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Adam West

OpenGL lib3ds and texture mapping?

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hello again!

i have fixed up a few problems on my 3ds loader using lib3ds, my only problem now is that i have no idea how to load a texture map onto the loaded model. do i have to use lib3ds Material or something like that?

3ds.h


#include "main.h"
#include "lib3ds/file.h"
#include "lib3ds/mesh.h"
#include "lib3ds/material.h"

class Object
{
public:
Object(const char* filename);
virtual ~Object();
virtual void Draw() const;
virtual void CreateVBO();
void applyTexture(const char*texfilename);

protected:
void GetFaces();
unsigned int m_TotalFaces;
Lib3dsFile * m_model;

Lib3dsMesh* Mesh;
GLuint textureObject;
GLuint m_VertexVBO, m_NormalVBO, m_TexCoordVBO;
};


3ds.cpp

#include "3dsloader.h"
#include "shader.h"

Object::Object(const char* filename)
{
m_TotalFaces = 0;
m_model = lib3ds_file_load(filename);
// If loading the model failed, we throw an exception
if(!m_model)
{
cout << ("Unable to load ", filename);
}
Lib3dsMesh* mesh = lib3ds_file_mesh_by_name(m_model,"filename");


}
Object::~Object()
{
if(m_model) // if the file isn't freed yet
lib3ds_file_free(m_model); //free up memory
}

void Object::GetFaces()
{
m_TotalFaces = 0;
Lib3dsMesh * mesh;
// Loop through every mesh.
for(mesh = m_model->meshes;mesh != NULL;mesh = mesh->next)
{
// Add the number of faces this mesh has to the total number of faces.
m_TotalFaces += mesh->faces;
}
}
void Object::CreateVBO()
{
assert(m_model != NULL);
// Calculate the number of faces we have in total
GetFaces();
// Allocate memory for our vertices and normals
Lib3dsVector * vertices = new Lib3dsVector[m_TotalFaces * 3];
Lib3dsVector * normals = new Lib3dsVector[m_TotalFaces * 3];
Lib3dsTexel* texCoords = new Lib3dsTexel[m_TotalFaces * 3];

Lib3dsMesh * mesh;
unsigned int FinishedFaces = 0;
// Loop through all the meshes
for(mesh = m_model->meshes;mesh != NULL;mesh = mesh->next)
{

lib3ds_mesh_calculate_normals(mesh, &normals[FinishedFaces*3]);
// Loop through every face
for(unsigned int cur_face = 0; cur_face < mesh->faces;cur_face++)
{

Lib3dsFace * face = &mesh->faceL[cur_face];
for(unsigned int i = 0;i < 3;i++)
{

if(mesh->texels)
{
memcpy(&texCoords[FinishedFaces*2 + i], mesh->texelL[face->points[ i ]], sizeof(Lib3dsTexel));
}
memcpy(&vertices[FinishedFaces*3 + i], mesh->pointL[face->points[ i ]].pos, sizeof(Lib3dsVector));

}

FinishedFaces++;
}

}

// Generate a Vertex Buffer Object and store it with our vertices
glGenBuffers(1, &m_VertexVBO);
glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, m_VertexVBO);
glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(Lib3dsVector) * 3 * m_TotalFaces, vertices, GL_STATIC_DRAW);
// Generate another Vertex Buffer Object and store the normals in it
glGenBuffers(1, &m_NormalVBO);
glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, m_NormalVBO);
glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(Lib3dsVector) * 3 * m_TotalFaces, normals, GL_STATIC_DRAW);
// Generate a third VBO and store the texture coordinates in it.
glGenBuffers(1, &m_TexCoordVBO);
glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, m_TexCoordVBO);
glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(Lib3dsTexel) * 3 * m_TotalFaces, texCoords, GL_STATIC_DRAW);

// Clean up our allocated memory
delete vertices;
delete normals;
delete texCoords;

