# OpenGL OpenGL and Visual C++ (not a rehash)

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I know there are a lot of posts that are related to this issue, however I just can't figure it out. I tried learning OpenGL this last summer and dropped it, not because I didn't understand the content, but because I just couldn't get the libraries set up right.

I'm giving OpenGL another shot, because I'm trying to develop GUI for a data analysis program that I am writing and it seems like the best option for what I am trying to do. After this project, I want to move on to programming more fun applications, not for work I am trying to set up OpenGL with Microsoft Visual C++ 2010. But again, I just can't get it right.

I have followed the online tutorials to set it up and I don't understand what I'm doing wrong. With my questions I'm going to start at square one so I don't mess anything up. I re-installed my Visual C++ IDE fresh as well to make sure that everything is downloaded correctly. I am working on a Studio Laptop with Windows 7 and a 64-bit Operating System (that may be repetitive).

Here are my specific questions:

-Where should I get my OpenGL library?
-Which libraries should I get (GLUT,GLU, GLAUX,etc...)?
-Where should I put my library on my computer in order to reference it (w/ #include ...)?

More general questions:

-Can you think of anything that I am missing?
-Is there something that I need to do within Microsoft Visual C++ 2010 outside of the actual text of the code to include the OpenGL correctly?

Please don't dismiss me as a programming illiterate. I don't know where I fall as a C++ programmer. And, I don't think I am terribly advanced. However, I understand the language well enough to write sequence analysis programs for my research. I have a good grasp of all the fundamentals of programming in C++. However, I have very little experience working with GUI libraries. This is something that I want to learn, and something that I am willing to put the time into learning. I just can't seem to get off the ground and I need some help.

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1) Where should I get my OpenGL library?
2) Which libraries should I get (GLUT,GLU, GLAUX,etc...)?
3) Where should I put my library on my computer in order to reference it (w/ #include ...)?

1) You do not need to get anything (dll comes with every windows out of the box, relevant lib/h is included in VC)
2) GLUT is dead (might want to use freeGLUT instead), GLAUX was already dead when i first heard about Gl. GLU you might find useful, but is not strictly needed. As you are new, i would suggest GLEW as otherwise you will be stuck in ancient OpenGl (It is an extension loader).
3) It is up to you. I use a per project folder so i can choose per project which exact version i use of any given library.

Usage is very simple: http://glew.sourceforge.net/basic.html

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Thought i give one possible setup example:
 #define GLEW_STATIC // adding the libs in source for convenience. #pragma comment(lib,"opengl32.lib") // already present in VC #pragma comment(lib,"glew_lib_file.lib") // lib needs to be in standard lib folders (32bit one in ".../VC/lib" and 64bit one in "../VC/lib/amd64"). // or use this trick: __FILE__ "/../../../etc/path_to_somewhere_else/my_project_specific_copy_of_glew.lib" #include "wherever_you_put_them/glew.h" #include "wherever_you_put_them/wglew.h" // or "#indluce <glew.h>" etc, if you drop them in "../VC/include" bool initializeGLEW() { GLenum err = glewInit(); return err == GLEW_OK; } 

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1) You do not need to get anything (dll comes with every windows out of the box, relevant lib/h is included in VC)
2) GLUT is dead (might want to use freeGLUT instead), GLAUX was already dead when i first heard about Gl. GLU you might find useful, but is not strictly needed. As you are new, i would suggest GLEW as otherwise you will be stuck in ancient OpenGl (It is an extension loader).
3) It is up to you. I use a per project folder so i can choose per project which exact version i use of any given library.

Usage is very simple: http://glew.sourceforge.net/basic.html

Wow, shows how much I know. I didn't know GLUT was dead. How do you suggest that I now go about learning GLEW? Do you recommend any tutorials?
Thank you for the quick and informative answer.

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1) I didn't know GLUT was dead.
2) How do you suggest that I now go about learning GLEW? Do you recommend any tutorials?
Thank you for the quick and informative answer.

1) Went to refresh my memory when it last saw an update - surprisingly difficult to track down x_x. Definitely ~12 years ago tho, which given how much Gl has advanced since ... yeah, pretty dead (this does not mean that it does not work - it does work). freeGLUT is made to work very similarly afaik, so that should help on tutorial front. I have never used neither of thous - opting to create a gl context etc myself (probably not recommended as it creates a fairly major learning curve speed-pump at the very start).

Doing some OGL stuff goes roughly like this:
* get a window with a device context capable of accelerated opengl => freeGLUT helps you out there.
* initGlew() - to get the gl* function pointers to actually point to their implementations, if supported.
* create some message loop for the window in which you call your redraw function => freeGLUT helps you out there.
* in redraw function: do what you want .
And that is pretty much it.

