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    • By fleissi
      Hey guys!

      I'm new here and I recently started developing my own rendering engine. It's open source, based on OpenGL/DirectX and C++.
      The full source code is hosted on github:

      I would appreciate if people with experience in game development / engine desgin could take a look at my source code. I'm looking for honest, constructive criticism on how to improve the engine.
      I'm currently writing my master's thesis in computer science and in the recent year I've gone through all the basics about graphics programming, learned DirectX and OpenGL, read some articles on Nvidia GPU Gems, read books and integrated some of this stuff step by step into the engine.

      I know about the basics, but I feel like there is some missing link that I didn't get yet to merge all those little pieces together.

      Features I have so far:
      - Dynamic shader generation based on material properties
      - Dynamic sorting of meshes to be renderd based on shader and material
      - Rendering large amounts of static meshes
      - Hierarchical culling (detail + view frustum)
      - Limited support for dynamic (i.e. moving) meshes
      - Normal, Parallax and Relief Mapping implementations
      - Wind animations based on vertex displacement
      - A very basic integration of the Bullet physics engine
      - Procedural Grass generation
      - Some post processing effects (Depth of Field, Light Volumes, Screen Space Reflections, God Rays)
      - Caching mechanisms for textures, shaders, materials and meshes

      Features I would like to have:
      - Global illumination methods
      - Scalable physics
      - Occlusion culling
      - A nice procedural terrain generator
      - Scripting
      - Level Editing
      - Sound system
      - Optimization techniques

      Books I have so far:
      - Real-Time Rendering Third Edition
      - 3D Game Programming with DirectX 11
      - Vulkan Cookbook (not started yet)

      I hope you guys can take a look at my source code and if you're really motivated, feel free to contribute :-)
      There are some videos on youtube that demonstrate some of the features:
      Procedural grass on the GPU
      Procedural Terrain Engine
      Quadtree detail and view frustum culling

      The long term goal is to turn this into a commercial game engine. I'm aware that this is a very ambitious goal, but I'm sure it's possible if you work hard for it.


    • By tj8146
      I have attached my project in a .zip file if you wish to run it for yourself.
      I am making a simple 2d top-down game and I am trying to run my code to see if my window creation is working and to see if my timer is also working with it. Every time I run it though I get errors. And when I fix those errors, more come, then the same errors keep appearing. I end up just going round in circles.  Is there anyone who could help with this? 
      Errors when I build my code:
      1>Renderer.cpp 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2039: 'string': is not a member of 'std' 1>c:\program files (x86)\windows kits\10\include\10.0.16299.0\ucrt\stddef.h(18): note: see declaration of 'std' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2061: syntax error: identifier 'string' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(28): error C2511: 'bool Game::Rendering::initialize(int,int,bool,std::string)': overloaded member function not found in 'Game::Rendering' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(9): note: see declaration of 'Game::Rendering' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(35): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(36): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(43): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>Done building project "Game.vcxproj" -- FAILED. ========== Build: 0 succeeded, 1 failed, 0 up-to-date, 0 skipped ==========  
      #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include "Renderer.h" #include "Timer.h" #include <iostream> namespace Game { GLFWwindow* window; /* Initialize the library */ Rendering::Rendering() { mClock = new Clock; } Rendering::~Rendering() { shutdown(); } bool Rendering::initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title) { if (!glfwInit()) { return -1; } /* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */ window = glfwCreateWindow(640, 480, "Hello World", NULL, NULL); if (!window) { glfwTerminate(); return -1; } /* Make the window's context current */ glfwMakeContextCurrent(window); glViewport(0, 0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height); glOrtho(0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height, 0, 1, -1); glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); glLoadIdentity(); glfwSwapInterval(1); glEnable(GL_SMOOTH); glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); glEnable(GL_BLEND); glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL); glHint(GL_PERSPECTIVE_CORRECTION_HINT, GL_NICEST); glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D); glLoadIdentity(); return true; } bool Rendering::render() { /* Loop until the user closes the window */ if (!glfwWindowShouldClose(window)) return false; /* Render here */ mClock->reset(); glfwPollEvents(); if (mClock->step()) { glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); glfwSwapBuffers(window); mClock->update(); } return true; } void Rendering::shutdown() { glfwDestroyWindow(window); glfwTerminate(); } GLFWwindow* Rendering::getCurrentWindow() { return window; } } Renderer.h
      #pragma once namespace Game { class Clock; class Rendering { public: Rendering(); ~Rendering(); bool initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title = "Rendering window"); void shutdown(); bool render(); GLFWwindow* getCurrentWindow(); private: GLFWwindow * window; Clock* mClock; }; } Timer.cpp
      #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include <time.h> #include "Timer.h" namespace Game { Clock::Clock() : mTicksPerSecond(50), mSkipTics(1000 / mTicksPerSecond), mMaxFrameSkip(10), mLoops(0) { mLastTick = tick(); } Clock::~Clock() { } bool Clock::step() { if (tick() > mLastTick && mLoops < mMaxFrameSkip) return true; return false; } void Clock::reset() { mLoops = 0; } void Clock::update() { mLastTick += mSkipTics; mLoops++; } clock_t Clock::tick() { return clock(); } } TImer.h
      #pragma once #include "Common.h" namespace Game { class Clock { public: Clock(); ~Clock(); void update(); bool step(); void reset(); clock_t tick(); private: uint mTicksPerSecond; ufloat mSkipTics; uint mMaxFrameSkip; uint mLoops; uint mLastTick; }; } Common.h
      #pragma once #include <cstdio> #include <cstdlib> #include <ctime> #include <cstring> #include <cmath> #include <iostream> namespace Game { typedef unsigned char uchar; typedef unsigned short ushort; typedef unsigned int uint; typedef unsigned long ulong; typedef float ufloat; }  
    • By lxjk
      Hi guys,
      There are many ways to do light culling in tile-based shading. I've been playing with this idea for a while, and just want to throw it out there.
      Because tile frustums are general small compared to light radius, I tried using cone test to reduce false positives introduced by commonly used sphere-frustum test.
      On top of that, I use distance to camera rather than depth for near/far test (aka. sliced by spheres).
      This method can be naturally extended to clustered light culling as well.
      The following image shows the general ideas