// We no longer need lib3ds
lib3ds_file_free(m_model);
m_model = NULL;
}
void Object::applyTexture(const char*texfilename)
{

textureObject = SOIL_load_OGL_texture(texfilename,SOIL_LOAD_AUTO,SOIL_CREATE_NEW_ID,SOIL_FLAG_MIPMAPS);

glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D,textureObject);// use our newest texture
}

void Object::Draw() const
{



// Enable vertex, normal and texture-coordinate arrays.
glEnableClientState(GL_VERTEX_ARRAY);
glEnableClientState(GL_NORMAL_ARRAY);
glEnableClientState(GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY);



// Bind the VBO with the normals.
glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, m_NormalVBO);
// The pointer for the normals is NULL which means that OpenGL will use the currently bound VBO.
glNormalPointer(GL_FLOAT, 0, NULL);

glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, m_TexCoordVBO);
glTexCoordPointer(2, GL_FLOAT, 0,(char *) NULL);
glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, m_VertexVBO);
glVertexPointer(3, GL_FLOAT, 0, NULL);
// Render the triangles.
glDrawArrays(GL_TRIANGLES, 0, m_TotalFaces * 3);


glDisableClientState(GL_VERTEX_ARRAY);
glDisableClientState(GL_NORMAL_ARRAY);
glDisableClientState(GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY);
}


at the moment all of the texture co-ordinates are messed up, it looks like this:

fpo2wxb3zlp6bpgvt3wk.png

the output should actually be a perfectly mapped pyramid with no black parts

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Just create a simple plane model, save it as .3ds and load it. Then see at which point the texture coordinates get messed up. It should be 0/0, 0/1, 1/1 etc. when you load it.
If you want to save yourself a lot of time, then forget about 3ds, its lacking things in too many ways. Try .obj for a simple format that also supports bigger meshes. Its also very easy to create your own loader for it.

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number of tex coord not equal numer of face. if tex coord on neighboring face is equal - both face has one texcoord.
for example, if you have default cube-object, you have 24 faces, but 8 vertexes and 8 texcoord.



1,1 | | 1,1
0,0 0,1 | | 0,1 0,0
-------------- --------------



this two face have 3 tex coord. not 6. 3 on both. somsing like that...

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number of tex coord not equal numer of face. if tex coord on neighboring face is equal - both face has one texcoord.
for example, if you have default cube-object, you have 24 faces, but 8 vertexes and 8 texcoord.



1,1 | | 1,1
0,0 0,1 | | 0,1 0,0
-------------- --------------



this two face have 3 tex coord. not 6. 3 on both. somsing like that...




could you modify my code so it makes more sense. this could help me and many other people with this problem?

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it uogly, in the future I fix it function. but if call this function after load 3ds, tex coord will by fixed.


void WorkBase::vertexNoDifTexCoordExtract( SPtr<BaseMesh> baseMesh ) const
{
SPtr<BaseSide> sptrSide;
SPtr<BaseAI> sptrBaseAI;
uint indexCount, indexOfVertex, pointCount = baseMesh->point()->count() / 8;

char doneIndex[pointCount];
memset( doneIndex, 0, pointCount*sizeof( char ) );

for ( uint i = 0; baseMesh->side()->next( &i, &sptrSide ); )
{
for ( uint j = 0; sptrSide->arrayIndex()->next( &j, &sptrBaseAI ); )
{
indexCount = sptrBaseAI->index()->count();

if (indexCount>64000) continue;

for ( uint n = 0; n < indexCount; n++ )
{
indexOfVertex = *sptrBaseAI->index()->atRo( n );

if ( !doneIndex[indexOfVertex] ) doneIndex[indexOfVertex] = 1;
else
{
for ( uint m = 0; m < 8; m++ )
{
if (( indexOfVertex*8 + m ) < baseMesh->point()->count() ) // TODO kastil', need normal fix
{
float varFloat = *baseMesh->point()->atRo( indexOfVertex * 8 + m );
baseMesh->point()->appendVar( varFloat );
}
}

*sptrBaseAI->index()->atRw( n ) = baseMesh->point()->count() / 8 - 1;
}
}
}
}

}


AI - its Array Indexes.