2) GLEW just loads all the extensions (The OpenGl version in Windows is locked down to 1.1 [1.2? can not remember exactly]] - so, pretty much everything needs to be loaded, including all the core functionality). GLEW does that all for you. It also provides boolean flags to check for non-core extensions (OGL 3.3 is powerful enough that you probably never even need any) - and if they return true then you can also use all of thous functions.

There really is nothing to learn there. It is needed just so that you could actually call the majority of the gl* functions.

A great tutorial for graphics in general (ie, not stuck in OGL 1.* mindset like the NeHe series), based on up to date (the internet tends to be riddled with horribly ancient stuff) opengl, is: http://www.arcsynthesis.org/gltut/
It also introduces the GLM library which is quite recommended.

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A great tutorial for graphics in general (ie, not stuck in OGL 1.* mindset like the NeHe series), based on up to date (the internet tends to be riddled with horribly ancient stuff) opengl, is: http://www.arcsynthesis.org/gltut/
It also introduces the GLM library which is quite recommended.

Thank you again for being so helpful! This is great! I have started going through the tutorial and I have already run into problems with premake4. Would it be alright if I P.M. you so I don't keep bumping this thread?

EDIT: Problem solved, only to run into a new problem. The "frameworkD.lib" file is not supported ["Unable to start program 'C:\...\framework\lib\frameworkD.lib'. The specified file is an unrecognized or unsupported binary format."] That doesn't make sense to me. Any ideas?

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• By mmmax3d
Hi everyone,
I would need some assistance from anyone who has a similar experience
or a nice idea!
I have created a skybox (as cube) and now I need to add a floor/ground.
The skybox is created from cubemap and initially it was infinite.
Now it is finite with a specific size. The floor is a quad in the middle
of the skybox, like a horizon.
I have two problems:
When moving the skybox upwards or downwards, I need to
sample from points even above the horizon while sampling
from the botton at the same time.  I am trying to create a seamless blending of the texture
at the points of the horizon, when the quad is connected
to the skybox. However, I get skew effects. Does anybody has done sth similar?
Is there any good practice?
Thanks everyone!

• I'm trying to implement PBR into my simple OpenGL renderer and trying to use multiple lighting passes, I'm using one pass per light for rendering as follow:
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• Hello Everyone!
I'm learning openGL, and currently i'm making a simple 2D game engine to test what I've learn so far.  In order to not say to much, i made a video in which i'm showing you the behavior of the rendering.
Video:

What i was expecting to happen, was the player moving around. When i render only the player, he moves as i would expect. When i add a second Sprite object, instead of the Player, this new sprite object is moving and finally if i add a third Sprite object the third one is moving. And the weird think is that i'm transforming the Vertices of the Player so why the transformation is being applied somewhere else?