      Performance-wise I get around 15% improvement over sphere-frustum test. You can also see how a single light performs as the following: from left to right (1) standard rendering of a point light; then tiles passed the test of (2) sphere-frustum test; (3) cone test; (4) spherical-sliced cone test

      I put the details in my blog post (https://lxjk.github.io/2018/03/25/Improve-Tile-based-Light-Culling-with-Spherical-sliced-Cone.html), GLSL source code included!
    • By Fadey Duh
      Good evening everyone!

      I was wondering if there is something equivalent of  GL_NV_blend_equation_advanced for AMD?
      Basically I'm trying to find more compatible version of it.

      Thank you!
    • By Jens Eckervogt
      Hello guys, 
      Please tell me! 
      How do I know? Why does wavefront not show for me?
      I already checked I have non errors yet.
      using OpenTK; using System.Collections.Generic; using System.IO; using System.Text; namespace Tutorial_08.net.sourceskyboxer { public class WaveFrontLoader { private static List<Vector3> inPositions; private static List<Vector2> inTexcoords; private static List<Vector3> inNormals; private static List<float> positions; private static List<float> texcoords; private static List<int> indices; public static RawModel LoadObjModel(string filename, Loader loader) { inPositions = new List<Vector3>(); inTexcoords = new List<Vector2>(); inNormals = new List<Vector3>(); positions = new List<float>(); texcoords = new List<float>(); indices = new List<int>(); int nextIdx = 0; using (var reader = new StreamReader(File.Open("Contents/" + filename + ".obj", FileMode.Open), Encoding.UTF8)) { string line = reader.ReadLine(); int i = reader.Read(); while (true) { string[] currentLine = line.Split(); if (currentLine[0] == "v") { Vector3 pos = new Vector3(float.Parse(currentLine[1]), float.Parse(currentLine[2]), float.Parse(currentLine[3])); inPositions.Add(pos); if (currentLine[1] == "t") { Vector2 tex = new Vector2(float.Parse(currentLine[1]), float.Parse(currentLine[2])); inTexcoords.Add(tex); } if (currentLine[1] == "n") { Vector3 nom = new Vector3(float.Parse(currentLine[1]), float.Parse(currentLine[2]), float.Parse(currentLine[3])); inNormals.Add(nom); } } if (currentLine[0] == "f") { Vector3 pos = inPositions[0]; positions.Add(pos.X); positions.Add(pos.Y); positions.Add(pos.Z); Vector2 tc = inTexcoords[0]; texcoords.Add(tc.X); texcoords.Add(tc.Y); indices.Add(nextIdx); ++nextIdx; } reader.Close(); return loader.loadToVAO(positions.ToArray(), texcoords.ToArray(), indices.ToArray()); } } } } } And It have tried other method but it can't show for me.  I am mad now. Because any OpenTK developers won't help me.
      Please help me how do I fix.

