Should I keep the youtube channel and do just the fees with patreon or do you think locking the content to my site and require a subscription is an idea.

      I'm just looking at the fact it is unrealistic to think youtube/google will actually get stuff right or that youtube viewers will actually bother to start looking for more accurate videos. 
    • By Balma Alparisi
      i got error 1282 in my code.
      sf::ContextSettings settings; settings.majorVersion = 4; settings.minorVersion = 5; settings.attributeFlags = settings.Core; sf::Window window; window.create(sf::VideoMode(1600, 900), "Texture Unit Rectangle", sf::Style::Close, settings); window.setActive(true); window.setVerticalSyncEnabled(true); glewInit(); GLuint shaderProgram = createShaderProgram("FX/Rectangle.vss", "FX/Rectangle.fss"); float vertex[] = { -0.5f,0.5f,0.0f, 0.0f,0.0f, -0.5f,-0.5f,0.0f, 0.0f,1.0f, 0.5f,0.5f,0.0f, 1.0f,0.0f, 0.5,-0.5f,0.0f, 1.0f,1.0f, }; GLuint indices[] = { 0,1,2, 1,2,3, }; GLuint vao; glGenVertexArrays(1, &vao); glBindVertexArray(vao); GLuint vbo; glGenBuffers(1, &vbo); glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, vbo); glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(vertex), vertex, GL_STATIC_DRAW); GLuint ebo; glGenBuffers(1, &ebo); glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, ebo); glBufferData(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(indices), indices,GL_STATIC_DRAW); glVertexAttribPointer(0, 3, GL_FLOAT, false, sizeof(float) * 5, (void*)0); glEnableVertexAttribArray(0); glVertexAttribPointer(1, 2, GL_FLOAT, false, sizeof(float) * 5, (void*)(sizeof(float) * 3)); glEnableVertexAttribArray(1); GLuint texture[2]; glGenTextures(2, texture); glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE0); glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR); sf::Image* imageOne = new sf::Image; bool isImageOneLoaded = imageOne->loadFromFile("Texture/container.jpg"); if (isImageOneLoaded) { glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGBA, imageOne->getSize().x, imageOne->getSize().y, 0, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, imageOne->getPixelsPtr()); glGenerateMipmap(GL_TEXTURE_2D); } delete imageOne; glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE1); glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[1]); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR); sf::Image* imageTwo = new sf::Image; bool isImageTwoLoaded = imageTwo->loadFromFile("Texture/awesomeface.png"); if (isImageTwoLoaded) { glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGBA, imageTwo->getSize().x, imageTwo->getSize().y, 0, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, imageTwo->getPixelsPtr()); glGenerateMipmap(GL_TEXTURE_2D); } delete imageTwo; glUniform1i(glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "inTextureOne"), 0); glUniform1i(glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "inTextureTwo"), 1); GLenum error = glGetError(); std::cout << error << std::endl; sf::Event event; bool isRunning = true; while (isRunning) { while (window.pollEvent(event)) { if (event.type == event.Closed) { isRunning = false; } } glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT); if (isImageOneLoaded && isImageTwoLoaded) { glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE0); glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]); glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE1); glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[1]); glUseProgram(shaderProgram); } glBindVertexArray(vao); glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 6, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, nullptr); glBindVertexArray(0); window.display(); } glDeleteVertexArrays(1, &vao); glDeleteBuffers(1, &vbo); glDeleteBuffers(1, &ebo); glDeleteProgram(shaderProgram); glDeleteTextures(2,texture); return 0; } and this is the vertex shader
      #version 450 core layout(location=0) in vec3 inPos; layout(location=1) in vec2 inTexCoord; out vec2 TexCoord; void main() { gl_Position=vec4(inPos,1.0); TexCoord=inTexCoord; } and the fragment shader
      #version 450 core in vec2 TexCoord; uniform sampler2D inTextureOne; uniform sampler2D inTextureTwo; out vec4 FragmentColor; void main() { FragmentColor=mix(texture(inTextureOne,TexCoord),texture(inTextureTwo,TexCoord),0.2); } I was expecting awesomeface.png on top of container.jpg

    • By khawk
      We've just released all of the source code for the NeHe OpenGL lessons on our Github page at https://github.com/gamedev-net/nehe-opengl. code - 43 total platforms, configurations, and languages are included.
      Now operated by GameDev.net, NeHe is located at http://nehe.gamedev.net where it has been a valuable resource for developers wanting to learn OpenGL and graphics programming.

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