Take a look at my code:
Sprite Class
(You mostly need to see the Constructor, the Render Method and the Move Method)
#include "Brain.h" #include <glm/gtc/matrix_transform.hpp> #include <vector> struct Sprite::Implementation { //Position. struct pos pos; //Tag. std::string tag; //Texture. Texture *texture; //Model matrix. glm::mat4 model; //Vertex Array Object. VertexArray *vao; //Vertex Buffer Object. VertexBuffer *vbo; //Layout. VertexBufferLayout *layout; //Index Buffer Object. IndexBuffer *ibo; //Shader. Shader *program; //Brains. std::vector<Brain *> brains; //Deconstructor. ~Implementation(); }; Sprite::Sprite(std::string image_path, std::string tag, float x, float y) { //Create Pointer To Implementaion. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Set the Position of the Sprite object. m_Impl->pos.x = x; m_Impl->pos.y = y; //Set the tag. m_Impl->tag = tag; //Create The Texture. m_Impl->texture = new Texture(image_path); //Initialize the model Matrix. m_Impl->model = glm::mat4(1.0f); //Get the Width and the Height of the Texture. int width = m_Impl->texture->GetWidth(); int height = m_Impl->texture->GetHeight(); //Create the Verticies. float verticies[] = { //Positions //Texture Coordinates. x, y, 0.0f, 0.0f, x + width, y, 1.0f, 0.0f, x + width, y + height, 1.0f, 1.0f, x, y + height, 0.0f, 1.0f }; //Create the Indicies. unsigned int indicies[] = { 0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 0 }; //Create Vertex Array. m_Impl->vao = new VertexArray(); //Create the Vertex Buffer. m_Impl->vbo = new VertexBuffer((void *)verticies, sizeof(verticies)); //Create The Layout. m_Impl->layout = new VertexBufferLayout(); m_Impl->layout->PushFloat(2); m_Impl->layout->PushFloat(2); m_Impl->vao->AddBuffer(m_Impl->vbo, m_Impl->layout); //Create the Index Buffer. m_Impl->ibo = new IndexBuffer(indicies, 6); //Create the new shader. m_Impl->program = new Shader("Shaders/SpriteShader.shader"); } //Render. void Sprite::Render(Window * window) { //Create the projection Matrix based on the current window width and height. glm::mat4 proj = glm::ortho(0.0f, (float)window->GetWidth(), 0.0f, (float)window->GetHeight(), -1.0f, 1.0f); //Set the MVP Uniform. m_Impl->program->setUniformMat4f("u_MVP", proj * m_Impl->model); //Run All The Brains (Scripts) of this game object (sprite). for (unsigned int i = 0; i < m_Impl->brains.size(); i++) { //Get Current Brain. Brain *brain = m_Impl->brains[i]; //Call the start function only once! if (brain->GetStart()) { brain->SetStart(false); brain->Start(); } //Call the update function every frame. brain->Update(); } //Render. window->GetRenderer()->Draw(m_Impl->vao, m_Impl->ibo, m_Impl->texture, m_Impl->program); } void Sprite::Move(float speed, bool left, bool right, bool up, bool down) { if (left) { m_Impl->pos.x -= speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(-speed, 0, 0)); } if (right) { m_Impl->pos.x += speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(speed, 0, 0)); } if (up) { m_Impl->pos.y += speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(0, speed, 0)); } if (down) { m_Impl->pos.y -= speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(0, -speed, 0)); } } void Sprite::AddBrain(Brain * brain) { //Push back the brain object. m_Impl->brains.push_back(brain); } pos *Sprite::GetPos() { return &m_Impl->pos; } std::string Sprite::GetTag() { return m_Impl->tag; } int Sprite::GetWidth() { return m_Impl->texture->GetWidth(); } int Sprite::GetHeight() { return m_Impl->texture->GetHeight(); } Sprite::~Sprite() { delete m_Impl; } //Implementation Deconstructor. Sprite::Implementation::~Implementation() { delete texture; delete vao; delete vbo; delete layout; delete ibo; delete program; }
Renderer Class
#include "Renderer.h" #include "Error.h" Renderer::Renderer() { } Renderer::~Renderer() { } void Renderer::Draw(VertexArray * vao, IndexBuffer * ibo, Texture *texture, Shader * program) { vao->Bind(); ibo->Bind(); program->Bind(); if (texture != NULL) texture->Bind(); GLCall(glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, ibo->GetCount(), GL_UNSIGNED_INT, NULL)); } void Renderer::Clear(float r, float g, float b) { GLCall(glClearColor(r, g, b, 1.0)); GLCall(glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT)); } void Renderer::Update(GLFWwindow *window) { /* Swap front and back buffers */ glfwSwapBuffers(window); /* Poll for and process events */ glfwPollEvents(); }
#shader vertex #version 330 core layout(location = 0) in vec4 aPos; layout(location = 1) in vec2 aTexCoord; out vec2 t_TexCoord; uniform mat4 u_MVP; void main() { gl_Position = u_MVP * aPos; t_TexCoord = aTexCoord; } #shader fragment #version 330 core out vec4 aColor; in vec2 t_TexCoord; uniform sampler2D u_Texture; void main() { aColor = texture(u_Texture, t_TexCoord); } Also i'm pretty sure that every time i'm hitting the up, down, left and right arrows on the keyboard, i'm changing the model Matrix of the Player and not the others.

