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    • By fleissi
      Hey guys!

      I'm new here and I recently started developing my own rendering engine. It's open source, based on OpenGL/DirectX and C++.
      The full source code is hosted on github:
      https://github.com/fleissna/flyEngine

      I would appreciate if people with experience in game development / engine desgin could take a look at my source code. I'm looking for honest, constructive criticism on how to improve the engine.
      I'm currently writing my master's thesis in computer science and in the recent year I've gone through all the basics about graphics programming, learned DirectX and OpenGL, read some articles on Nvidia GPU Gems, read books and integrated some of this stuff step by step into the engine.

      I know about the basics, but I feel like there is some missing link that I didn't get yet to merge all those little pieces together.

      Features I have so far:
      - Dynamic shader generation based on material properties
      - Dynamic sorting of meshes to be renderd based on shader and material
      - Rendering large amounts of static meshes
      - Hierarchical culling (detail + view frustum)
      - Limited support for dynamic (i.e. moving) meshes
      - Normal, Parallax and Relief Mapping implementations
      - Wind animations based on vertex displacement
      - A very basic integration of the Bullet physics engine
      - Procedural Grass generation
      - Some post processing effects (Depth of Field, Light Volumes, Screen Space Reflections, God Rays)
      - Caching mechanisms for textures, shaders, materials and meshes

      Features I would like to have:
      - Global illumination methods
      - Scalable physics
      - Occlusion culling
      - A nice procedural terrain generator
      - Scripting
      - Level Editing
      - Sound system
      - Optimization techniques

      Books I have so far:
      - Real-Time Rendering Third Edition
      - 3D Game Programming with DirectX 11
      - Vulkan Cookbook (not started yet)

      I hope you guys can take a look at my source code and if you're really motivated, feel free to contribute :-)
      There are some videos on youtube that demonstrate some of the features:
      Procedural grass on the GPU
      Procedural Terrain Engine
      Quadtree detail and view frustum culling

      The long term goal is to turn this into a commercial game engine. I'm aware that this is a very ambitious goal, but I'm sure it's possible if you work hard for it.

      Bye,

      Phil
    • By tj8146
      I have attached my project in a .zip file if you wish to run it for yourself.
      I am making a simple 2d top-down game and I am trying to run my code to see if my window creation is working and to see if my timer is also working with it. Every time I run it though I get errors. And when I fix those errors, more come, then the same errors keep appearing. I end up just going round in circles.  Is there anyone who could help with this? 
       
      Errors when I build my code:
      1>Renderer.cpp 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2039: 'string': is not a member of 'std' 1>c:\program files (x86)\windows kits\10\include\10.0.16299.0\ucrt\stddef.h(18): note: see declaration of 'std' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2061: syntax error: identifier 'string' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(28): error C2511: 'bool Game::Rendering::initialize(int,int,bool,std::string)': overloaded member function not found in 'Game::Rendering' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(9): note: see declaration of 'Game::Rendering' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(35): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(36): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(43): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>Done building project "Game.vcxproj" -- FAILED. ========== Build: 0 succeeded, 1 failed, 0 up-to-date, 0 skipped ==========  
       