If u intresting, if u need, I can give my code of load 3ds. Its class, inherit from some python-3ds-module-source-code, not lib3ds. In the future I wont use lib3ds. But now.. my uogly, but working code:




#include "drawlib/scene/loader_3ds.h"

#include "drawlib/scene/scene_manager.h"


namespace drawlib
{


Loader3DS::Loader3DS( SceneManager *sceneManager )
{
m_sceneManager = sceneManager;
m_forStreamSteckStart = 0;
m_forStreamSteckEnd = 0;
m_wasError = false;
setIsSimple( false );
reset();
}


Loader3DS::~Loader3DS()
{
}


void Loader3DS::P_updatePersent()
{
int persent = 1 + (( 100 * m_currentFileDevice->at() ) / m_currentFileDevice->size() );

if ( m_sceneManager->jobManager()->isThreadOn() )
setProgress( persent );
}


void Loader3DS::setWasErrorToFalse()
{
m_wasError = false;
}


bool Loader3DS::getWasError() const
{
return m_wasError;
}


void Loader3DS::load( SPtr<BaseMesh> baseMesh, QString fileName, QString *nameObject )
{
if ( nameObject ) *nameObject = "3ds";

m_sceneManager->storer()->mesh()->setHide( baseMesh, true );

m_listForStreamBaseMesh.append( baseMesh );
m_listForStreamFileName.append( fileName );

m_sceneManager->jobManager()->doRun( this );
}


void Loader3DS::reset()
{
JobThread::reset();

// m_sceneManager=0; - not need

m_baseAI.reset();
m_baseSide.reset();
m_baseMaterial.reset();
m_baseMesh.reset();

m_baseAIMaterial.reset();
m_baseSideMaterial.reset();

m_fileName = QString::null;
m_pathToFile = QString::null;
m_mapMaterial.clear();

m_indexOffset = 0;
m_version = 0;
m_count_mapUV = 0;

if ( m_forStreamSteckStart == m_forStreamSteckEnd )
{
m_forStreamSteckStart = 0;
m_forStreamSteckEnd = 0;
m_listForStreamBaseMesh.clear();
m_listForStreamFileName.clear();
}
}



/**************************************************************
************************ for QThread *************************
*************************************************************/

void Loader3DS::startJob()
{
m_baseMesh = *m_listForStreamBaseMesh.at( m_forStreamSteckStart );
m_fileName = *m_listForStreamFileName.at( m_forStreamSteckStart );
m_forStreamSteckStart++;

setName( "load: \"" + QFileInfo( m_fileName ).fileName() + "\"" );

m_baseMesh->reset();
m_pathToFile = QFileInfo( m_fileName ).dirPath();
// m_baseMesh->point()->setBlokSize( 250000 );

if ( !ProcessFile( m_fileName.latin1() ) ) m_wasError = true;

if ( m_version != 3 ) m_wasError = true;
}


void Loader3DS::endJob()
{
m_baseMesh = *m_listForStreamBaseMesh.at( m_forStreamSteckEnd );
m_forStreamSteckEnd++;

m_sceneManager->workBase()->vertexNoDifTexCoordExtract( m_baseMesh );
m_sceneManager->workBase()->normalize( m_baseMesh );

m_baseMesh->update();
uint textureId = 0;
QValueList<uint> filter;

for ( uint i = 0; m_baseMesh->side()->next( &i, &m_baseSide ); )
{
if ( !m_baseSide->getMaterialId() ) continue;

m_baseMaterial = m_sceneManager->storer()->material()->idToSPtr( m_baseSide->getMaterialId() );
textureId = m_baseMaterial->getTextureId();

if ( !textureId ) continue;

if ( filter.find( textureId ) != filter.end() ) continue;
else filter.append( textureId );

m_sceneManager->storer()->texture()->idToSPtr( textureId )->update();
}

m_sceneManager->storer()->mesh()->setHide( m_baseMesh, false );
reset();
}



/**************************************************************
********************* Check correct 3ds **********************
*************************************************************/

