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• By elect
Hi,
ok, so, we are having problems with our current mirror reflection implementation.
At the moment we are doing it very simple, so for the i-th frame, we calculate the reflection vectors given the viewPoint and some predefined points on the mirror surface (position and normal).
Then, using the least squared algorithm, we find the point that has the minimum distance from all these reflections vectors. This is going to be our virtual viewPoint (with the right orientation).
After that, we render offscreen to a texture by setting the OpenGL camera on the virtual viewPoint.
And finally we use the rendered texture on the mirror surface.
So far this has always been fine, but now we are having some more strong constraints on accuracy.
What are our best options given that:
- we have a dynamic scene, the mirror and parts of the scene can change continuously from frame to frame
- we have about 3k points (with normals) per mirror, calculated offline using some cad program (such as Catia)
- all the mirror are always perfectly spherical (with different radius vertically and horizontally) and they are always convex
- a scene can have up to 10 mirror
- it should be fast enough also for vr (Htc Vive) on fastest gpus (only desktops)

Looking around, some papers talk about calculating some caustic surface derivation offline, but I don't know if this suits my case
Also, another paper, used some acceleration structures to detect the intersection between the reflection vectors and the scene, and then adjust the corresponding texture coordinate. This looks the most accurate but also very heavy from a computational point of view.

Other than that, I couldn't find anything updated/exhaustive around, can you help me?

• Hello all,
I am currently working on a game engine for use with my game development that I would like to be as flexible as possible.  As such the exact requirements for how things should work can't be nailed down to a specific implementation and I am looking for, at least now, a default good average case scenario design.
Here is what I have implemented:
Deferred rendering using OpenGL Arbitrary number of lights and shadow mapping Each rendered object, as defined by a set of geometry, textures, animation data, and a model matrix is rendered with its own draw call Skeletal animations implemented on the GPU.   Model matrix transformation implemented on the GPU Frustum and octree culling for optimization Here are my questions and concerns:
Doing the skeletal animation on the GPU, currently, requires doing the skinning for each object multiple times per frame: once for the initial geometry rendering and once for the shadow map rendering for each light for which it is not culled.  This seems very inefficient.  Is there a way to do skeletal animation on the GPU only once across these render calls? Without doing the model matrix transformation on the CPU, I fail to see how I can easily batch objects with the same textures and shaders in a single draw call without passing a ton of matrix data to the GPU (an array of model matrices then an index for each vertex into that array for transformation purposes?) If I do the matrix transformations on the CPU, It seems I can't really do the skinning on the GPU as the pre-transformed vertexes will wreck havoc with the calculations, so this seems not viable unless I am missing something Overall it seems like simplest solution is to just do all of the vertex manipulation on the CPU and pass the pre-transformed data to the GPU, using vertex shaders that do basically nothing.  This doesn't seem the most efficient use of the graphics hardware, but could potentially reduce the number of draw calls needed.

Really, I am looking for some advice on how to proceed with this, how something like this is typically handled.  Are the multiple draw calls and skinning calculations not a huge deal?  I would LIKE to save as much of the CPU's time per frame so it can be tasked with other things, as to keep CPU resources open to the implementation of the engine.  However, that becomes a moot point if the GPU becomes a bottleneck.