      Renderer.cpp
      #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include "Renderer.h" #include "Timer.h" #include <iostream> namespace Game { GLFWwindow* window; /* Initialize the library */ Rendering::Rendering() { mClock = new Clock; } Rendering::~Rendering() { shutdown(); } bool Rendering::initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title) { if (!glfwInit()) { return -1; } /* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */ window = glfwCreateWindow(640, 480, "Hello World", NULL, NULL); if (!window) { glfwTerminate(); return -1; } /* Make the window's context current */ glfwMakeContextCurrent(window); glViewport(0, 0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height); glOrtho(0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height, 0, 1, -1); glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); glLoadIdentity(); glfwSwapInterval(1); glEnable(GL_SMOOTH); glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); glEnable(GL_BLEND); glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL); glHint(GL_PERSPECTIVE_CORRECTION_HINT, GL_NICEST); glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D); glLoadIdentity(); return true; } bool Rendering::render() { /* Loop until the user closes the window */ if (!glfwWindowShouldClose(window)) return false; /* Render here */ mClock->reset(); glfwPollEvents(); if (mClock->step()) { glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); glfwSwapBuffers(window); mClock->update(); } return true; } void Rendering::shutdown() { glfwDestroyWindow(window); glfwTerminate(); } GLFWwindow* Rendering::getCurrentWindow() { return window; } } Renderer.h
      #pragma once namespace Game { class Clock; class Rendering { public: Rendering(); ~Rendering(); bool initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title = "Rendering window"); void shutdown(); bool render(); GLFWwindow* getCurrentWindow(); private: GLFWwindow * window; Clock* mClock; }; } Timer.cpp
      #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include <time.h> #include "Timer.h" namespace Game { Clock::Clock() : mTicksPerSecond(50), mSkipTics(1000 / mTicksPerSecond), mMaxFrameSkip(10), mLoops(0) { mLastTick = tick(); } Clock::~Clock() { } bool Clock::step() { if (tick() > mLastTick && mLoops < mMaxFrameSkip) return true; return false; } void Clock::reset() { mLoops = 0; } void Clock::update() { mLastTick += mSkipTics; mLoops++; } clock_t Clock::tick() { return clock(); } } TImer.h
      #pragma once #include "Common.h" namespace Game { class Clock { public: Clock(); ~Clock(); void update(); bool step(); void reset(); clock_t tick(); private: uint mTicksPerSecond; ufloat mSkipTics; uint mMaxFrameSkip; uint mLoops; uint mLastTick; }; } Common.h
      #pragma once #include <cstdio> #include <cstdlib> #include <ctime> #include <cstring> #include <cmath> #include <iostream> namespace Game { typedef unsigned char uchar; typedef unsigned short ushort; typedef unsigned int uint; typedef unsigned long ulong; typedef float ufloat; }  
      Game.zip
    • By lxjk
      Hi guys,
      There are many ways to do light culling in tile-based shading. I've been playing with this idea for a while, and just want to throw it out there.
      Because tile frustums are general small compared to light radius, I tried using cone test to reduce false positives introduced by commonly used sphere-frustum test.
      On top of that, I use distance to camera rather than depth for near/far test (aka. sliced by spheres).
      This method can be naturally extended to clustered light culling as well.
      The following image shows the general ideas

       
      Performance-wise I get around 15% improvement over sphere-frustum test. You can also see how a single light performs as the following: from left to right (1) standard rendering of a point light; then tiles passed the test of (2) sphere-frustum test; (3) cone test; (4) spherical-sliced cone test
       

       
      I put the details in my blog post (https://lxjk.github.io/2018/03/25/Improve-Tile-based-Light-Culling-with-Spherical-sliced-Cone.html), GLSL source code included!
       
      Eric
    • By Fadey Duh
      Good evening everyone!

      I was wondering if there is something equivalent of  GL_NV_blend_equation_advanced for AMD?
      Basically I'm trying to find more compatible version of it.

      Thank you!
    • By Jens Eckervogt
      Hello guys, 
       
      Please tell me! 
      How do I know? Why does wavefront not show for me?
      I already checked I have non errors yet.
      using OpenTK; using System.Collections.Generic; using System.IO; using System.Text; namespace Tutorial_08.net.sourceskyboxer { public class WaveFrontLoader { private static List<Vector3> inPositions; private static List<Vector2> inTexcoords; private static List<Vector3> inNormals; private static List<float> positions; private static List<float> texcoords; private static List<int> indices; public static RawModel LoadObjModel(string filename, Loader loader) { inPositions = new List<Vector3>(); inTexcoords = new List<Vector2>(); inNormals = new List<Vector3>(); positions = new List<float>(); texcoords = new List<float>(); indices = new List<int>(); int nextIdx = 0; using (var reader = new StreamReader(File.Open("Contents/" + filename + ".obj", FileMode.Open), Encoding.UTF8)) { string line = reader.ReadLine(); int i = reader.Read(); while (true) { string[] currentLine = line.Split(); if (currentLine[0] == "v") { Vector3 pos = new Vector3(float.Parse(currentLine[1]), float.Parse(currentLine[2]), float.Parse(currentLine[3])); inPositions.Add(pos); if (currentLine[1] == "t") { Vector2 tex = new Vector2(float.Parse(currentLine[1]), float.Parse(currentLine[2])); inTexcoords.Add(tex); } if (currentLine[1] == "n") { Vector3 nom = new Vector3(float.Parse(currentLine[1]), float.Parse(currentLine[2]), float.Parse(currentLine[3])); inNormals.Add(nom); } } if (currentLine[0] == "f") { Vector3 pos = inPositions[0]; positions.Add(pos.X); positions.Add(pos.Y); positions.Add(pos.Z); Vector2 tc = inTexcoords[0]; texcoords.Add(tc.X); texcoords.Add(tc.Y); indices.Add(nextIdx); ++nextIdx; } reader.Close(); return loader.loadToVAO(positions.ToArray(), texcoords.ToArray(), indices.ToArray()); } } } } } And It have tried other method but it can't show for me.  I am mad now. Because any OpenTK developers won't help me.
      Please help me how do I fix.