bool Loader3DS::UserVersion( uint version )
{
m_version = version;

if ( m_version != 3 ) return false;

return true;
}



/**************************************************************
*********************** Material list ************************
*************************************************************/

void Loader3DS::UserMatName( const string name )
{
uint id;
BaseMaterial *baseMaterial;
m_sceneManager->storer()->material()->create( baseMaterial, id );
m_baseMaterial.set( baseMaterial );
m_mapMaterial[name] = id;
}


void Loader3DS::UserMatColor( float c0, float c1, float c2, int flag )
{
if ( flag == 1 ) m_baseMaterial->color()->setColor( c0 / 1.4f, c1 / 1.4f, c2 / 1.4f );
else if ( flag == 2 ) m_baseMaterial->color()->setColorAmbient( c0, c1, c2 );
else m_baseMaterial->color()->setColorSpecular( c0, c1, c2 );
}


void Loader3DS::UserMapFile( const string fileName )
{
uint textureId;
BaseTexture *baseTexture;
SPtr<BaseTexture> baseTextureSPtr;

m_sceneManager->storer()->texture()->create( baseTexture, textureId );
baseTextureSPtr.set( baseTexture );

if ( m_sceneManager->loaderImage()->load( baseTextureSPtr,
m_pathToFile + "/" + QString( fileName ).lower() ) )
m_baseMaterial->setTextureId( textureId );

p_updatePersent();
}



/**************************************************************
*************************** Vertex ***************************
*************************************************************/

void Loader3DS::User3dVertCount( unsigned short count )
{
count = 0;
m_indexOffset = m_baseMesh->point()->count() / 8;
m_count_mapUV = 0;

p_updatePersent();
}


void Loader3DS::User3dVert( float x, float y, float z )
{
m_baseMesh->point()->appendVar( 0 );
m_baseMesh->point()->appendVar( 0 );

m_baseMesh->point()->appendVar( 0 );
m_baseMesh->point()->appendVar( 0 );
m_baseMesh->point()->appendVar( 0 );

m_baseMesh->point()->appendVar( x );
m_baseMesh->point()->appendVar( y );
m_baseMesh->point()->appendVar( z );
}


void Loader3DS::UserMapVertex( float u, float v )
{
*m_baseMesh->point()->atRw(( m_indexOffset + m_count_mapUV )*8 + 0 ) = u;
*m_baseMesh->point()->atRw(( m_indexOffset + m_count_mapUV )*8 + 1 ) = v;
m_count_mapUV++;
}



/**************************************************************
*************************** Index ****************************
*************************************************************/

void Loader3DS::User3dFaceCount( unsigned short )
{
m_baseSide = m_baseMesh->side()->createSPtr();
m_baseAI = m_baseSide->arrayIndex()->createSPtr();
m_baseAI->setMode( GL_TRIANGLES );
m_indexForSmoothCount = 0;

p_updatePersent();
}


void Loader3DS::User3dFace( unsigned short a, unsigned short b, unsigned short c, unsigned short )
{
m_baseAI->index()->appendVar( a + m_indexOffset );
m_baseAI->index()->appendVar( b + m_indexOffset );
m_baseAI->index()->appendVar( c + m_indexOffset );
}


void Loader3DS::UserFaceSmoothList( uint Index )
{
m_baseSide->appendSmoothFace( Index, m_indexForSmoothCount );
m_indexForSmoothCount++;
}