• Hello!
I would like to introduce Diligent Engine, a project that I've been recently working on. Diligent Engine is a light-weight cross-platform abstraction layer between the application and the platform-specific graphics API. Its main goal is to take advantages of the next-generation APIs such as Direct3D12 and Vulkan, but at the same time provide support for older platforms via Direct3D11, OpenGL and OpenGLES. Diligent Engine exposes common front-end for all supported platforms and provides interoperability with underlying native API. Shader source code converter allows shaders authored in HLSL to be translated to GLSL and used on all platforms. Diligent Engine supports integration with Unity and is designed to be used as a graphics subsystem in a standalone game engine, Unity native plugin or any other 3D application. It is distributed under Apache 2.0 license and is free to use. Full source code is available for download on GitHub.
Features:
True cross-platform Exact same client code for all supported platforms and rendering backends No #if defined(_WIN32) ... #elif defined(LINUX) ... #elif defined(ANDROID) ... No #if defined(D3D11) ... #elif defined(D3D12) ... #elif defined(OPENGL) ... Exact same HLSL shaders run on all platforms and all backends Modular design Components are clearly separated logically and physically and can be used as needed Only take what you need for your project (do not want to keep samples and tutorials in your codebase? Simply remove Samples submodule. Only need core functionality? Use only Core submodule) No 15000 lines-of-code files Clear object-based interface No global states Key graphics features: Automatic shader resource binding designed to leverage the next-generation rendering APIs Multithreaded command buffer generation 50,000 draw calls at 300 fps with D3D12 backend Descriptor, memory and resource state management Modern c++ features to make code fast and reliable The following platforms and low-level APIs are currently supported:
Windows Desktop: Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL Universal Windows: Direct3D11, Direct3D12 Linux: OpenGL Android: OpenGLES MacOS: OpenGL iOS: OpenGLES API Basics
Initialization
The engine can perform initialization of the API or attach to already existing D3D11/D3D12 device or OpenGL/GLES context. For instance, the following code shows how the engine can be initialized in D3D12 mode:
#include "RenderDeviceFactoryD3D12.h" using namespace Diligent; // ...  GetEngineFactoryD3D12Type GetEngineFactoryD3D12 = nullptr; // Load the dll and import GetEngineFactoryD3D12() function LoadGraphicsEngineD3D12(GetEngineFactoryD3D12); auto *pFactoryD3D11 = GetEngineFactoryD3D12(); EngineD3D12Attribs EngD3D12Attribs; EngD3D12Attribs.CPUDescriptorHeapAllocationSize[0] = 1024; EngD3D12Attribs.CPUDescriptorHeapAllocationSize[1] = 32; EngD3D12Attribs.CPUDescriptorHeapAllocationSize[2] = 16; EngD3D12Attribs.CPUDescriptorHeapAllocationSize[3] = 16; EngD3D12Attribs.NumCommandsToFlushCmdList = 64; RefCntAutoPtr<IRenderDevice> pRenderDevice; RefCntAutoPtr<IDeviceContext> pImmediateContext; SwapChainDesc SwapChainDesc; RefCntAutoPtr<ISwapChain> pSwapChain; pFactoryD3D11->CreateDeviceAndContextsD3D12( EngD3D12Attribs, &pRenderDevice, &pImmediateContext, 0 ); pFactoryD3D11->CreateSwapChainD3D12( pRenderDevice, pImmediateContext, SwapChainDesc, hWnd, &pSwapChain ); Creating Resources
Device resources are created by the render device. The two main resource types are buffers, which represent linear memory, and textures, which use memory layouts optimized for fast filtering. To create a buffer, you need to populate BufferDesc structure and call IRenderDevice::CreateBuffer(). The following code creates a uniform (constant) buffer:
BufferDesc BuffDesc; BufferDesc.Name = "Uniform buffer"; BuffDesc.BindFlags = BIND_UNIFORM_BUFFER; BuffDesc.Usage = USAGE_DYNAMIC; BuffDesc.uiSizeInBytes = sizeof(ShaderConstants); BuffDesc.CPUAccessFlags = CPU_ACCESS_WRITE; m_pDevice->CreateBuffer( BuffDesc, BufferData(), &m_pConstantBuffer ); Similar, to create a texture, populate TextureDesc structure and call IRenderDevice::CreateTexture() as in the following example:
TextureDesc TexDesc; TexDesc.Name = "My texture 2D"; TexDesc.Type = TEXTURE_TYPE_2D; TexDesc.Width = 1024; TexDesc.Height = 1024; TexDesc.Format = TEX_FORMAT_RGBA8_UNORM; TexDesc.Usage = USAGE_DEFAULT; TexDesc.BindFlags = BIND_SHADER_RESOURCE | BIND_RENDER_TARGET | BIND_UNORDERED_ACCESS; TexDesc.Name = "Sample 2D Texture"; m_pRenderDevice->CreateTexture( TexDesc, TextureData(), &m_pTestTex ); Initializing Pipeline State
Diligent Engine follows Direct3D12 style to configure the graphics/compute pipeline. One big Pipelines State Object (PSO) encompasses all required states (all shader stages, input layout description, depth stencil, rasterizer and blend state descriptions etc.)
To create a shader, populate ShaderCreationAttribs structure. An important member is ShaderCreationAttribs::SourceLanguage. The following are valid values for this member:
SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_DEFAULT  - The shader source format matches the underlying graphics API: HLSL for D3D11 or D3D12 mode, and GLSL for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL  - The shader source is in HLSL. For OpenGL and OpenGLES modes, the source code will be converted to GLSL. See shader converter for details. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_GLSL  - The shader source is in GLSL. There is currently no GLSL to HLSL converter. To allow grouping of resources based on the frequency of expected change, Diligent Engine introduces classification of shader variables:
Static variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC) are variables that are expected to be set only once. They may not be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. Such variables are intended to hold global constants such as camera attributes or global light attributes constant buffers. Mutable variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE) define resources that are expected to change on a per-material frequency. Examples may include diffuse textures, normal maps etc. Dynamic variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC) are expected to change frequently and randomly. This post describes the resource binding model in Diligent Engine.
The following is an example of shader initialization:
To create a pipeline state object, define instance of PipelineStateDesc structure. The structure defines the pipeline specifics such as if the pipeline is a compute pipeline, number and format of render targets as well as depth-stencil format:
// This is a graphics pipeline PSODesc.IsComputePipeline = false; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.NumRenderTargets = 1; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.RTVFormats[0] = TEX_FORMAT_RGBA8_UNORM_SRGB; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.DSVFormat = TEX_FORMAT_D32_FLOAT; The structure also defines depth-stencil, rasterizer, blend state, input layout and other parameters. For instance, rasterizer state can be defined as in the code snippet below:
// Init rasterizer state RasterizerStateDesc &RasterizerDesc = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.RasterizerDesc; RasterizerDesc.FillMode = FILL_MODE_SOLID; RasterizerDesc.CullMode = CULL_MODE_NONE; RasterizerDesc.FrontCounterClockwise = True; RasterizerDesc.ScissorEnable = True; //RSDesc.MultisampleEnable = false; // do not allow msaa (fonts would be degraded) RasterizerDesc.AntialiasedLineEnable = False; When all fields are populated, call IRenderDevice::CreatePipelineState() to create the PSO:
Shader resource binding in Diligent Engine is based on grouping variables in 3 different groups (static, mutable and dynamic). Static variables are variables that are expected to be set only once. They may not be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. Such variables are intended to hold global constants such as camera attributes or global light attributes constant buffers. They are bound directly to the shader object:

m_pPSO->CreateShaderResourceBinding(&m_pSRB); Dynamic and mutable resources are then bound through SRB object:
m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_VERTEX, "tex2DDiffuse")->Set(pDiffuseTexSRV); m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_VERTEX, "cbRandomAttribs")->Set(pRandomAttrsCB); The difference between mutable and dynamic resources is that mutable ones can only be set once for every instance of a shader resource binding. Dynamic resources can be set multiple times. It is important to properly set the variable type as this may affect performance. Static variables are generally most efficient, followed by mutable. Dynamic variables are most expensive from performance point of view. This post explains shader resource binding in more details.
Setting the Pipeline State and Invoking Draw Command
Before any draw command can be invoked, all required vertex and index buffers as well as the pipeline state should be bound to the device context:
// Clear render target const float zero[4] = {0, 0, 0, 0}; m_pContext->ClearRenderTarget(nullptr, zero); // Set vertex and index buffers IBuffer *buffer[] = {m_pVertexBuffer}; Uint32 offsets[] = {0}; Uint32 strides[] = {sizeof(MyVertex)}; m_pContext->SetVertexBuffers(0, 1, buffer, strides, offsets, SET_VERTEX_BUFFERS_FLAG_RESET); m_pContext->SetIndexBuffer(m_pIndexBuffer, 0); m_pContext->SetPipelineState(m_pPSO); Also, all shader resources must be committed to the device context:
m_pContext->CommitShaderResources(m_pSRB, COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES); When all required states and resources are bound, IDeviceContext::Draw() can be used to execute draw command or IDeviceContext::DispatchCompute() can be used to execute compute command. Note that for a draw command, graphics pipeline must be bound, and for dispatch command, compute pipeline must be bound. Draw() takes DrawAttribs structure as an argument. The structure members define all attributes required to perform the command (primitive topology, number of vertices or indices, if draw call is indexed or not, if draw call is instanced or not, if draw call is indirect or not, etc.). For example:
DrawAttribs attrs; attrs.IsIndexed = true; attrs.IndexType = VT_UINT16; attrs.NumIndices = 36; attrs.Topology = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLE_LIST; pContext->Draw(attrs); Tutorials and Samples
The GitHub repository contains a number of tutorials and sample applications that demonstrate the API usage.

AntTweakBar sample demonstrates how to use AntTweakBar library to create simple user interface.

Atmospheric scattering sample is a more advanced example. It demonstrates how Diligent Engine can be used to implement various rendering tasks: loading textures from files, using complex shaders, rendering to textures, using compute shaders and unordered access views, etc.