      And my download (mega.nz) should it is original but I tried no success...
      - Add blend source and png file here I have tried tried,.....  
       
      PS: Why is our community not active? I wait very longer. Stop to lie me!
      Thanks !
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OpenGL Skybox cubemap not showing properly

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I have used a cubemap to render my skybox, I am using openGL 3.3, GLSL 330.
The problem is that it's only showing a a blue skybox.
I can see inside gDEBugger that my cubemap is created properly.

Loading of my image files and creating the cubemap
[source lang="cpp"]void TextureCube::LoadTGA(std::string filename, bool mipmap)
{
// used vars
TGAFile tga[6];
memset(tga, 0, sizeof(TGAFile) * 6);
GLenum internForm;
GLenum externForm;

if(mTextureID != 0)
Dispose();

// fill in texture names
mTextures[0] = filename + "_lf.tga";
mTextures[1] = filename + "_rt.tga";
mTextures[2] = filename + "_bk.tga";
mTextures[3] = filename + "_ft.tga";
mTextures[4] = filename + "_dn.tga";
mTextures[5] = filename + "_up.tga";

// load each file
for(int i = 0; i < 6; i++)
{
if( !LoadImageTGA(mTextures, &tga))
{
printf("Could not load %s\n", mTextures.c_str());

// delete previous loaded tga
for(int j = 0; j < i;j++)
{
delete []tga.data;
}
return;
}
}

// set data
mWidth = tga[0].width;
mHeight = tga[0].height;

// create texture and bind it
glGenTextures(1, &mTextureID);
glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP, mTextureID);

// check which formats to use
if(tga[0].bytesperpixel == 1)
{
internForm = GL_LUMINANCE;
externForm = GL_LUMINANCE;
}
else if(tga[0].bytesperpixel == 3)
{
internForm = GL_RGB;
externForm = GL_BGR;
}
else if(tga[0].bytesperpixel == 4)
{
internForm = GL_RGBA;
externForm = GL_BGRA;
}

// set texture state
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE);
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE);
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_R, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE);
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);

// check if we want to generate mipmaps
if(mipmap)
{
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR_MIPMAP_LINEAR);
glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_SEAMLESS);
glGenerateMipmap(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP);
}
else
{
glTexParameterf(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
}

// put the data inside
//glPixelStorei(GL_UNPACK_ALIGNMENT, 1);
glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_POSITIVE_X, 0, internForm, mWidth, mHeight, 0, externForm, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, tga[1].data);
glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_NEGATIVE_X, 0, internForm, mWidth, mHeight, 0, externForm, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, tga[0].data);
glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_POSITIVE_Y, 0, internForm, mWidth, mHeight, 0, externForm, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, tga[5].data);
glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_NEGATIVE_Y, 0, internForm, mWidth, mHeight, 0, externForm, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, tga[4].data);
glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_POSITIVE_Z, 0, internForm, mWidth, mHeight, 0, externForm, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, tga[3].data);
glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_NEGATIVE_Z, 0, internForm, mWidth, mHeight, 0, externForm, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, tga[2].data);


// unbind
glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP, 0);

//free memory
for(int i = 0; i < 6; i++)
{
delete []tga.data;
}
}[/source]

The rest:
[source lang="cpp"]class TextureCube
{
private:
std::string mTextures[6];
GLuint mTextureID;
GLuint mWidth;
GLuint mHeight;

public:
TextureCube() {}
~TextureCube() { Dispose(); }

// Create texture
GLvoid LoadTGA(std::string fileName, bool mipmap = false);