/**************************************************************
********************* Material on side ***********************
*************************************************************/

void Loader3DS::UserFaceMaterialName( string name )
{
m_baseSideMaterial = m_baseMesh->side()->createSPtr();;
m_baseAIMaterial = m_baseSideMaterial->arrayIndex()->createSPtr();
m_baseAIMaterial->setMode( GL_TRIANGLES );
m_baseSideMaterial->setMaterialId( m_mapMaterial[name] );
}


void Loader3DS::UserFaceMaterialNumber( int number )
{
uint a = m_baseAI->index()->atRo( number * 3 )[0];
uint b = m_baseAI->index()->atRo( number * 3 )[1];
uint c = m_baseAI->index()->atRo( number * 3 )[2];

m_baseAIMaterial->index()->appendVar( a );
m_baseAIMaterial->index()->appendVar( b );
m_baseAIMaterial->index()->appendVar( c );

m_baseAI->index()->atRw( number*3 )[0] = ( uint ) - 1;
m_baseAI->index()->atRw( number*3 )[1] = ( uint ) - 1;
m_baseAI->index()->atRw( number*3 )[2] = ( uint ) - 1;
}


void Loader3DS::User3dFaceFinish()
{
SPtr<BaseSide> oldBaseSide = m_baseSide;
SPtr<BaseAI> oldBaseAI = m_baseAI;

m_baseSide = m_baseMesh->side()->createSPtr();
m_baseAI = m_baseSide->arrayIndex()->createSPtr();
m_baseAI->setMode( GL_TRIANGLES );

for ( uint i = 0, a = 0; i < oldBaseAI->index()->count(); i++ )
{
a = oldBaseAI->index()->atRo( i )[0];
if ( a != ( uint ) - 1 ) m_baseAI->index()->appendVar( a );
}

m_baseMesh->side()->removeBySPtr( oldBaseSide );

if ( !m_baseAI->index()->count() )
m_baseMesh->side()->removeBySPtr( m_baseSide );
}