The repository includes Asteroids performance benchmark based on this demo developed by Intel. It renders 50,000 unique textured asteroids and lets compare performance of D3D11 and D3D12 implementations. Every asteroid is a combination of one of 1000 unique meshes and one of 10 unique textures.

Integration with Unity
Diligent Engine supports integration with Unity through Unity low-level native plugin interface. The engine relies on Native API Interoperability to attach to the graphics API initialized by Unity. After Diligent Engine device and context are created, they can be used us usual to create resources and issue rendering commands. GhostCubePlugin shows an example how Diligent Engine can be used to render a ghost cube only visible as a reflection in a mirror.

• By Yxjmir
I'm trying to load data from a .gltf file into a struct to use to load a .bin file. I don't think there is a problem with how the vertex positions are loaded, but with the indices. This is what I get when drawing with glDrawArrays(GL_LINES, ...):

Also, using glDrawElements gives a similar result. Since it looks like its drawing triangles using the wrong vertices for each face, I'm assuming it needs an index buffer/element buffer. (I'm not sure why there is a line going through part of it, it doesn't look like it belongs to a side, re-exported it without texture coordinates checked, and its not there)
I'm using jsoncpp to load the GLTF file, its format is based on JSON. Here is the gltf struct I'm using, and how I parse the file:
glBindVertexArray(g_pGame->m_VAO);
glDrawElements(GL_LINES, g_pGame->m_indices.size(), GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, (void*)0); // Only shows with GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE
glDrawArrays(GL_LINES, 0, g_pGame->m_vertexCount);
So, I'm asking what type should I use for the indices? it doesn't seem to be unsigned short, which is what I selected with the Khronos Group Exporter for blender. Also, am I reading part or all of the .bin file wrong?
Test.gltf
Test.bin

• That means how do I use base DirectX or OpenGL api's to make a physics based destruction simulation?
Will it be just smart rendering or something else is required?

# OpenGL Slow Sprite Batch Rendering

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## Recommended Posts

Hi,

I'm fairly new to OpenGL but have been working on it for a little while now.

I'm mainly working on a 2D renderer which uses the more up to date style of OpenGL rather than Immediate mode.

I've managed to create a sprite batching system however I'm not really getting the results that I would expect. I'm roughly getting around 30fps when rendering 5,000 of the same sprite object and around 15fps when rendering 10,000

At the moment the way it works is as followed

- Sprite batch is created which creates the shader, indicies for MultiDrawArrays, 2 VBO and a VAO

- begin is called and sets the alpha mode

- draw is called and checks to see if the texture has been batched already if so it adds the new points to the batch if not it creates a new batch item and adds the points to it. if the max sprites is reached it will draw the batch

- end all the current batch sprites are rendered

http://pastebin.com/p20Ehy9s

Cpp file
http://pastebin.com/F8Gz6UQM

I have tried a few things to improve performance but with not success. I expect its the method I'm using and that way that im using openGL thats causing the issue.

Thanks Dekowta

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I think your problem may be glMultiDrawArrays. My understanding is that this doesnt really map to the gpu. You will still get one draw call per entry you send to glMultiDrawArrays. The only benefit is reduced driver overhead. You should be able to send all the sprites as a list of quads just using GL QUADS and glDrawArrays. I think this will be much faster.

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Your main problem with this code is the way you're updating your VBO. Calling glBufferSubData in this manner is going to lead to pipeline stalls and flushes, and doing it potentially so many times per frame will make things worse. You need to implement proper buffer streaming to get this working well; have a read of this post for a description of the technique.

Sample code:GLuint bufferid; int buffersize = 0x400000; int bufferoffset = 0; void StreamBuffer (void *data, int batchsize) { glBindBuffer (GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, bufferid); if (bufferoffset + batchsize >= buffersize) { glBufferData (GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, buffersize, NULL, GL_STREAM_DRAW); bufferoffset = 0; } GLbitfield access = (GL_MAP_WRITE_BIT | GL_MAP_UNSYNCHRONIZED_BIT | GL_MAP_INVALIDATE_RANGE_BIT); void *mappeddata = glMapBufferRange (GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, bufferoffset, bufferoffset + batchsize, access); if (mappeddata) { memcpy (mappeddata, data, batchsize); glUnmapBuffer (GL_ARRAY_BUFFER); glDrawArrays ( .... ); bufferoffset += batchsize; } }
Ideally you wouldn't memcpy here; you'd generate the batch data directly into the pointer returned from glMapBufferRange instead. That's not always possible though, and memcpy is fine for many (if not most) use cases - the key is in avoiding pipeline stalls and the CPU-side overhead from memcpy is going to be very low by comparison. Edited by mhagain