Window Class:
#include "Window.h" #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include "Error.h" #include "Renderer.h" #include "Scene.h" #include "Input.h" //Global Variables. int screen_width, screen_height; //On Window Resize. void OnWindowResize(GLFWwindow *window, int width, int height); //Implementation Structure. struct Window::Implementation { //GLFW Window. GLFWwindow *GLFW_window; //Renderer. Renderer *renderer; //Delta Time. double delta_time; //Frames Per Second. int fps; //Scene. Scene *scnene; //Input. Input *input; //Deconstructor. ~Implementation(); }; //Window Constructor. Window::Window(std::string title, int width, int height) { //Initializing width and height. screen_width = width; screen_height = height; //Create Pointer To Implementation. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Try initializing GLFW. if (!glfwInit()) { std::cout << "GLFW could not be initialized!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); exit(-1); } //Setting up OpenGL Version 3.3 Core Profile. glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MAJOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MINOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_PROFILE, GLFW_OPENGL_CORE_PROFILE); /* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */ m_Impl->GLFW_window = glfwCreateWindow(width, height, title.c_str(), NULL, NULL); if (!m_Impl->GLFW_window) { std::cout << "GLFW could not create a window!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); glfwTerminate(); exit(-1); } /* Make the window's context current */ glfwMakeContextCurrent(m_Impl->GLFW_window); //Initialize GLEW. if(glewInit() != GLEW_OK) { std::cout << "GLEW could not be initialized!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); glfwTerminate(); exit(-1); } //Enabling Blending. GLCall(glEnable(GL_BLEND)); GLCall(glBlendFunc(GL_SRC_ALPHA, GL_ONE_MINUS_SRC_ALPHA)); //Setting the ViewPort. GLCall(glViewport(0, 0, width, height)); //**********Initializing Implementation**********// m_Impl->renderer = new Renderer(); m_Impl->delta_time = 0.0; m_Impl->fps = 0; m_Impl->input = new Input(this); //**********Initializing Implementation**********// //Set Frame Buffer Size Callback. glfwSetFramebufferSizeCallback(m_Impl->GLFW_window, OnWindowResize); } //Window Deconstructor. Window::~Window() { delete m_Impl; } //Window Main Loop. void Window::MainLoop() { //Time Variables. double start_time = 0, end_time = 0, old_time = 0, total_time = 0; //Frames Counter. int frames = 0; /* Loop until the user closes the window */ while (!glfwWindowShouldClose(m_Impl->GLFW_window)) { old_time = start_time; //Total time of previous frame. start_time = glfwGetTime(); //Current frame start time. //Calculate the Delta Time. m_Impl->delta_time = start_time - old_time; //Get Frames Per Second. if (total_time >= 1) { m_Impl->fps = frames; total_time = 0; frames = 0; } //Clearing The Screen. m_Impl->renderer->Clear(0, 0, 0); //Render The Scene. if (m_Impl->scnene != NULL) m_Impl->scnene->Render(this); //Updating the Screen. m_Impl->renderer->Update(m_Impl->GLFW_window); //Increasing frames counter. frames++; //End Time. end_time = glfwGetTime(); //Total time after the frame completed. total_time += end_time - start_time; } //Terminate GLFW. glfwTerminate(); } //Load Scene. void Window::LoadScene(Scene * scene) { //Set the scene. m_Impl->scnene = scene; } //Get Delta Time. double Window::GetDeltaTime() { return m_Impl->delta_time; } //Get FPS. int Window::GetFPS() { return m_Impl->fps; } //Get Width. int Window::GetWidth() { return screen_width; } //Get Height. int Window::GetHeight() { return screen_height; } //Get Input. Input * Window::GetInput() { return m_Impl->input; } Renderer * Window::GetRenderer() { return m_Impl->renderer; } GLFWwindow * Window::GetGLFWindow() { return m_Impl->GLFW_window; } //Implementation Deconstructor. Window::Implementation::~Implementation() { delete renderer; delete input; } //OnWindowResize void OnWindowResize(GLFWwindow *window, int width, int height) { screen_width = width; screen_height = height; //Updating the ViewPort. GLCall(glViewport(0, 0, width, height)); }
Brain Class
#include "Brain.h" #include "Sprite.h" #include "Window.h" struct Brain::Implementation { //Just A Flag. bool started; //Window Pointer. Window *window; //Sprite Pointer. Sprite *sprite; }; Brain::Brain(Window *window, Sprite *sprite) { //Create Pointer To Implementation. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Initialize Implementation. m_Impl->started = true; m_Impl->window = window; m_Impl->sprite = sprite; } Brain::~Brain() { //Delete Pointer To Implementation. delete m_Impl; } void Brain::Start() { } void Brain::Update() { } Window * Brain::GetWindow() { return m_Impl->window; } Sprite * Brain::GetSprite() { return m_Impl->sprite; } bool Brain::GetStart() { return m_Impl->started; } void Brain::SetStart(bool value) { m_Impl->started = value; } Script Class (Its a Brain Subclass!!!)
#include "Script.h" Script::Script(Window *window, Sprite *sprite) : Brain(window, sprite) { } Script::~Script() { } void Script::Start() { std::cout << "Game Started!" << std::endl; } void Script::Update() { Input *input = this->GetWindow()->GetInput(); Sprite *sp = this->GetSprite(); //Move this sprite. this->GetSprite()->Move(200 * this->GetWindow()->GetDeltaTime(), input->GetKeyDown("left"), input->GetKeyDown("right"), input->GetKeyDown("up"), input->GetKeyDown("down")); std::cout << sp->GetTag().c_str() << ".x = " << sp->GetPos()->x << ", " << sp->GetTag().c_str() << ".y = " << sp->GetPos()->y << std::endl; }
Main:
#include "SpaceShooterEngine.h" #include "Script.h" int main() { Window w("title", 600,600); Scene *scene = new Scene(); Sprite *player = new Sprite("Resources/Images/player.png", "Player", 100,100); Sprite *other = new Sprite("Resources/Images/cherno.png", "Other", 400, 100); Sprite *other2 = new Sprite("Resources/Images/cherno.png", "Other", 300, 400); Brain *brain = new Script(&w, player); player->AddBrain(brain); scene->AddSprite(player); scene->AddSprite(other); scene->AddSprite(other2); w.LoadScene(scene); w.MainLoop(); return 0; }