}

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      Window Class:
      #include "Window.h" #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include "Error.h" #include "Renderer.h" #include "Scene.h" #include "Input.h" //Global Variables. int screen_width, screen_height; //On Window Resize. void OnWindowResize(GLFWwindow *window, int width, int height); //Implementation Structure. struct Window::Implementation { //GLFW Window. GLFWwindow *GLFW_window; //Renderer. Renderer *renderer; //Delta Time. double delta_time; //Frames Per Second. int fps; //Scene. Scene *scnene; //Input. Input *input; //Deconstructor. ~Implementation(); }; //Window Constructor. Window::Window(std::string title, int width, int height) { //Initializing width and height. screen_width = width; screen_height = height; //Create Pointer To Implementation. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Try initializing GLFW. if (!glfwInit()) { std::cout << "GLFW could not be initialized!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); exit(-1); } //Setting up OpenGL Version 3.3 Core Profile. glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MAJOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MINOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_PROFILE, GLFW_OPENGL_CORE_PROFILE); /* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */ m_Impl->GLFW_window = glfwCreateWindow(width, height, title.c_str(), NULL, NULL); if (!m_Impl->GLFW_window) { std::cout << "GLFW could not create a window!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); glfwTerminate(); exit(-1); } /* Make the window's context current */ glfwMakeContextCurrent(m_Impl->GLFW_window); //Initialize GLEW. if(glewInit() != GLEW_OK) { std::cout << "GLEW could not be initialized!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); glfwTerminate(); exit(-1); } //Enabling Blending. GLCall(glEnable(GL_BLEND)); GLCall(glBlendFunc(GL_SRC_ALPHA, GL_ONE_MINUS_SRC_ALPHA)); //Setting the ViewPort. GLCall(glViewport(0, 0, width, height)); //**********Initializing Implementation**********// m_Impl->renderer = new Renderer(); m_Impl->delta_time = 0.0; m_Impl->fps = 0; m_Impl->input = new Input(this); //**********Initializing Implementation**********// //Set Frame Buffer Size Callback. glfwSetFramebufferSizeCallback(m_Impl->GLFW_window, OnWindowResize); } //Window Deconstructor. Window::~Window() { delete m_Impl; } //Window Main Loop. void Window::MainLoop() { //Time Variables. double start_time = 0, end_time = 0, old_time = 0, total_time = 0; //Frames Counter. int frames = 0; /* Loop until the user closes the window */ while (!glfwWindowShouldClose(m_Impl->GLFW_window)) { old_time = start_time; //Total time of previous frame. start_time = glfwGetTime(); //Current frame start time. //Calculate the Delta Time. m_Impl->delta_time = start_time - old_time; //Get Frames Per Second. if (total_time >= 1) { m_Impl->fps = frames; total_time = 0; frames = 0; } //Clearing The Screen. m_Impl->renderer->Clear(0, 0, 0); //Render The Scene. if (m_Impl->scnene != NULL) m_Impl->scnene->Render(this); //Updating the Screen. m_Impl->renderer->Update(m_Impl->GLFW_window); //Increasing frames counter. frames++; //End Time. end_time = glfwGetTime(); //Total time after the frame completed. total_time += end_time - start_time; } //Terminate GLFW. glfwTerminate(); } //Load Scene. void Window::LoadScene(Scene * scene) { //Set the scene. m_Impl->scnene = scene; } //Get Delta Time. double Window::GetDeltaTime() { return m_Impl->delta_time; } //Get FPS. int Window::GetFPS() { return m_Impl->fps; } //Get Width. int Window::GetWidth() { return screen_width; } //Get Height. int Window::GetHeight() { return screen_height; } //Get Input. Input * Window::GetInput() { return m_Impl->input; } Renderer * Window::GetRenderer() { return m_Impl->renderer; } GLFWwindow * Window::GetGLFWindow() { return m_Impl->GLFW_window; } //Implementation Deconstructor. Window::Implementation::~Implementation() { delete renderer; delete input; } //OnWindowResize void OnWindowResize(GLFWwindow *window, int width, int height) { screen_width = width; screen_height = height; //Updating the ViewPort. GLCall(glViewport(0, 0, width, height)); }  
      Brain Class
      #include "Brain.h" #include "Sprite.h" #include "Window.h" struct Brain::Implementation { //Just A Flag. bool started; //Window Pointer. Window *window; //Sprite Pointer. Sprite *sprite; }; Brain::Brain(Window *window, Sprite *sprite) { //Create Pointer To Implementation. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Initialize Implementation. m_Impl->started = true; m_Impl->window = window; m_Impl->sprite = sprite; } Brain::~Brain() { //Delete Pointer To Implementation. delete m_Impl; } void Brain::Start() { } void Brain::Update() { } Window * Brain::GetWindow() { return m_Impl->window; } Sprite * Brain::GetSprite() { return m_Impl->sprite; } bool Brain::GetStart() { return m_Impl->started; } void Brain::SetStart(bool value) { m_Impl->started = value; } Script Class (Its a Brain Subclass!!!)
      #include "Script.h" Script::Script(Window *window, Sprite *sprite) : Brain(window, sprite) { } Script::~Script() { } void Script::Start() { std::cout << "Game Started!" << std::endl; } void Script::Update() { Input *input = this->GetWindow()->GetInput(); Sprite *sp = this->GetSprite(); //Move this sprite. this->GetSprite()->Move(200 * this->GetWindow()->GetDeltaTime(), input->GetKeyDown("left"), input->GetKeyDown("right"), input->GetKeyDown("up"), input->GetKeyDown("down")); std::cout << sp->GetTag().c_str() << ".x = " << sp->GetPos()->x << ", " << sp->GetTag().c_str() << ".y = " << sp->GetPos()->y << std::endl; }  
      Main:
      #include "SpaceShooterEngine.h" #include "Script.h" int main() { Window w("title", 600,600); Scene *scene = new Scene(); Sprite *player = new Sprite("Resources/Images/player.png", "Player", 100,100); Sprite *other = new Sprite("Resources/Images/cherno.png", "Other", 400, 100); Sprite *other2 = new Sprite("Resources/Images/cherno.png", "Other", 300, 400); Brain *brain = new Script(&w, player); player->AddBrain(brain); scene->AddSprite(player); scene->AddSprite(other); scene->AddSprite(other2); w.LoadScene(scene); w.MainLoop(); return 0; }  
       