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I'm having a bit of a hard time understanding how to get buffer streaming set up. So far this is what I understand on what I have to do.

in the section where I loop through the iterations in the map I will

- Bind the texture
- Bind the vertex position buffer
- check to see if the bufferoffset + Batch Count is greater than the buffer size
->if so set the buffer to the size of the batch
->reset the bufferoffset to 0
- get the mapbuffer range pointer
- copy over the batch vertex data (if the vertex data is a pointer can I just make mappeddata point to it or do I need to copy data into mappeddata's address using them memcpy)
- unmap the buffer

- Bind the UV buffer
- do the same as the vertex buffer but with the UV coordinates
- unmap the buffer

- then call draw array with GL_QUADS
- increase the bufferoffset by the batch count

- unbind the texture

This is still fine to use with the vertex array as well?

Also post that you linked mentioned buffer-orphaning from what it explained this happens in the if statement check?

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You've pretty much got it, yes. It's really just a simple circular buffer; there's no voodoo in it and the only tricky thing is knowing the correct GL calls to use.

You're going to have some added complexity if you're using separate VBOs for positions and texcoords - I'd recommend that you define a vertex struct containing both and interleave them using a single VBO; it'll perform better and make your code much simpler.

Yes, buffer orphaning is what happens in the first "if" check; there are also flags on glMapBufferRange that you can use to accomplish this, but I prefer to use glBufferData (... NULL, ...) - not for any technical reason, just so that I can more easily add a fallback to glBufferSubData if the MapBufferRange call fails (using the same offset and size params). I omitted that from the sample code I posted just for clarity.

Not sure what you mean by vertex arrays here. Old-style vertex arrays or newer VAOs? If the former, there's no need to do this kind of process - you're using memory owned and managed by your program (rather than by the GPU) so there's no resource contention to speak of, and you don't need anything special to handle it.

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Humm I don't know what im doing wrong at the moment but its not drawing correctly and if I leave it for a bit glMapBufferRange returns 0 with 1281 a Invalid value.

The Modified Files are as followed though I have only really changed the initalise and render function as well as packing the vertex data into a single struct
.cpp
http://pastebin.com/d778Dt6y
.h
http://pastebin.com/WUHt28Jc

what its rendering
http://oi50.tinypic.com/2hi59jd.jpg

what it should look like (excluding the orange and green character)
http://oi48.tinypic.com/2q86g0o.jpg

O and I meant to say Vertex Array Object rather than just Vertex Array.

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You're getting your offsets/etc wrong here - this in particular is not what you want:void* mappedData = glMapBufferRange(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, m_BufferOffset, m_BufferOffset + currentBatch->spriteCount, access);

I should probably have stated explicitly that the sample code I gave above works in byte sizes, not numbers of vertexes or numbers of sprites, so as a result things need to be adjusted accordingly if you're going to use other units.

So, the second parameter to glMapBufferRange is an offset in bytes, so make it m_BufferOffset * sizeof (MLBatchItem::Vertex) * 4 instead. The third parameter is the size of the range to map (also in bytes), not the end offset of the full range, so it becomes currentBatch->spriteCount * sizeof (MLBatchItem::Vertex) * 4.

You should also make sure that your value of m_BufferSize is equal to (however many sprites fit in your buffer) * sizeof (MLBatchItem::Vertex) * 4; likewise memcpy needs a size in bytes, glDrawArrays takes a number of vertexes, not a number of sprites as it's third param, and your offset needs to be incremented by the number of vertexes, not the number of sprites. There may be a few other places I've missed.

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Humm I seem to have it working but there are still a few issues.

I have two sprites A - 128x128 at 100, 100 and B - 230x230 at 400, 100

when I render just A and B, B will render in the coordinates of A but when I render A B B it does the same again but the second B is rendered like normal.

I checked the data in the VBO and it seems to be fine and holds the data that I would expect.

The modified files
.cpp
http://pastebin.com/d778Dt6y
.h
http://pastebin.com/EMFWGEAi

Rendering A and B
http://oi46.tinypic.com/23hau5v.jpg

Rendering A B B
http://oi45.tinypic.com/25s3lt1.jpg

Sorry to keep having issues with it you've helped so much so far.