// methods
inline GLuint GetID() { return mTextureID; }
inline GLuint GetWidth() { return mWidth; }
inline GLuint GetHeight() { return mHeight; }
inline GLvoid Bind()
{
if(glIsTexture(mTextureID))
{
glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP, mTextureID);
}
else
{
printf("Not a valid texture name");
}
}

inline GLvoid Unbind() { glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP, 0); }

inline GLvoid Dispose()
{
if(mTextureID)
{
Unbind();
glDeleteTextures(1, &mTextureID);
}
}
};[/source]
Vertex shader:
[source lang="cpp"]#version 330

layout(location = 0) in vec3 inPos;
out vec3 outUV;
uniform mat4 mvpMatrix;

void main()
{
outUV = inPos;
gl_Position = mvpMatrix * vec4(inPos, 1.0);
}[/source]

Fragment shader:
[source lang="cpp"]#version 330

in vec3 UV;
out vec4 fragcolor;
uniform samplerCube cubeMap;

void main()
{
fragcolor = texture(cubeMap, UV);
}[/source]

Skybox class:
[source lang="cpp"]#ifndef SKYBOX_H_
#define SKYBOX_H_

#include <string>
#include "../System/CAbstractSystem.h"
#include "../Graphics/Buffers/VertexBuffer.h"
#include "../Graphics/TextureCube.h"
#include "../Graphics/Shader.h"
#include "Camera.h"

class Skybox
{
private:
// features
Camera* mCamera;
TextureCube mTexCube;
ShaderProgram mShader;

// buffers
VertexBuffer mVertices;
GLuint mElementsID;
GLuint vaoID;

public:
Skybox() {}

void Init(std::string fileName, Camera* camera)
{
mCamera = camera;

// vertex position in object space
GLfloat verticeAttrib[] =
{
// front
-1.0, -1.0, -1.0,
1.0, -1.0, -1.0,
1.0, 1.0, -1.0,
-1.0, 1.0, -1.0,
// top
-1.0, 1.0, -1.0,
1.0, 1.0, -1.0,
1.0, 1.0, 1.0,
-1.0, 1.0, 1.0,
// back
1.0, -1.0, 1.0,
-1.0, -1.0, 1.0,
-1.0, 1.0, 1.0,
1.0, 1.0, 1.0,
// bottom
-1.0, -1.0, 1.0,
1.0, -1.0, 1.0,
1.0, -1.0, -1.0,
-1.0, -1.0, -1.0,
// left
-1.0, -1.0, 1.0,
-1.0, -1.0, -1.0,
-1.0, 1.0, -1.0,
-1.0, 1.0, 1.0,
// right
1.0, -1.0, -1.0,
1.0, -1.0, 1.0,
1.0, 1.0, 1.0,
1.0, 1.0, -1.0,
};

GLushort elements[] = {
// front
0, 1, 2,
2, 3, 0,
// top
4, 5, 6,
6, 7, 4,
// back
8, 9, 10,
10, 11, 8,
// bottom
12, 13, 14,
14, 15, 12,
// left
16, 17, 18,
18, 19, 16,
// right
20, 21, 22,
22, 23, 20,
};

// generate vertex array object to melt all buffer objects
glGenVertexArrays(1,&vaoID);
glBindVertexArray(vaoID);

// create vertex buffer object
mVertices.Create(verticeAttrib, sizeof(verticeAttrib) / sizeof(GLfloat), GL_STATIC_DRAW);

// indices
glGenBuffers(1, &mElementsID);
glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, mElementsID);
glBufferData(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(elements), elements, GL_STATIC_DRAW);

// load texture
mTexCube.LoadTGA(fileName);

// shader data
std::string vertex;
std::string fragment;

// creating shaders
CAbstractSystem::LoadTextFile("Data\\shaders\\skybox.vert", vertex);
CAbstractSystem::LoadTextFile("Data\\shaders\\skybox.frag", fragment);

// load shaders
mShader.CreateProgram(vertex, fragment);
}

void Dispose()
{
mTexCube.Dispose();
mShader.Dispose();
mVertices.Dispose();

glDeleteBuffers(1, &mElementsID);

glBindVertexArray(0);
glDeleteVertexArrays(1, &vaoID);
}

~Skybox()
{
Dispose();
}

void Draw()
{
GLint OldCullFaceMode;
glGetIntegerv(GL_CULL_FACE_MODE, &OldCullFaceMode);
GLint OldDepthFuncMode;
glGetIntegerv(GL_DEPTH_FUNC, &OldDepthFuncMode);

glCullFace(GL_FRONT);
glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL);

Mat4 trans = Mat4::Translate(mCamera->GetWorld().GetPosition()) * Mat4::ScaleUniform(85);
Mat4 combined = mCamera->GetProjection() * mCamera->GetView() * trans;