      I literally can't find what is wrong. If you need more code, ask me to post it. I will also attach all the source files.
      Brain.cpp
      Error.cpp
      IndexBuffer.cpp
      Input.cpp
      Renderer.cpp
      Scene.cpp
      Shader.cpp
      Sprite.cpp
      Texture.cpp
      VertexArray.cpp
      VertexBuffer.cpp
      VertexBufferLayout.cpp
      Window.cpp
      Brain.h
      Error.h
      IndexBuffer.h
      Input.h
      Renderer.h
      Scene.h
      Shader.h
      SpaceShooterEngine.h
      Sprite.h
      Texture.h
      VertexArray.h
      VertexBuffer.h
      VertexBufferLayout.h
      Window.h
    • By Cristian Decu
      Hello fellow programmers,
      For a couple of days now i've decided to build my own planet renderer just to see how floating point precision issues
      can be tackled. As you probably imagine, i've quickly faced FPP issues when trying to render absurdly large planets.
       
      I have used the classical quadtree LOD approach;
      I've generated my grids with 33 vertices, (x: -1 to 1, y: -1 to 1, z = 0).
      Each grid is managed by a TerrainNode class that, depending on the side it represents (top, bottom, left right, front, back),
      creates a special rotation-translation matrix that moves and rotates the grid away from the origin so that when i finally
      normalize all the vertices on my vertex shader i can get a perfect sphere.
      T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, 1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(180.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[0] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, T * R, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_FRONT)); T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, -1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(0.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[1] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, R * T, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_BACK)); // So on and so forth for the rest of the sides As you can see, for the front side grid, i rotate it 180 degrees to make it face the camera and push it towards the eye;
      the back side is handled almost the same way only that i don't need to rotate it but simply push it away from the eye.
      The same technique is applied for the rest of the faces (obviously, with the proper rotations / translations).
      The matrix that result from the multiplication of R and T (in that particular order) is send to my vertex shader as `r_Grid'.
      // spherify vec3 V = normalize((r_Grid * vec4(r_Vertex, 1.0)).xyz); gl_Position = r_ModelViewProjection * vec4(V, 1.0); The `r_ModelViewProjection' matrix is generated on the CPU in this manner.
      // No the most efficient way, but it works. glm::dmat4 Camera::getMatrix() { // Create the view matrix // Roll, Yaw and Pitch are all quaternions. glm::dmat4 View = glm::toMat4(Roll) * glm::toMat4(Pitch) * glm::toMat4(Yaw); // The model matrix is generated by translating in the oposite direction of the camera. glm::dmat4 Model = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), -Position); // Projection = glm::perspective(fovY, aspect, zNear, zFar); // zNear = 0.1, zFar = 1.0995116e12 return Projection * View * Model; } I managed to get rid of z-fighting by using a technique called Logarithmic Depth Buffer described in this article; it works amazingly well, no z-fighting at all, at least not visible.
      Each frame i'm rendering each node by sending the generated matrices this way.
      // set the r_ModelViewProjection uniform // Sneak in the mRadiusMatrix which is a matrix that contains the radius of my planet. Shader::setUniform(0, Camera::getInstance()->getMatrix() * mRadiusMatrix); // set the r_Grid matrix uniform i created earlier. Shader::setUniform(1, r_Grid); grid->render(); My planet's radius is around 6400000.0 units, absurdly large, but that's what i really want to achieve;
      Everything works well, the node's split and merge as you'd expect, however whenever i get close to the surface
      of the planet the rounding errors start to kick in giving me that lovely stairs effect.
      I've read that if i could render each grid relative to the camera i could get better precision on the surface, effectively
      getting rid of those rounding errors.
       
      My question is how can i achieve this relative to camera rendering in my scenario here?
      I know that i have to do most of the work on the CPU with double, and that's exactly what i'm doing.
      I only use double on the CPU side where i also do most of the matrix multiplications.
      As you can see from my vertex shader i only do the usual r_ModelViewProjection * (some vertex coords).
       
      Thank you for your suggestions!
       
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