      And my download (mega.nz) should it is original but I tried no success...
      - Add blend source and png file here I have tried tried,.....  
      PS: Why is our community not active? I wait very longer. Stop to lie me!
      Thanks !
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OpenGL working my way around OpenGL 3.3 - GLSL 150 problems

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Hey all Just trying to get a quad on the screen whilst trying to understand the order of functions to use to get the job done and I'm having issues getting a simple quad onto the screen.

I've tried making a projection matrix and multiplying it to the position x y z cordinates but I'm getting a silly "} parse error" have no idea why??.

Here is my shaders

Fragment Shader

#version 150

//Main Entry Point
void main(void)
//Set Fragment Colors to Red
gl_FragColor = vec4(1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0);

Vertex Shader

#version 150
//Position Container
in vec3 position;

mat4 Projection;

mat4 Projection{
vec4 (1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0),
vec4 (0.0, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0),
vec4 (0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0),
vec4 (0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0)};

//Main Entry Point
void main(void)

//Translations and w Cordinates stuff
gl_Position = vec4(Projection * position.xyz, 1.0);

and here is my main.cpp


//Main Libary
#define NO_SDL_GLEXT
#include <glew.h>
#include "SDL/SDL.H"
#include "SDL/SDL_IMAGE.H"
#include "SDL/SDL_OPENGL.H"
#undef main
#include <iostream>
#include <cassert>
#include <string>
#include <algorithm>
#include <boost/iostreams/stream.hpp>
#include <libs/iostreams/example/container_device.hpp>
#include <boost/filesystem.hpp>
#include <boost/iostreams/categories.hpp>
#include <boost/algorithm/string.hpp>
#include <vector>
#include <fstream>
#include "GL/glu.h"
using namespace std;
#define SCREEN_WIDTH 1240
#define SCREEN_HEIGHT 960
#define BPP 32
#define GetError( )\
for ( GLenum Error = glGetError( ); ( GL_NO_ERROR != Error ); Error = glGetError( ) )\
switch ( Error )\
case GL_INVALID_ENUM: printf( "\n%s\n\n", "GL_INVALID_ENUM" ); assert( 0 ); break;\
case GL_INVALID_VALUE: printf( "\n%s\n\n", "GL_INVALID_VALUE" ); assert( 0 ); break;\
case GL_INVALID_OPERATION: printf( "\n%s\n\n", "GL_INVALID_OPERATION" ); assert( 0 ); break;\
case GL_OUT_OF_MEMORY: printf( "\n%s\n\n", "GL_OUT_OF_MEMORY" ); assert( 0 ); break;\
default: break;\


//Other Header Files
#include "SurfaceStorage.h"

//Load Shader Function
GLuint LoadProgram(const char * vertex_file_path, const char * Fragment_file_path){

GLuint VertexShaderID = glCreateShader(GL_VERTEX_SHADER);
GLuint FragmentShaderID = glCreateShader(GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER);

string VertexShaderCode;
ifstream VertexShaderStream(vertex_file_path, std::ios::in);
string Line = "";
while(getline(VertexShaderStream, Line))
VertexShaderCode += "\n" + Line;

string FragmentShaderCode;
ifstream FragmentShaderStream(Fragment_file_path, std::ios::in);

string Line = "";
while(getline(FragmentShaderStream, Line))
FragmentShaderCode += "\n" + Line;


GLint Result = GL_FALSE;
int InfoLogLength;

//Compile Vertex Shader
printf("Compiling Shader : %s\n", vertex_file_path);
char const * VertexSourcePointer = VertexShaderCode.c_str();
glShaderSource(VertexShaderID, 1, &VertexSourcePointer, NULL);