I literally can't find what is wrong. If you need more code, ask me to post it. I will also attach all the source files.
Brain.cpp
Error.cpp
IndexBuffer.cpp
Input.cpp
Renderer.cpp
Scene.cpp
Sprite.cpp
Texture.cpp
VertexArray.cpp
VertexBuffer.cpp
VertexBufferLayout.cpp
Window.cpp
Brain.h
Error.h
IndexBuffer.h
Input.h
Renderer.h
Scene.h
SpaceShooterEngine.h
Sprite.h
Texture.h
VertexArray.h
VertexBuffer.h
VertexBufferLayout.h
Window.h

• Hello fellow programmers,
For a couple of days now i've decided to build my own planet renderer just to see how floating point precision issues
can be tackled. As you probably imagine, i've quickly faced FPP issues when trying to render absurdly large planets.

I have used the classical quadtree LOD approach;
I've generated my grids with 33 vertices, (x: -1 to 1, y: -1 to 1, z = 0).
Each grid is managed by a TerrainNode class that, depending on the side it represents (top, bottom, left right, front, back),
creates a special rotation-translation matrix that moves and rotates the grid away from the origin so that when i finally
normalize all the vertices on my vertex shader i can get a perfect sphere.
T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, 1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(180.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[0] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, T * R, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_FRONT)); T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, -1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(0.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[1] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, R * T, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_BACK)); // So on and so forth for the rest of the sides As you can see, for the front side grid, i rotate it 180 degrees to make it face the camera and push it towards the eye;
the back side is handled almost the same way only that i don't need to rotate it but simply push it away from the eye.
The same technique is applied for the rest of the faces (obviously, with the proper rotations / translations).
The matrix that result from the multiplication of R and T (in that particular order) is send to my vertex shader as r_Grid'.
// spherify vec3 V = normalize((r_Grid * vec4(r_Vertex, 1.0)).xyz); gl_Position = r_ModelViewProjection * vec4(V, 1.0); The r_ModelViewProjection' matrix is generated on the CPU in this manner.
// No the most efficient way, but it works. glm::dmat4 Camera::getMatrix() { // Create the view matrix // Roll, Yaw and Pitch are all quaternions. glm::dmat4 View = glm::toMat4(Roll) * glm::toMat4(Pitch) * glm::toMat4(Yaw); // The model matrix is generated by translating in the oposite direction of the camera. glm::dmat4 Model = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), -Position); // Projection = glm::perspective(fovY, aspect, zNear, zFar); // zNear = 0.1, zFar = 1.0995116e12 return Projection * View * Model; } I managed to get rid of z-fighting by using a technique called Logarithmic Depth Buffer described in this article; it works amazingly well, no z-fighting at all, at least not visible.
Each frame i'm rendering each node by sending the generated matrices this way.
// set the r_ModelViewProjection uniform // Sneak in the mRadiusMatrix which is a matrix that contains the radius of my planet. Shader::setUniform(0, Camera::getInstance()->getMatrix() * mRadiusMatrix); // set the r_Grid matrix uniform i created earlier. Shader::setUniform(1, r_Grid); grid->render(); My planet's radius is around 6400000.0 units, absurdly large, but that's what i really want to achieve;
Everything works well, the node's split and merge as you'd expect, however whenever i get close to the surface
of the planet the rounding errors start to kick in giving me that lovely stairs effect.
I've read that if i could render each grid relative to the camera i could get better precision on the surface, effectively
getting rid of those rounding errors.

My question is how can i achieve this relative to camera rendering in my scenario here?
I know that i have to do most of the work on the CPU with double, and that's exactly what i'm doing.
I only use double on the CPU side where i also do most of the matrix multiplications.
As you can see from my vertex shader i only do the usual r_ModelViewProjection * (some vertex coords).