//get matrix uniform
mShader.Bind();
int mLoc = glGetUniformLocation(mShader.GetID(), "mvpMatrix");
glUniformMatrix4fv(mLoc, 1, GL_FALSE, (GLfloat*)&combined);

//enable vertex position
mVertices.Bind();
glVertexAttribPointer(0, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, 0);
glEnableVertexAttribArray(0);

mTexCube.Bind();
glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, mElementsID);
glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 36, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT, 0);

glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, 0);
glDisableVertexAttribArray(0); // vertex positions

glCullFace(OldCullFaceMode);
glDepthFunc(OldDepthFuncMode);

mVertices.Unbind();
mTexCube.Unbind();
mShader.Unbind();
}
};

#endif[/source] Edited by Wilds

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I would say the problem is in your mvpMatrix. From your code, it seems you add translation, which shouldn't be there. Edited by Ignifex

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The cube coordinates are not affected by the transformation as the shader gets the untransformed object space vertices from the VBO.

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I have no other good ideas other than make each side a different color. And see if at least the left is all red, right is all blue. If so, it could be doing something completely wrong. I would post a pic. Are you drawing any of the scene with it? Is your glClearColor blue? Maybe you aren't pointing the normals inward and its not drawing the skybox at all just using the clear color?

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hi, the proper way to do skyboxes is the following:
obviously create a 1x1x1 box in blender or whatever editor you prefer. you can just export the default cube to the obj format. (make sure you set normals to smooth!)
Load the 6 faces of your cubemap into a cubemap texture, and when you render it bind it to the GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP target.
When rendering the skybox make sure you disable depth testing. this way you can make sure that the skybox is rendered properly behind everything.
then you have to pass a matrix to your shader: the inverse of your modelview matrix.
then use these shaders:

[vertex shader]
//set version to your target version
#version 420 core

uniform mat4 modelview_inv; //here comes the inverse modelview matrix

in vec4 in_vertex; //here comes the vertex data (ie. the cube)

out cross_shader_data
{
vec3 tex_coord; //this gets passed to the pixel shader to sample the cubemap
} o;

void main()
{
o.tex_coord = mat3(modelview_inv) * in_vertex.xyz; //calculate the texture coordinate, then interpolate along the cube faces
gl_Position = in_vertex; //here's a trick: since we don't transform the cube it will always stay at (0, 0, 0) therefore wherever you go, it stays with you
}

[pixel shader]
//again set the version
#version 420 core

uniform samplerCube texture0; //you need to use a samplerCube for cubemapping

in cross_shader_data
{
vec3 tex_coord; //incoming texture coordinates
} i;

out vec4 color; //this gets drawn into the framebuffer

void main()
{
color = texture(texture0, i.tex_coord); //sample the cubemap along the coordinates
}


it is important to note that you either need to draw the cubemap before rendering anything (so that it doesn't cover any other objects), or you can use stenciling for optimizing the whole thing, and this way you'll need to draw the skybox last.
to add you'll probably need to adjust (rotate) the incoming cubemap faces (textures), because they may be in other coordinate system, and therefore they may not be in their place when rendered. Edited by Yours3!f

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For your method: you aren't using a skybox, you are using a backdrop. Because of the fact you never rotate the box. That is the only reason you need to pass the modelview inverse and what not.

Secondly: Why use a stencil map in your method? Since you are using only 1 face of the cubemap (a backdrop plane). Why don't u just translate it to the end of the farplane and get rid of stencil operations completely and just use depth testing?

I wouldn't say that is the proper way. You are doing extra work to generate the same texture coordinates as this guy is with a static cube that gets rotated. And needing to pass extra data and perform extra operations with the inverse. Typically that method is more for a cube mapped object in the world.

here's a trick: since we don't transform the cube it will always stay at (0, 0, 0) therefore wherever you go, it stays with you[/quote]
All you need to do to get that trick without using the inverse is just don't pass the translation portion of the camera matrix and just the rotation.

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Nope.

Draw as a 10x10x10 cube centered on the camera origin (I'm using 10 here because it's going to be comfortably above your near clipping plane distance; adjust as required) but otherwise untransformed. Draw it last, after everything else. Use glDepthRange (1, 1). Disable depth writing but leave depth test enabled.

This way you get correct positioning, early-Z, skybox behind all objects and minimal fillrate overhead.

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