//Check Vertex Shader
glGetShaderiv(VertexShaderID, GL_COMPILE_STATUS, &Result);
glGetShaderiv(VertexShaderID, GL_INFO_LOG_LENGTH, &InfoLogLength);
vector<char> VertexShaderErrorMessage(InfoLogLength);
glGetShaderInfoLog(VertexShaderID, InfoLogLength, NULL, &VertexShaderErrorMessage[0]);
fprintf(stdout, "%s\n", &VertexShaderErrorMessage[0]);

//Compile Fragment Shader
printf("Compiling Shader : %s\n", Fragment_file_path);
char const * FragmentSourcePointer = FragmentShaderCode.c_str();
glShaderSource(FragmentShaderID, 1, &FragmentSourcePointer, NULL);

//Check Fragment Shader
glGetShaderiv(FragmentShaderID, GL_COMPILE_STATUS, &Result);
glGetShaderiv(FragmentShaderID, GL_INFO_LOG_LENGTH, &InfoLogLength);
vector<char> FragmentShaderErrorMessage(InfoLogLength);
glGetShaderInfoLog(FragmentShaderID, InfoLogLength, NULL, &FragmentShaderErrorMessage[0]);
fprintf(stdout, "%s\n", &FragmentShaderErrorMessage[0]);

fprintf(stdout, "Linking Program\n");
GLuint ProgramID = glCreateProgram();
//Bind Attribute
glBindAttribLocation(ProgramID, 0, "position");

//Link The Program

glAttachShader(ProgramID, VertexShaderID);
glAttachShader(ProgramID, FragmentShaderID);

//Check The Program
glGetProgramiv(ProgramID, GL_LINK_STATUS, &Result);
glGetProgramiv(ProgramID, GL_INFO_LOG_LENGTH, &InfoLogLength);
vector<char> ProgramErrorMessage( max(InfoLogLength, int(1)) );
fprintf(stdout, "%s\n", &ProgramErrorMessage[0]);

//Delete Shader


return ProgramID;


void draw (void)

//draw array
glDrawArrays(GL_QUADS, 0, 4);

int main(int argc , char *argv[])


//Screen Position

//Screen Setup

//glew setup
GLenum err = glewInit();
if (GLEW_OK != err)
/* Problem: glewInit failed, something is seriously wrong. */
fprintf(stderr, "Error: %s\n", glewGetErrorString(err));

fprintf(stdout, "Status: Using GLEW %s\n", glewGetString(GLEW_VERSION));

//On and Off Switch for Application
bool done = false;

//SDL Event
SDL_Event event;
//Global Variables

//Container for Virtual Array Object
GLuint vao;

//Container for Virtual Buffer Object
GLuint vbo;

//Top File Menu <Top ToolBar>
SDL_Surface *TopFileMenuSurf = NULL;

TopFileMenuSurf = IMG_Load("GUI/FileMenu.png");

GLfloat FileMenuVerts[] =
{ 1.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f ,
0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f,
0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f,
1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f};

// OpenGL - Viewport Setup

//Clear Color

//View Port Setup


//Load Shader Program
LoadProgram("graphicaluserinterface.v", "graphicaluserinterface.f");
// Vertex Array Object <SETUP>
//Generate Virtual Array Object
glGenVertexArrays(1, &vao);

//Bind Vertex Array Object as the current used object
// Vertex Buffer Object <SETUP>
//Generate Virtual Buffer Object
glGenBuffers(1, &vbo);

//Bind array buffer to Vertex Buffer Object
glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, vbo);

//Give data to Vertex Buffer Object
glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(FileMenuVerts), FileMenuVerts, GL_STATIC_DRAW);
// Attribute <SETUP>

//Set up Attribute for "index 0"
glVertexAttribPointer(0, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, sizeof(FileMenuVerts), 0);
//Enable Attribute for "index 0"



//Disable Attribute for "index 0"


//Main While Loop





case SDL_QUIT:
return 0;






Thanks in Advance!

Once I can get a quad on the screen by myself I want to figure out texture mapping so smile.png

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In your vertex shader, you're initializing the 'Projection' matrix incorrectly. It should be:
mat4 Projection = mat4 (
vec4 (1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0),
vec4 (0.0, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0),
vec4 (0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0),
vec4 (0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0));

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