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the_edd

pthread_mutex much slower than naive benaphore?

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I came across the [url="http://www.haiku-os.org/legacy-docs/benewsletter/Issue1-26.html#Engineering1-26"]concept of a benaphore[/url] for the first time not so long ago and decided to experiment with it. I implemented it on Windows and OS X and while I'm not sure I'll use it for anything, it remains in my threads library for the time being.

On Windows, it performs as expected i.e. very well in low contention cases, terribly under high contention. But on OS X, I noticed my high contention stress tests were completing much faster for benaphores than they were for my pthread_mutex wrappers and I'm hoping someone might be able to shed any light on the reasons why.

I understand that pthread mutexes will be inherently slower due to additional features and capabilities, but given that we're talking over an order of magnitude's performance difference under high contention scenarios (in the opposite direction to that which I'd expect), I'd like to understand what's going on.

The forum says I'm not permitted to attach a .cpp file ([i]really?![/i]), so I've put the [url="https://dl.dropbox.com/u/3182125/benchmark.cpp"]benchmark code in my DropBox Public folder for now[/url]. It's a single C++ file, essentially equivalent to one of my stress test cases. The semaphore I've used here is dispatch_semaphore_t from libdispatch. A number of threads are started, each of which increments a shared variable a large number of times, acquiring/releasing the lock before/after each increment. Here's the body of each thread:

[code]
template<typename Mutex>
void *thread_body(void *opaque_arg)
{
CHECK( opaque_arg != 0 );

shared_stuff<Mutex> &stuff = *static_cast<shared_stuff<Mutex> *>(opaque_arg);

for (uint32_t i = 0; i != stuff.increments; ++i)
{
stuff.mtx.acquire();
++stuff.total;
stuff.mtx.release();
}
return 0;
}
[/code]

And here are the results on my quad core i5 iMac running OS X 10.7, built without error checking code.

[attachment=10642:bena_vs_mutex_stats.png]
(Sorry about the use of an image, I fiddled with formatting for 30 minutes but the forum always insisted on mangling it to some degree).

Even in the case of 2 threads we're looking at 2.458 vs 86.479 seconds (!). I can happily accept that the libdispatch semaphore is more efficient than a pthread_mutex, but given the [i]degree[/i] of improvement in the benaphore case, I'm inclined to believe that I've misconfigured/misunderstood something. Any ideas as to an explanation?
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[url=http://old.nabble.com/Mutex-performance-td24892454.html]This[/url] might be interesting to you.

I vaguely remember having terrible issues with the OS X implementation of mutexes back in the 10.4 days, but I'm kind of surprised they haven't fixed them by now.
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Thanks for digging that out.

Looks like I'll have to start experimenting with custom mutex implementations, then :( ... and reimplement condition variables :(
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